Publications by authors named "Malin Gustavsson"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inflammatory changes during canine pregnancy.

Theriogenology 2019 Feb 15;125:285-292. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Box 7054, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Pregnancy is considered a pro-inflammatory state that requires physiologic adaptation of the immune system of the mother. The aim of the present study was to study inflammatory and hormonal changes during canine pregnancy. Studies included analyses of peripheral concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP), the hormones progesterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), hemoglobin, and analyses of the total leukocyte numbers and expression of cell surface antigens. Twenty bitches were included in the present study; 12 pregnant bitches and eight non-pregnant control bitches that were followed during the corresponding phase of the oestrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at the day of optimal mating (day 0) and then on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. Progesterone, IGF-I and CRP were analysed in serum and fibrinogen in EDTA plasma. Haematology and leukocyte expression of a panel of inflammation-associated adhesion molecules (CD 11a, CD 18 and CD 49d) were evaluated from EDTA blood. The data were analyzed as repeated-measures data, using a mixed model approach. Progesterone varied with time in both pregnant and control bitches, and IGF-I varied with time in pregnant bitches. Both fibrinogen and CRP increased significantly with time for the pregnant bitches, but no significant change was detected for the control bitches. Increases were seen from day 21. The hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly with time in both pregnant and non-pregnant bitches. The neutrophil and monocyte numbers increased significantly in pregnant but not in control bitches. Pregnancy induced increased granulocyte expression of cell surface marker CD 18, increased monocyte expression of CD 18 and CD 49d, and increased lymphocyte expression of CD 49d. In conclusion, we describe inflammatory changes during canine pregnancy that are manifested as increases in concentrations of CRP and fibrinogen, an increase in neutrophils and monocytes, and in activation of granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes. The changes should be taken into account when evaluating concentrations of APPs and WBC in bitches during pregnancy. A variation in IGF-I concentrations was detected during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.11.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Acute cigarette smoke exposure activates apoptotic and inflammatory programs but a second stimulus is required to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in COPD epithelium.

Respir Res 2017 05 3;18(1):82. Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Smoking and aberrant epithelial responses are risk factors for lung cancer as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In these conditions, disease progression is associated with epithelial damage and fragility, airway remodelling and sub-epithelial fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of cigarette smoke on epithelial cell phenotype and pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Apoptosis was significantly greater in unstimulated cells from COPD patients compared to control, but proliferation and CXCL8 release were not different. Cigarette smoke dose-dependently induced apoptosis, proliferation and CXCL8 release with normal epithelial cells being more responsive than COPD patient derived cells. Cigarette smoke did not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vivo, cigarette smoke exposure promoted epithelial apoptosis and proliferation. Moreover, mimicking a virus-induced exacerbation by exposing to mice to poly I:C, exaggerated the inflammatory responses, whereas expression of remodelling genes was similar in both.

Conclusions: Collectively, these data indicate that cigarette smoke promotes epithelial cell activation and hyperplasia, but a secondary stimulus is required for the remodelling phenotype associated with COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-017-0565-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5415733PMC
May 2017

Animal obesity: causes, consequences and comparative aspects.

Acta Vet Scand 2016 Oct 20;58(Suppl 1):56. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-016-0237-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073980PMC
October 2016

Leucocyte phagocytosis during the luteal phase in bitches.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2013 May 13;153(1-2):77-82. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences, PO Box 7054, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Pyometra is a disease that affects a large proportion of intact bitches, and typically is seen during the latter half of dioestrus. Several factors contribute to the development of pyometra, including genetic factors, an infectious component (most often Escherichia coli), and hormonal factors. Hormones may act directly on the endometrium, and also affect the immune system. In dogs, the phagocytic ability has been shown to decrease with age, and ovarian hormones have also been shown to affect immune resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether phagocytosis by canine leucocytes varies significantly during the luteal phase. Eight bitches were followed by repeated blood sampling. Samples were taken at the calculated optimal day for mating (Day 1), and thereafter on days 8, 15 and 22 (early luteal phase) and 29, 43, 57 and 71 (late luteal phase). Blood was collected from the cephalic vein into EDTA tubes for leucocyte counts and heparinised tubes for testing of phagocytosis and oxidative burst using commercial kits and flow cytometry. The cell activity of the phagocyting leucocytes, expressed as mean fluorescence activity, MFI, was significantly lower during late luteal phase than during early luteal phase. The proportion of leucocytes that was induced to phagocyte did not differ significantly. The percentage of cells stimulated by E. coli to oxidative burst was significantly lower during late luteal phase. Their activity did not differ between the two periods. The number of cells stimulated to oxidative burst by a low stimulus was too low to evaluate, and leucocytes stimulated with the high stimulus did not vary in oxidative burst between the two periods. The changes in phagocytic activity and in the number of leucocytes that showed oxidative burst were not associated with any change in the proportion of different leucocytes. The decreased phagocytic capacity possibly contributes to the higher incidence of diseases such as pyometra during the latter part of the luteal phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.02.005DOI Listing
May 2013

Markers of Borna disease virus infection in cats with staggering disease.

J Feline Med Surg 2012 Aug 2;14(8):573-82. Epub 2012 May 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Borna disease virus (BDV) is a RNA-virus causing neurological disorders in a wide range of mammals. In cats, BDV infection may cause staggering disease. Presently, staggering disease is a tentative clinical diagnosis, only confirmed at necropsy. In this study, cats with staggering disease were investigated to study markers of BDV infection aiming for improvement of current diagnostics. Nineteen cats fulfilled the inclusion criteria based on neurological signs and pathological findings. In 17/19 cats, BDV infection markers (BDV-specific antibodies and/or BDV-RNA) were found, and antibodies in serum (13/16, 81%) were the most common marker. BDV-RNA was found in 11/19 cats (58%). In a reference population without neurological signs, 4/25 cats were seropositive (16%). The clinical history and neurological signs in combination with presence of BDV infection markers, where serology and rRT-PCR on blood can be helpful tools, improve the diagnostic accuracy in the living cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X12446638DOI Listing
August 2012

Organic matter chlorination rates in different boreal soils: the role of soil organic matter content.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Feb 17;46(3):1504-10. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Department of Thematic Studies, Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

Transformation of chloride (Cl(-)) to organic chlorine (Cl(org)) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl(org) has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by (36)Cl tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl(-) concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl(org) pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl(-) upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl(-) levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl(-) locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl(-) deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es203191rDOI Listing
February 2012

Expression of interferon gamma in the brain of cats with natural Borna disease virus infection.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2011 May 25;141(1-2):162-7. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7028, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, negative-stranded RNA virus, which causes a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis in a wide range of animals. In cats, BDV infection leads to staggering disease. In spite of a vigorous immune response the virus persists in the central nervous system (CNS) in both experimentally and naturally infected animals. Since the CNS is vulnerable to cytotoxic effects mediated via NK-cells and cytotoxic T-cells, other non-cytolytic mechanisms such as the interferon (IFN) system is favourable for viral clearance. In this study, IFN-γ expression in the brain of cats with clinical signs of staggering disease (N=12) was compared to the expression in cats with no signs of this disease (N=7) by quantitative RT-PCR. The IFN-γ expression was normalised against the expression of three reference genes (HPRT, RPS7, YWHAZ). Cats with staggering disease had significantly higher expression of IFN-γ compared to the control cats (p-value ≤ 0.001). There was no significant difference of the IFN-γ expression in BDV-positive (N=7) and -negative (N=5) cats having clinical signs of staggering disease. However, as BDV-RNA still could be detected, despite an intense IFN-γ expression, BDV needs to have mechanisms to evade this antiviral immune response of the host, to be able to persist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.02.014DOI Listing
May 2011

Maternal supplementation with a complex milk lipid mixture during pregnancy and lactation alters neonatal brain lipid composition but lacks effect on cognitive function in rats.

Nutr Res 2010 Apr;30(4):279-89

Liggins Institute and The National Research Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Complex milk lipids (CMLs) provide a critical nutritional source for generating both energy and essential nutrients for the growth of the newborn. The present study investigated nutritional supplementation with a CML containing gangliosides and phospholipids in pregnant and lactating rats on learning behavior and postnatal growth in male offspring. Wistar female rats were supplemented during pregnancy and lactation with either control or CML to provide gangliosides at a dose of 0.01% (low) and 0.05% (high) based on total food intake. The CML-supplemented dams showed no differences in comparison to controls regarding growth, food intake, and litter characteristics. There were significant differences in brain composition in male offspring at postnatal day 2 (P2) with higher concentrations of gangliosides (high dose, P < .05) and lower concentrations of phospholipids (low and high dose, P < .05) in the CML-supplemented groups. The distribution of individual ganglioside species was not significantly different between treatment groups. Brain weight at P2 was also significantly higher in the CML groups. Differences in the brain composition and weight were not significant by weaning (P21). As adults (P80), adiposity was reduced in the low CML-supplemented group compared to controls. No significant differences were detected between any of the treatment groups in any of the behavioral tasks (water maze, object recognition, and operant learning). These data suggest that maternal supplementation with a CML during pregnancy and lactation is safe and has a significant early impact on brain weight and ganglioside and phospholipid content in offspring but did not alter long-term behavioral function using standard behavioral techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2010.04.005DOI Listing
April 2010

Supplementation with a mixture of complex lipids derived from milk to growing rats results in improvements in parameters related to growth and cognition.

Nutr Res 2009 Jun;29(6):426-35

Liggins Institute and the National Research Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Alterations in nutritional factors during early development can exert long-term effects on growth, neural function, and associated behaviors. The lipid component of milk provides a critical nutritional source for generating both energy and essential nutrients for the growth of the newborn. The present study, therefore, investigated the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with a complex milk lipid (CML) preparation, derived from the milk fat globule membrane rich in phospholipids and gangliosides from young rats, has beneficial effects on learning behavior and postnatal growth and development. Male Wistar rat offspring from normal pregnancies were treated from neonatal day 10 until postnatal day 80 with either vehicle or CML at a dose of 0.2% (low) and 1.0% (high) based on total food intake (n = 16 per group). Neonatal dosing was via daily oral gavage, while postweaning dosing was via gel supplementation to a standard chow diet. Animals underwent behavioral tasks related to spatial memory, learning, and cognitive function. Complex milk lipid supplementation significantly increased linear growth rate (P < .05), and the improved growth trajectory was not related to changes in body composition as quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning or altered plasma lipid profiles. Moreover, this effect was not dose dependent and not attributable to the contribution to total energy intake of the CML composition. Supplementation of the CML to growing rats resulted in statistically significant improvements in parameters related to novelty recognition (P < .02) and spatial memory (P < .05) using standard behavioral techniques, but operant testing showed no significant differences between treatment groups. Supplementation with a CML containing gangliosides had positive growth and learning behavioral effects in young normal growing rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2009.06.001DOI Listing
June 2009

Growth hormone receptor immunoreactivity is increased in the subventricular zone of juvenile rat brain after focal ischemia: a potential role for growth hormone in injury-induced neurogenesis.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2009 Dec 12;19(6):497-506. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: During recovery from an ischemic brain injury, a cerebral growth hormone (GH) axis is activated. Whilst GH has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective both in vitro and in vivo, a role for GH in neuro-restorative processes after brain injury has yet to be studied.

Objective: To explore a role for GH in injury-induced neurogenesis by examining GH receptor (GH-R) immunoreactivity within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of juvenile rats after brain injury and by testing the proliferative capacity of GH on embryonic mouse neural stem cells.

Design: Twenty-one day old rats were subjected to unilateral hypoxic-ischemia of the brain and sacrificed 1-15days later. Coronal brain sections from these animals and age-matched naïve controls were immunostained for GH-R and cell markers of neurogenesis. The level of GH-R immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ of each animal was semi-quantified both by independent blinded scoring by two examiners and blinded image analysis. To examine the effect of GH on proliferation of embryonic mouse neural stem cells, cells were treated with increasing concentrations of rat pituitary GH for 48h in the presence of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

Results: The level of GH-R immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral SVZ was significantly increased 5days after injury vs. the contralateral SVZ, coinciding both spatially and temporally with injury-induced neurogenesis. The population of GH-R immunopositive cells in the ipsilateral SVZ at this time was found to include proliferating cells (Ki67 immunopositive), neural progenitor cells (nestin immunopositive) and post-proliferative migratory neuroblasts (doublecortin immunopositive). Stimulation of embryonic mouse NSCs with physiological concentrations of rat pituitary GH elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response.

Conclusion: These results indicate a novel role for GH and its receptor in injury-induced neurogenesis, and suggest that GH treatment may potentiate endogenous neuro-restorative processes after brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2009.05.001DOI Listing
December 2009

Delayed peripheral administration of a GPE analogue induces astrogliosis and angiogenesis and reduces inflammation and brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia in the neonatal rat.

Dev Neurosci 2007 ;29(4-5):393-402

The Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Glycine 2-methyl proline glutamate (G-2mPE) is a proline-modified analogue to the naturally existing N-terminal tripeptide glycine-proline-glutamate that is a cleaved product from insulin-like growth factor-1. G-2mPE is designed to be more enzymatically resistant than glycine-proline-glutamate and to increase its bioavailability. The current study has investigated the protective effects of G-2mPE following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the neonatal brain. On postnatal day 7, Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced by unilateral ligation of the left carotid artery followed by hypoxia (7.7% O2, 36 degrees C) for 60 min. The drug treatment started 2 h after the insult, and the pups were given either 1.2 mg/kg (bolus), 1.2 mg/ml once a day for 7 days, or vehicle. The degree of brain damage was determined histochemically by thionin/acid fuchsin staining. G-2mPE's anti-inflammatory properties were investigated by IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 ELISA, and effects on apoptosis by caspase 3 activity. Vascularization was determined immunohistochemically by the total length of isolectin-positive blood vessels. Effect on astrocytosis was also determined in the hippocampus. Animals treated with multiple doses of G-2mPE demonstrated reduced overall brain injury 7 days after HI, particularly in the hippocampus and thalamus compared to vehicle-treated rats. The expression of IL-6 was decreased in G-2mPE-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated pups, and both the capillary length and astrogliosis were increased in the drug-treated animals. There was no effect on caspase 3 activity. This study indicates that peripheral administration of G-2mPE, starting 2 h after a hypoxic-ischemic insult, reduces the degree of brain injury in the immature rat brain. The normalization of IL-6 levels and the promotion of both neovascularization and reactive astrocytosis may be potential mechanisms that underlie its protective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000105480DOI Listing
October 2007

Global gene expression in the developing rat brain after hypoxic preconditioning: involvement of apoptotic mechanisms?

Pediatr Res 2007 Apr;61(4):444-50

Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Exposure to hypoxia before hypoxia-ischemia (HI) confers substantial protection referred to as preconditioning (PC). We hypothesized that PC induces critical changes of genes related to apoptotic cell death to render the brain more resistant. PC hypoxia (8% O2, 36 degrees C, 3 h) was induced in rats on postnatal day (PND) 6, and the rats were killed at 0, 2, 8, and 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from cerebral cortex and analyzed using Affymetrix rat genome 230 2.0 array. PC induced significant changes in 906 genes at 0 h, 927 at 2 h, 389 at 8 h, and 114 at 24 h. Ontology analysis revealed significant alterations in genes involved in cell communication, signal transduction, transcription, phosphorylation, and transport. Genes involved in cell death/apoptosis as well as those related to brain development (cell differentiation, neurogenesis, organogenesis, blood vessel development) were overrepresented. A detailed analysis demonstrated that 77 significantly regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, specifically related to the Bcl-2 family, JNK pathway, trophic factor pathways, inositol triphosphate (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway, extrinsic or intrinsic pathway, or the p53 pathway. The study supports that the epidermal growth factor receptor family, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases, and Bcl-2-related proteins and the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway may have roles in providing resistance in the developing central nervous system (CNS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/pdr.0b013e3180332be4DOI Listing
April 2007

N-acetylcysteine reduces lipopolysaccharide-sensitized hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

Ann Neurol 2007 Mar;61(3):263-71

Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Objective: Maternal inflammation/infection alone or in combination with birth asphyxia increases the risk for perinatal brain injury. Free radicals are implicated as major mediators of inflammation and hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced perinatal brain injury. This study evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of a scavenging agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in a clinically relevant model.

Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized HI brain injury was induced in 8-day-old neonatal rats. NAC was administered in multiple doses, and brain injury was evaluated at 7 days after HI.

Results: NAC (200mg/kg) provided marked neuroprotection with up to 78% reduction of brain injury in the pre+post-HI treatment group and 41% in the early (0 hour) post-HI treatment group, which was much more pronounced protection than another free radical scavenger, melatonin. Protection by NAC was associated with the following factors: (1) reduced isoprostane activation and nitrotyrosine formation; (2) increased levels of the antioxidants glutathione, thioredoxin-2, and (3) inhibition of caspase-3, calpain, and caspase-1 activation.

Interpretation: NAC provides substantial neuroprotection against brain injury in a model that combines infection/inflammation and HI. Protection by NAC was associated with improvement of the redox state and inhibition of apoptosis, suggesting that these events play critical roles in the development of lipopolysaccharide-sensitized HI brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21066DOI Listing
March 2007

Vascular response to hypoxic preconditioning in the immature brain.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2007 May 11;27(5):928-38. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

We hypothesized that hypoxic preconditioning (PC) modifies the microvasculature in the immature brain and thereby affects the cerebral blood flow (CBF) during a subsequent hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult. On postnatal day 6 rats were exposed to hypoxia (36 degrees C, 8.0% O2) or normoxia for 3 h. Unilateral HI (unilateral carotid ligation and 8% hypoxia) was induced 24 h later. Cortical CBF was measured with the 14C-iodoantipyrine technique (at the end of HI) or with laser Doppler flowmetry (Perimed PF5001) before and during HI. At 0, 2, 8, and 24 h cerebral cortex was sampled and analyzed with gene arrays (Affymetrix 230 2.0). L-nitroarginine or vehicle was administrated before hypoxic PC or 30 mins before HI followed by CBF measurement (laser Doppler) during subsequent HI. Twenty-four hours after PC animals were perfusion-fixed and brains immunolabeled for von Willebrand factor and vascular density was determined by stereological quantification. The decrease in CBF during HI was attenuated significantly in PC versus control animals (P<0.01), as detected by both techniques. Several vascular genes (Angpt2, Adm, Apln, Vegf, Flt1, Kdr, Pdgfra, Agtrap, Adora2a, Ednra, serpine1, caveolin, Id1, Prrx1, Ero1l, Acvrl1, Egfl7, Nudt6, Angptl4, Anxa2, and NOS3) were upregulated and a few (Csrp2, Adora2b) were downregulated after PC. A significant increase in vascular density (P<0.05) was seen after PC. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition did not affect CBF during HI after PC. In conclusion, hypoxic PC upregulates vascular genes, increases vascular density and attenuates the decrease of CBF during a subsequent HI, which could contribute to tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600408DOI Listing
May 2007

Growth hormone-releasing peptide hexarelin reduces neonatal brain injury and alters Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation.

Endocrinology 2005 Nov 4;146(11):4665-72. Epub 2005 Aug 4.

Perinatal Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Box 432, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

Hexarelin (HEX) is a peptide GH secretagogue with a potent ability to stimulate GH secretion and recently reported cardioprotective actions. However, its effects in the brain are largely unknown, and the aim of the present study was to examine the potential protective effect of HEX on the central nervous system after injury, as well as on caspase-3, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling cascades in a rat model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic-ischemic insult was induced by unilateral carotid ligation and hypoxic exposure (7.7% oxygen), and HEX treatment was administered intracerebroventricularly, directly after the insult. Brain damage was quantified at four coronal levels and by regional neuropathological scoring. Brain damage was reduced by 39% in the treatment group, compared with vehicle group, and injury was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the striatum. The cerebroprotective effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of caspase-3 activity and an increased phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, whereas ERK was unaffected. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that HEX is neuroprotective in the neonatal setting in vivo and that increased Akt signaling is associated with downstream attenuation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activity and caspase-dependent cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-0389DOI Listing
November 2005

IGF-I neuroprotection in the immature brain after hypoxia-ischemia, involvement of Akt and GSK3beta?

Eur J Neurosci 2005 Mar;21(6):1489-502

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Center, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal growth, differentiation and survival. Neuroprotective effects of IGF-I have previously been shown in adult and juvenile rat models of brain injury. We wanted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of IGF-I after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in 7-day-old neonatal rats and the mechanisms of IGF-I actions in vivo. We also wanted to study effects of HI and/or IGF-I on the serine/threonine kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) in the phophatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. Immediately after HI, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylated GSK3beta (pGSK3beta) immunoreactivity was lost in the ipsilateral and reduced in the contralateral hemisphere. After 45 min, pAkt levels were restored to control values, whereas pGSK3beta remained low 4 h after HI. Administration of IGF-I (50 microg i.c.v.) after HI resulted in a 40% reduction in brain damage (loss of microtubule-associated protein) compared with vehicle-treated animals. IGF-I treatment without HI was shown to increase pAkt whereas pGSK3beta decreased in the cytosol, but increased in the nuclear fraction. IGF-I treatment after HI increased pAkt in the cytosol and pGSK3beta in both the cytosol and the nuclear fraction in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared with vehicle-treated rats, concomitant with a reduced caspase-3- and caspase-9-like activity. In conclusion, IGF-I induces activation of Akt during recovery after HI which, in combination with inactivation of GSK3beta, may explain the attenuated activation of caspases and reduction of injury in the immature brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03982.xDOI Listing
March 2005

Modification of cellulose fiber surfaces by use of a lipase and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase.

Biomacromolecules 2005 Jan-Feb;6(1):196-203

Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

A strategy for the modification of cellulose fiber surfaces was developed that used the ability of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) to acylate carbohydrates with high regioselectivity, combined with the transglycosylating activity of the Populus tremula x P. tremuloides xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 16A (PttXET16A). Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) prepared from tamarind xyloglucan were acylated with CALB as a catalyst and vinyl stearate or gamma-thiobutyrolactone as acyl donors to produce carbohydrate molecules with hydrophobic alkyl chains or reactive sulfhydryl groups, respectively. The modified XGOs were shown to act as glycosyl acceptors in the transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by PttXET16A and could therefore be incorporated into high M(r) xyloglucan chains. The resulting xyloglucan molecules exhibited a high affinity for cellulose surfaces, which enabled the essentially irreversible introduction of fatty acid esters or thiol groups to cellulose fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm049588iDOI Listing
June 2005

Hypoxic preconditioning confers long-term reduction of brain injury and improvement of neurological ability in immature rats.

Pediatr Res 2005 Feb 20;57(2):305-9. Epub 2004 Dec 20.

Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology, Box 432, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

Exposure to preconditioning (PC) hypoxia 24 h before a severe hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult reduces development of injury in the immature brain. Several protective regimens have proved effective in the short-term but not in the long-term perspective. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate the PC effect on long-term morphologic and neurologic outcome in the developing brain. Six-day-old rats were subjected to hypoxia (36 degrees C, 8.0% O2; PC/HI group) and sham controls to normoxia (36 degrees C; HI group) for 3 h. Twenty-four hours later, all rats were exposed to cerebral HI produced by unilateral carotid artery occlusion combined with 1 h, 15 min of hypoxia (36 degrees C, 7.7% O2). A cylinder test was used to evaluate forelimb asymmetry to determine sensorimotor function at 4, 6, and 8 wk of age. Spatial/cognitive ability was assessed by Morris water maze trials at 7 wk of recovery. Neuropathologic analysis was performed 8 wk after insult. Brain damage was reduced (p<0.0001) in PC/HI (45.0+/-11.1 mm3) in comparison with HI (159.3+/-12.2 mm3) rats. A bias for using the ipsilateral forelimb in wall movements was observed in the cylinder test in HI compared with PC/HI rats at 4 (p<0.001), 6 (p<0.01), and 8 (p<0.0001) wk of age. Results of the Morris water maze test revealed differences (p<0.0001) in average path length between groups on the third and fourth day of trials. Hypoxic PC before HI reduced brain injury by 72% at 8 wk after the insult and provided long-term improvement of sensorimotor and spatial/cognitive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/01.PDR.0000151122.58665.70DOI Listing
February 2005

PARP-1 gene disruption in mice preferentially protects males from perinatal brain injury.

J Neurochem 2004 Sep;90(5):1068-75

Perinatal Center, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is over-activated in the adult brain in response to ischemia and contributes to neuronal death, but its role in perinatal brain injury remains uncertain. To address this issue, 7-day-old wild-type (wt) and PARP-1 gene deficient (parp+/- and parp-/-) Sv129/CD-1 hybrid mice were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia and histologic damage was assessed 10 days later by two evaluators. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 knockout produced moderate but significant (p < 0.05) protection in the total group of animals, but analysis by sex revealed that males were strongly protected (p < 0.05) in contrast to females in which there was no significant effect. Separate experiments demonstrated that PARP-1 was activated over 1-24 h in both females and males after the insult in neonatal wt mice and rats using immnocytochemistry and western blotting for poly(ADP-ribose). Brain levels of NAD+ were also significantly reduced, but the decrease of NAD+ during the early post-hypoxia-ischemia (HI) phase was only seen in males. The results indicate that hypoxia-ischemia activates Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in the neonatal brain and that the sex of the animal strongly influences its role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02547.xDOI Listing
September 2004

Polyester coating of cellulose fiber surfaces catalyzed by a cellulose-binding module-Candida antarctica lipase B fusion protein.

Biomacromolecules 2004 Jan-Feb;5(1):106-12

Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

A new approach to introduce polymers to cellulosic materials was developed by using the ability of a cellulose-binding module-Candida antarctica lipase B conjugate to catalyze ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone in close proximity to cellulose fiber surfaces. The epsilon-caprolactone was introduced to the cellulose surfaces either by simple addition of liquid monomer or through gas phase. The effects of water activity and temperature on the lipase-catalyzed polymerization process were investigated. Analysis showed that the water content in the system primarily regulated the obtained polymer molecular weight, whereas the temperature influenced the reaction rate. The hydrophobicity of the obtained surfaces did not arise from covalent attachment of the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) to the surface hydroxyl groups but rather from surface-deposited polymers which could be readily extracted. The degree of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis through introduction of water to the polymer-coated cellulose fiber surfaces was also investigated and shown to be significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm034244yDOI Listing
October 2004

Analysis and control of proteolysis of a fusion protein in Pichia pastoris fed-batch processes.

J Biotechnol 2003 Apr;102(1):45-53

Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

A fusion protein composed of a cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Neocallimastix patriciarum cellulase 6A and lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB), was produced by Pichia pastoris Mut(+) in high-cell density bioreactor cultures. The production was induced by switching from growth on glycerol to growth on methanol. The lipase activity in the culture supernatant increased at an almost constant rate up to a value corresponding to 1.3 g x l(-1) of CBM-CALB. However, only about 40% of the product was of full-length according to Western blot analysis. This loss was due to a cleavage of the protein in the linker between the CBM and the CALB moieties. The cleavage was catalyzed by serine proteases in the culture supernatant. The CALB-moiety was subjected to further slow degradation by cell-associated proteolysis. Different strategies were used to reduce the proteolysis. Previous efforts to shorten the linker region resulted in a stable protein but with ten times reduced product concentration in bioreactor cultures (Gustavsson et al. 2001, Protein Eng. 14, 711-715). Addition of rich medium for protease substrate competition had no effect on the proteolysis of CBM-CALB. The kinetics for the proteolytic reactions, with and without presence of cells were shown to be influenced by pH. The fastest reaction, cleavage in the linker, was substantially reduced at pH values below 5.0. Decreasing the pH from 5.0 to 4.0 in bioreactor cultures resulted in an increase of the fraction of full-length product from 40 to 90%. Further improvement was achieved by decreasing the temperature from 30 to 22 degrees C during the methanol feed phase. By combining the optimal pH and the low temperature almost all product (1.5 g x l(-1)) was obtained as full-length protein with a considerably higher purity in the culture supernatant compared with the original cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1656(03)00003-8DOI Listing
April 2003

The binding specificity and affinity determinants of family 1 and family 3 cellulose binding modules.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jan 9;100(2):484-9. Epub 2003 Jan 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Cellulose binding modules (CBMs) potentiate the action of cellulolytic enzymes on insoluble substrates. Numerous studies have established that three aromatic residues on a CBM surface are needed for binding onto cellulose crystals and that tryptophans contribute to higher binding affinity than tyrosines. However, studies addressing the nature of CBM-cellulose interactions have so far failed to establish the binding site on cellulose crystals targeted by CBMs. In this study, the binding sites of CBMs on Valonia cellulose crystals have been visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Fusion of the CBMs with a modified staphylococcal protein A (ZZ-domain) allowed direct immuno-gold labeling at close proximity of the actual CBM binding site. The transmission electron microscopy images provide unequivocal evidence that the fungal family 1 CBMs as well as the family 3 CBM from Clostridium thermocellum CipA have defined binding sites on two opposite corners of Valonia cellulose crystals. In most samples these corners are worn to display significant area of the hydrophobic (110) plane, which thus constitutes the binding site for these CBMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.212651999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC141021PMC
January 2003