Publications by authors named "Malihe Khoramdad"

9 Publications

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Prevalence of cigarette smoking among college students in Iran: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 8;34:165. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Research Center for Addiction and Risky Behaviors (ReCARB), Psychosocial Health Research Institute (PHRI), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cigarette smoking is known as a gateway drug for illicit drug use in youth. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the college students in Iran. We searched electronic databases including Scopus, Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science, and national databases such as Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Medlib, Irandoc, and IranPsych from 1946 to 21st July 2018 without any language restriction using a proper search strategy. We used a random effect model to calculate the pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking in college students in Iran. Chi-square test and I2 index were used to evaluate the heterogeneity between the studies. We used the meta-regression and subgroup analysis to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. Stata software, version 11 (StataCorp, TX) was used for all statistical analysis. We included 60 eligible articles in our study. The pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking at least once in the lifetime was 19% (95%CI: 17-22). The I2 index indicated considerable between-study heterogeneity (I2 =98%, p<0.001). The pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking at least once in the lifetime in males and females was 28% (95% CI: 23-34) and 9% (95% CI: 6-13), respectively. In multivariable meta-regression, a significant association was shown between the year of study (β=-13.1, p=0.011) and sampling method (β=-12.8 p=0.017) and daily use in the last month. Increasing prevalence of smoking among Iranian university students is an important health priority. Increasing preventive and health education programs are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47176/mjiri.34.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004567PMC
December 2020

Percentiles for anthropometric measures in 11-18 years-old students of 73 developing countries.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Nov-Dec;14(6):1957-1962. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute (PMMHRI), Lodz, Poland; Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aims: one of the health concerns for any society is to have its own standard of growth. The aim of this study was to provide the age- and sex-specific percentile values of anthropometric measures for adolescents of developing countries. The use of global percentiles in developing countries overestimates underweight and stunting while underestimates overweight and obesity.

Methods: The data were obtained from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). This study was conducted on school students, selected by multistage random cluster sampling from 73 developing countries. A parametric method was used for constructing age-specific reference intervals (normal ranges).

Results: In general, 210,045 11-18 years-old schoolchildren (14.38 ± 1.39) from 73 developing countries between 2003 and 2014 were included in this study, among which 103,080 (49.08%) were male and 106,965 (50.92%) were female. Calculation of body mass index (BMI) percentile showed that for all BMI percentile curves of both sexes, there was a gradual increase up to the age of around 15 years, and then remain stable (except for 95th percentile). Moreover in all weight percentile curves of boys, except 90th and above, there was a slight rise until the age of 18 years. In 10th height percentile curves and above in boys, there was a sharp increase up to the age of 17, followed by a decline. Similarly, this pattern was found for 50th height percentile and above in girls.

Conclusion: The use of global percentiles in developing countries overestimates underweight and stunting while underestimates overweight and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.10.002DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between passive smoking and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

IUBMB Life 2020 04 13;72(4):677-686. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The association between passive smoking (PS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not yet been fully clarified.

Objective: This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between PS and the incidence of CVDs and mortality due to CVD.

Methods: PubMed/Medicine, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest were searched to identify observational studies that met the inclusion criteria without time, language, age, gender, ethnicity, and design restrictions until July 30, 2018. In case-control studies, relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for the relationship between PS and CVD incidence. Also, in cohort studies, hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI was calculated for the relationship between PS and CVD mortality.

Results: Eighteen studies (10 cohort and 8 case-control studies) were included with 10,672 participants (2,542 cases and 8,130 controls) in case-control studies and 2,313,935 participants in cohort studies. This meta-analysis in case-control studies revealed that the PS could increase the risk of CVD incidence by 28% (adjusted RR = 1.28 [95% CI 1.09, 1.50]), where the highest risk was associated with those who were exposed to second-hand smoke at home and at work (Adjusted RR = 1.41 [95% CI 0.73, 2.70]). Also, the meta-analysis in cohort studies indicated that PS was associated with a 12% higher increase in the risk of CVD mortality (Adjusted HR = 1.12 [95% CI 1.06, 1.20]) with the highest risk of mortality being observed for those who were exposed to second-hand smoking at home, work, and public places (Adjusted HR = 1.26 [95% CI 1.13, 1.40]).

Conclusions: PS is significantly associated with an increased risk of incidence and mortality of CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2207DOI Listing
April 2020

Seroprevalence and Related Risk Behaviors of Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B and HIV Infections among Male Prisoners in Kermanshah, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2019 10 1;22(10):588-591. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Blood-borne infections are life-threatening challenges among prisoners. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of these infections and related risk behaviors among male prisoners. This cross-sectional study was performed on 1,034 voluntarily enrolled male prisoners in several prisons of Kermanshah province, Iran. All participants completed a questionnaire and were interviewed by an expert. To test the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, 5-mL samples of blood were collected from all participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of HBV, HCV and HIV infections with the related risk factors. Totally, 1034 male prisoners participated in the current study. The mean age of subjects was 35.52 ± 8.12 years, with a range of 19-64 years. The prevalence rates of HBsAg+, HCVAb+, and HIVAb+ in male prisoners were 1.25% (95% CI: 0.67-2.14), 22.2% (95% CI: 19.7-24.2), and 3.09% (95% CI: 2.1- 4.3), respectively. Backward logistic regression analysis demonstrated a marked association between history of intravenous drug use and HBsAg+. There was also a positive association between HCVAb+ and age, region, age at the time of first substance use, and history of intravenous drug use and camp residency, as well as heterosexual relationships. HIV infection was also significantly associated with history of intravenous drug use and homosexual relationships. Although HBV infection was shown to be lower in Kermanshah than other parts of the country, a higher prevalence was found for HCV and HIV infections in this province.
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October 2019

Human development index, maternal mortality rate and under 5 years mortality rate in West and South Asian countries, 1980-2010: an ecological study.

East Mediterr Health J 2019 Apr 25;25(3):189-196. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Human Development Index (HDI), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and children aged under 5 years mortality rate (U5MR) are fundamental issues, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in HDI, MMR and U5MR from 1980 to 2010 in certain West Asian countries as well as the relationship between these indexes.

Methods: In this ecological study, HDI, MMR and U5MR information from studied countries during 1980 to 2010 was extracted from the gap minder site and then analysed using descriptive and analytical methods, including Spearman correlation.

Results: The lowest and highest rates of HDI and MMR in 2010 were seen in the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan (HDI: 0.49, 0.81; MMR: 7.14, 335.45 respectively). HDI is rising in all countries studied, with the highest increase in the Islamic Republic of Iran (0.21). MMR and U5MR saw a decline over the years, with the greatest decrease seen in India, and the lowest and highest child mortality rate in 2010 found in Bahrain and Pakistan (8.3, 91.8 respectively). However, there was a negative relationship between HDI and MMR (r = -0.7, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: HDI increased during 1980-2010. The highest rate of HDI decrease was observed in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the greatest reduction of MMR was seen in India. Also, the highest decrease in U5MR was related to India as well, while MMR and U5MR rate decreased. Hence, improving HDI might have a definite impact on decreasing MMR and U5MR, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.18.029DOI Listing
April 2019

Spatio-Temporal Study of Gastric Cancer Incidence in Kermanshah Province, Iran During the Years 2009-2014

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Oct 26;19(10):2871-2876. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email:

Background and objective: Stomach cancer is the second common and the most deadly type of cancer in Iranian populations. The pattern of this cancer varies in different populations; demonstrating association with environmental, racial, and geographical factors. The focus of this study was to identify the clustering and the high-risk and low-risk regions for stomach cancer by using spatio-temporal analysis in Kermanshah province during 2009-2014. Method: All new cases of stomach cancer were studied by census method in 2009 to end 2014 in Kermanshah province. The required information and statistics (address, age, and sex) of patients were extracted from the cancer registry system of Vice-Chancellor in health affairs, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Also, with having the location, diagnosis time, and counting information of all age groups of stomach cancer patients, the spatially and temporally abnormal places of clustering were identified with the use of saTScan and GIS. Results: the total number of stomach cancer subjects during the period of study was 1040, with a mean age of 66.5± 1. in addition, 11 regions (located in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd municipal districts) demonstrated abnormal Spatio-temporal pattern of stomach cancer incidence (hot spots) and clustered disease, with 5 regions (in 4th and 5th districts) representing lower chance of clustering (cold spots, p value˂0.05). Conclusion: Given the growing rate of stomach cancer incidence in specific geographical areas and, its high potential of mortality, and the possible relationship with environmental variables (e.g. climate variables); the efforts need to be focused on the identification of hot/cold spots, the predisposing factors, and the possible clusters in the affected areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.10.2871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291030PMC
October 2018

Subgroup dairy products consumption on the risk of stroke and CHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017;31:25. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of General Linguistics, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

There is no global consensus about the relationship between dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed at integrating the results of several studies to predict the dairy effects on CVD, e.g. stroke and CHD. In the present study, some major databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed were searched up to September 2014. All prospective cohort studies dealing with dairy products consumption and CVD were surveyed regardless of their publication date or language. This reference population includes all individuals without any delimitation with regard to age, gender, or race. The quality of the study was evaluated using STROBE Checklist. Study selection and data extraction were done by 2 independent researchers separately. The indices in this study were RR and HR. The random model was used to combine the results. Out of 6234 articles, 11 were included in the meta-analysis. No relationship was found between stroke and consumption of milk, cream, and butter, and the results are as follow: RR = 0.91 (95%CI: 0.81-1.01) for milk, RR = 0.97 (95%CI: 0.88-1.06) for cream, and RR = 0.95 (95%CI: 0.85-1.07) for butter. However, cheese was found to decrease stroke risk: RR = 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.99). The relationship of CHD with consumption of milk, cheese, cream, and butter are as follows, respectively: RR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.96- 1.15), RR = 0.90 (95%CI: 0.81-1.01), RR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87-1.06), and RR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.89-1.11). In other words, no relationship existed between dairy products and CHD. No relationship was found between consumption of various dairy products and CHD or stroke, except for cheese that decreased stroke risk by 7%. Considering the small number of studies, the result of the present study is not generalizable and more studies need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/mjiri.31.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804434PMC
March 2017

The effect of dairy consumption on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2017 18;9(1):1-11. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Noor Research Center for Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

There is no global consensus on the relationship of dairy products with cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the consumption of dairy products on cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Important electronic databases such as the Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed were evaluated up to September 2014. All prospective cohort studies that evaluated the relationship between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular diseases were included regardless of their publication date and language. The study participants were evaluated regardless of age, sex, and ethnicity. The STROBE checklist was used to assess quality of the study. Two investigators separately selected the studies and extracted the data. The designated effects were risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR). The random effect model was used to combine the results. Meta-analysis was performed on 27 studies. There were 8648 cases of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 11806 cases of CHD, and 29300 cases of stroke. An inverse association was found between total dairy intake and CVD (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.81-0.99) and stroke (RR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.95) while no association was observed between total dairy intake and CHD. The total diary intake was associated with decreased mortality of stroke (RR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.76-0.83) although it had no association with its incidence (RR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.88-1.04). This is the first meta-analysis of the relationship of total dairy intake with CVD. This study showed an inverse relationship between total dairy intake and CVD while no relationship was found for CHD. Considering the limited number of studies in this regard, more studies are required to investigate the effect of different factors on the association of dairy intake and CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcvtr.2017.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402021PMC
March 2017

National and sub-national trend and burden of injuries in Iran, 1990 - 2013: a study protocol.

Arch Iran Med 2014 Mar;17(3):138-45

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Worldwide, injuries are a major public health concern and make a considerable contribution to the disease burden. The present study is a component of the National and Subnational Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors from 1990 to 2013 (NASBOD) study in Iran, which was designed to investigate the burden of most important injuries (road traffic injuries, falls, burns, poisonings and drownings) at the national and sub-national levels in Iran. In this paper we explain definitions, organization, injuries selection process, data sources, data gathering methods, and data analyses of the national and sub-national burden of injuries study in Iran.

Methods: The burden of most important injuries in current metric of DALYs at the national and sub-national levels in Iran over 1990-2013 will be estimated through comprehensive reviews of either published or national data sources. Statistical modeling will be used to impute the missing data on the burden of selected important injuries for each district-year.

Conclusion: The results of present study can help health policy makers to plan more comprehensive and cost-effective strategies at national and sub-national level for prevention and control of burden caused by injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/0141703/AIM.003DOI Listing
March 2014