Publications by authors named "Maksim Shapiro"

53 Publications

Remodeling of the Posterior Cerebral Artery P1-Segment after Pipeline Flow Diverter Treatment of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

Neurol Int 2021 May 7;13(2):195-201. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Introduction: Flow diverters such as the pipeline embolization device (PED) cause hemodynamic changes of the treated vessel segment. In posterior communicating artery (PcomA), aneurysms' unique anatomic consideration have to be taken in account due to the connection between the anterior and posterior circulation. We hypothesize that in conjunction with PcomA remodeling, there will also be remodeling of the ipsilateral P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) after PED treatment for PcomA aneurysms.

Methods: We retrospectively collected radiological as well as clinical data of PcomA aneurysm patients treated with PED including PcomA and P1 vessel diameters before and after treatment as well as patient and aneurysm characteristics.

Results: Overall, 14 PcomA aneurysm patients were included for analysis and PED treatment was performed without complications in all patients. In 10 out of 14 patients (71%), a decrease in PcomA diameter was observed and there was a significant mean decrease of 0.78 mm in PcomA diameter on angiographic last follow-up (LFU) ( = 0.003). In the same patient population (10 out of 14 patients), there was meanwhile a significant mean increase of 0.43 mm in the ipsilateral P1 segment diameter observed ( = 0.015). These vessel remodeling effects were in direct correlation with aneurysm occlusion since all of these patients showed aneurysm occlusion at LFU while 29% showed only partial occlusion without vessel remodeling effects. A decrease in PcomA diameter was directly associated with aneurysm occlusion ( = 0.042). There were no neurologic complications on LFU.

Conclusion: In the treatment of PcomA aneurysms with PED, the P1 segment of the PCA increases in diameter while the PcomA diameter decreases. Our results suggest that this remodeling effect is associated with aneurysm occlusion and decrease of PcomA is hemodynamically compensated for by an increase in the ipsilateral P1 diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13020020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162531PMC
May 2021

State of the Art: Venous Causes of Pulsatile Tinnitus and Diagnostic Considerations Guiding Endovascular Therapy.

Radiology 2021 May 25:202584. Epub 2021 May 25.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.A., T.N.N., O.S.), Neurology (T.N.N.), Neurosurgery (T.N.N.), Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (P.W., O.S.), and Radiation Oncology (O.S.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Ave, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118; Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, Calif (A.M.N.); Departments of Radiology (E.R., M.S.) and Neurology (M.S.), NYU Langone Health, New York, NY; Department of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Sorbonne University, Paris, France (S.L.); and Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minn (W.B.).

Venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are the most common causes of pulsatile tinnitus. These conditions include causes of turbulence within normally located veins and sinuses, and abnormally enlarged or abnormally located veins in close transmissive proximity to the conductive auditory pathway. Such disorders include pathologic abnormalities of the lateral sinus (transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus wall anomalies), abnormalities and variants of the emissary veins, and anomalies of the jugular bulb and jugular vein. Despite being the most common causes for pulsatile tinnitus, venous variants and pathologic abnormalities are often overlooked in the workup of pulsatile tinnitus. Such oversights can result in delayed patient care and prolonged patient discomfort. Advances in both cerebrovascular imaging and endovascular techniques allow for improved diagnostic accuracy and an increasing range of endovascular therapeutic options to address pulsatile tinnitus. This review illustrates the venous causes of pulsatile tinnitus and demonstrates the associated endovascular treatment. © RSNA, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021202584DOI Listing
May 2021

New Focus on Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Jun;41(2):170-175

Department of Neurology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of large-scale clinical trials have helped expand the toolkit for emergency management of acute ischemic stroke. This article is intended to be an up-to-date resource to aid nonstroke specialist neurology providers and ophthalmologists in identifying situations and patient populations in which urgent stroke evaluation should be completed with options for emergent reperfusion therapy considered.

Evidence Acquisition: The literature forming the foundation of the guidelines for early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke was reviewed, annotated, and summarized.

Results: Data from both initial and follow-up trials investigating the benefits and indications for use of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular intervention for stroke are reviewed systematically, with an emphasis on new updates to qualifying patient populations and time periods for treatment.

Conclusions: Recent studies underscore the conclusion that timely reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke is the most effective available treatment and that there are a growing number of new scenarios and patients for which interventions maybe applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000001279DOI Listing
June 2021

Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 10:1-8. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Comaneci (Rapid Medical) is a compliant, adjustable mesh that provides temporary scaffolding during coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (WNAs) that preserves antegrade flow. We report our early multi-institutional experience with the Comaneci device in the USA.

Method: We reviewed all patients with WNAs that were treated using the Comaneci device for coil remodeling of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at 4 institutions between July 2019 and May 2020. Clinical characteristics, angiographic variables, and endovascular results were assessed.

Results: A total of 26 patients were included (18 women). The mean age was 62.7 years (range 44-81). Fifteen patients presented with ruptured aneurysms and 11 with unruptured aneurysms. The mean aneurysm neck width was 3.91 mm (range 1.9-6.5) with a mean dome-to-neck ratio of 1.57 (range 0.59-3.39). The mean maximum width was 5.80 mm (range 3.0-9.9) and the mean maximum height was 5.61 mm (range 2.0-11.8). Successful aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 25 of 26 patients. Complete occlusion was achieved in 16 patients, near-complete occlusion was observed in 9 patients, and 1 patient demonstrated residual filling. The mean time of device exposure was 24 min (range 8-76). No vasospasm was observed at the device location. Clot formation on the device was noted in 2 separate cases, but there were no clinical sequelae. There was 1 intraprocedural complication in a case that involved the simultaneous use of 2 Comaneci devices.

Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that the Comaneci device is a promising and reliable tool that can safely support coil remodeling of WNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514371DOI Listing
May 2021

Pipeline embolization of cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients: combined systematic review of patient-level data and multicenter retrospective review.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Apr 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Cerebral aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare and optimal treatment strategies are not as well characterized as in adults. The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is an endoluminal flow diverter that is commonly used to treat aneurysms in adults, but experience with this device in children is limited. The authors sought to further characterize PED use and outcomes in this specific population by performing both a systematic review of patient-level data from studies reporting the use of the PED to treat pediatric aneurysms and a retrospective review of their experience.

Methods: A systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the use of the PED in pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years). Disaggregated data regarding demographics, aneurysm characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Retrospective data from the authors' two institutions were also included.

Results: Thirty studies comprising patient-level data on 43 pediatric patients with 47 aneurysms were identified. An additional 9 patients with 9 aneurysms were included from the authors' institutions for a total of 52 patients with 56 aneurysms. The mean patient age was 11.1 years. Presentations included aneurysm rupture (17.3%) and symptomatic mass effect (23.1%). Aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation in 55.4% of cases, and 73.2% were described as nonsaccular. Imaging follow-up was available for 89.3% with a mean follow-up of 13.3 months. Aneurysm occlusion was reported in 75%, with 1 case each (1.8%) demonstrating significant in-stent stenosis and parent vessel occlusion. Clinical follow-up was reported in 90.4% with a mean follow-up of 14.7 months. Good functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 or Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 5) were reported in 65.4% of the total population. Two major complications were reported, including 1 death.

Conclusions: Despite substantial differences in aneurysm location and type between published pediatric and adult patient populations treated with the PED, the use of the PED in the pediatric population appears to be safe. While the short-term effectiveness is also similar to that of adults, additional studies are needed to further characterize the long-term outcomes and better define the use of this device in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.PEDS20324DOI Listing
April 2021

Dural venous system: angiographic technique and correlation with ex vivo investigations.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The dural vasculature plays a key role in several important conditions, including dural fistulas and subdural collections. While in vivo investigations of intrinsic dural arterial angioarchitecture are rare, no angiographic studies of dural venous drainage exist to our knowledge.

Objective: To describe methods by which dural venous drainage might be visualized with current angiographic equipment and technique, and to correlate our results with existing ex vivo literature.

Methods: Digital subtraction angiography and 3D angiography (rotational and Dyna CT) of dural neurovasculature were acquired in the context of subdural hematoma embolization and normal dura. Protocols for visualization of dural venous drainage were established, and findings correlated with ex vivo studies.

Results: Meningeal arteries supply both the skull and dura. Normal dural enhancement is accentuated by the presence of hypervascular membranes. Intrinsic meningeal veins/sinuses parallel outer layer arteries with well-known tram-tracking appearance. Dura adjacent to main arterial trunks drains via skull base foramina into the pterygopalatine venous plexus, or via emissary veins into the temporalis venous plexus. Dura near the sinuses drains into venous pouches adjacent to the sinus, before emptying into the sinus proper-possibly the same pouches implicated in the angioarchitecture of dural fistulas. Finally, posterior temporoparietal convexity dura, situated in a watershed-like region between middle and posterior meningeal territories, frequently empties into diploic and emissary veins of the skull. Wide variation in balance is expected between these three routes. Drainage patterns appear to correlate with venous embryologic investigations of Padget and ex vivo studies in adults.

Conclusions: Continued attention to dural venous drainage may prove useful in the diagnosis and management of dural-based vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017237DOI Listing
March 2021

Percutaneous transorbital direct puncture to obliterate a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Radiology, New York University Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS-DAVF) can have an indolent course, with insidious onset, but still showing a high likelihood of spontaneous resolution.1 Nevertheless, symptoms in a subset of patients evolve more rapidly, with malignant signs on imaging, warranting intervention.2 We report on a patient in his 40s presenting with redness and proptosis of the right eye, intermittent blurred vision and diplopia. Once ophthalmological examination revealed increased intraocular pressure and imaging showed cortical venous congestion, the decision was made to obliterate a CS-DAVF involving the posteromedial right cavernous sinus.Multiple arteries including branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery, occipital artery and bilateral meningohypophyseal trunks supplied the fistula. Once transarterial embolization was deemed unsafe and both inferior petrosal sinuses did not grant access to the right cavernous sinus, a direct puncture to the cavernous sinus was performed to successfully coil the involved compartments.3-5 The aid of DynaCT imaging and needle guidance software is emphasized (video 1).neurintsurg;neurintsurg-2020-017118v2/V1F1V1Video 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017118DOI Listing
March 2021

Neuroanatomy of cranial dural vessels: implications for subdural hematoma embolization.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 25;13(5):471-477. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Radiology, Neurosurgery, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Adoption of middle meningeal artery embolization in the management of chronic subdural hematomas has led to a renewed interest in dural vascular anatomy. The readily identifiable major dural arteries and potential hazards associated with their embolization are well described. Less emphasized are several levels of intrinsic dural angioarchitecture, despite their more direct relationship to dural based diseases, such as subdural hematoma and dural fistula. Fortunately, microvascular aspects of dural anatomy, previously limited to ex vivo investigations, are becoming increasingly accessible to in vivo visualization, setting the stage for synthesis of the old and the new, and providing a rationale for the endovascular approach to subdural collections in particular. In contrast with traditional anatomical didactics, where descriptions advance from larger trunks to smaller pedicles, we present a strategic approach that proceeds from a fundamental understanding of the dural microvasculature and its relationship to larger vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016798DOI Listing
May 2021

Thrombectomy for Primary Distal Posterior Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke: The TOPMOST Study.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Apr;78(4):434-444

Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Importance: Clinical evidence of the potential treatment benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation distal, medium vessel occlusion (DMVO) is sparse.

Objective: To investigate the frequency as well as the clinical and safety outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for isolated posterior circulation DMVO stroke and to compare them with the outcomes of standard medical treatment with or without intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in daily clinical practice.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This multicenter case-control study analyzed patients who were treated for primary distal occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) of the P2 or P3 segment. These patients received mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment (with or without IVT) at 1 of 23 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, the United States, and Asia between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were matched using 1:1 propensity score matching.

Interventions: Mechanical thrombectomy or standard medical treatment with or without IVT.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Clinical end point was the improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at discharge from baseline. Safety end point was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhagic complications were classified based on the Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study (ECASSII). Functional outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90-day follow-up.

Results: Of 243 patients from all participating centers who met the inclusion criteria, 184 patients were matched. Among these patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 74 (62-81) years and 95 (51.6%) were female individuals. Posterior circulation DMVOs were located in the P2 segment of the PCA in 149 patients (81.0%) and in the P3 segment in 35 patients (19.0%). At discharge, the mean NIHSS score decrease was -2.4 points (95% CI, -3.2 to -1.6) in the standard medical treatment cohort and -3.9 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -2.5) in the mechanical thrombectomy cohort, with a mean difference of -1.5 points (95% CI, 3.2 to -0.8; P = .06). Significant treatment effects of mechanical thrombectomy were observed in the subgroup of patients who had higher NIHSS scores on admission of 10 points or higher (mean difference, -5.6; 95% CI, -10.9 to -0.2; P = .04) and in the subgroup of patients without IVT (mean difference, -3.0; 95% CI, -5.0 to -0.9; P = .005). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4 of 92 patients (4.3%) in each treatment cohort.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggested that, although rarely performed at comprehensive stroke centers, mechanical thrombectomy for posterior circulation DMVO is a safe, and technically feasible treatment option for occlusions of the P2 or P3 segment of the PCA compared with standard medical treatment with or without IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900924PMC
April 2021

MRS SOFIA: a multicenter retrospective study for use of Sofia for revascularization of acute ischemic stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Over the past several years there has been increased interest in the use of the Sofia aspiration system (MicroVention, Tustin, California) as a primary aspiration catheter.

Objective: To perform a multicenter retrospective study examining the efficacy of the Sofia aspiration catheter as a standalone aspiration treatment for large vessel occlusion.

Methods: Consecutive cases in which the Sofia catheter was used for aspiration thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion were included. Exclusion criteria were the following: (1) Sofia not used for first pass, and (2) a stent retriever used as an adjunct on the first pass. The primary outcome of the study was first pass recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2c/3). Secondary outcomes included first pass TICI 2b/3, crossover to other thrombectomy devices, number of passes, time from puncture to recanalization, and complications.

Results: 323 patients were included. First pass TICI 2c/3 was achieved in 49.8% of cases (161/323). First pass TICI 2b/3 was achieved in 69.7% (225/323) of cases. 74.8% had TICI 2b/3 with the Sofia alone. Crossover to other thrombectomy devices occurred in 29.1% of cases (94/323). The median number of passes was 1 (IQR=1-3). Median time from puncture to recanalization was 26 min (IQR=17-45). Procedure related complications occurred in 3.1% (10/323) of cases.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential advantage of the Sofia aspiration catheter for primary aspiration thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. High rates of first pass recanalization with low crossover rates to other thrombectomy devices were achieved. Median procedure time was low, as were procedural complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017042DOI Listing
February 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Using Flow-Diversion Embolization: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 03;20(4):E284-E285

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Initially developed for large and giant wide-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery, flow diverter devices are now used in almost every location safely and with effectiveness.1-5 This video demonstrates a unique case of a giant aneurysm of the right petrous internal carotid artery in a 20-yr-old patient. This is an extremely rare location, and most of patients are asymptomatic.3-6 Signs of compression of the seventh and eight cranial nerves can be present and even Horner syndrome and lower cranial nerves neuropathies. Nevertheless, rupture can lead to epistaxis and otorrhagia, and ultimately to hemorrhagic shock. The patient in the current report was otherwise healthy but presented with lightheadedness and dizziness for 10 d. The patient consented to the procedure. There was no history of major trauma or head and neck infection. A transradial endovascular flow diversion embolization of a giant aneurysm of the petrous internal carotid artery is herein demonstrated in a stepwise manner. A triaxial system was used to deploy 3 overlapping devices. Concepts of J-wire technique, multiple coverage,1 and the so-called weld technique are emphasized. The role of adjunctive coiling and main reasons for failure are also discussed.7,8 Brief cases of flow diversion embolization of aneurysms of different morphologies at different locations are used to highlight the importance of assessing vessel wall apposition and follow-up imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa462DOI Listing
March 2021

Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Cranial Bypass for Nonmoyamoya Steno-Occlusive Disease in Patients Who Failed Optimal Medical Treatment: A Case Series.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 04;20(5):444-455

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Background: In the post-Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) era, multiple reviews suggested subset groups of patients as potential candidates for superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Among them are patients with recurrent strokes despite optimal medical therapy. There is a paucity of data on the outcome of bypass in these specific patients.

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of direct STA-MCA bypass in patients with nonmoyamoya, symptomatic steno-occlusive disease with impaired distal perfusion, who failed optimal medical management or endovascular treatment.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease who underwent bypass after symptomatic recurrent or rapidly progressive strokes, despite optimal conservative or endovascular treatment.

Results: A total of 8 patients (mean age 60 ± 6 yr) underwent direct or combined direct/indirect STA-MCA bypass between 2016 and 2019. All anastomoses were patent. One bypass carried slow flow. There were no procedure-related permanent deficits. One patient developed seizures which were controlled by medications. A total of 7 out of 8 patients were stable or improved clinically at last follow-up (mean 27.3 ± 13.8 mo) without recurrent strokes. One patient did not recover from their presenting stroke, experienced severe bilateral strokes 4 mo postoperatively, and subsequently expired. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) improved in 6 patients (75%), remained stable in 1 patient (12.5%), and deteriorated in 1 (12.5%). Good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 5 patients (63%, mRS ≤ 2).

Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic, hypoperfused steno-occlusive disease who fail optimal medical or endovascular treatment may benefit from cerebral revascularization. Direct or combined STA-MCA bypass was safe and provided favorable outcomes in this small series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa458DOI Listing
April 2021

Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy for acute anterior spinal artery stroke.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 24;84:102-105. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Importance: Spinal cord infarction is rare but can be extremely disabling. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infarcts is important for patient outcomes. While intravenous thrombolytic therapy is a well-established form of treatment in circumstances of cerebral stroke, it has only recently been successfully used in a few incidents of spinal cord ischemia. We present a case of anterior spinal artery (ASA) territory ischemia treated with ASA intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy.

Clinical Presentation: A 52-year-old male presented with acute onset of severe lumbar pain, rapidly progressing paraplegia and loss of pain and temperature sensation, with preservation of proprioception and vibratory sensation at the L1 level and below on the right and at the L3 level and below on the left. MRI showed restricted diffusion involving the cord at and below L1 level, with normal cord T2 signal. Digital subtraction spinal angiography showed ASA cutoff in the descending limb at the level of L1. Intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) combined with verapamil and eptifibatide was administered within the ASA and the patient had significant neurological improvement immediately postoperatively and at 8-month clinical follow-up.

Conclusion: Direct ASA intra-arterial thrombolysis is feasible, and this drug combination might be an effective therapy for spinal stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.035DOI Listing
February 2021

Spinal neurovascular complications with anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery: a systematic review and review of thoracolumbar vascular anatomy.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 09;49(3):E9

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Spinal cord infarction due to interruption of the spinal vascular supply during anterior thoracolumbar surgery is a rare but devastating complication. Here, the authors sought to summarize the data on this complication in terms of its incidence, risk factors, and operative considerations. They also sought to summarize the relevant spinal vascular anatomy.

Methods: They performed a systematic literature review of the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases to identify reports of spinal cord vascular injury related to anterior thoracolumbar spine procedures as well as operative adjuncts and considerations related to management of the segmental artery ligation during such anterior procedures. Titles and abstracts were screened, and studies meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed in full.

Results: Of 1200 articles identified on the initial screening, 16 met the inclusion criteria and consisted of 2 prospective cohort studies, 10 retrospective cohort studies, and 4 case reports. Four studies reported on the incidence of spinal cord ischemia with anterior thoracolumbar surgery, which ranged from 0% to 0.75%. Eight studies presented patient-level data for 13 cases of spinal cord ischemia after anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery. Proposed risk factors for vasculogenic spinal injury with anterior thoracolumbar surgery included hyperkyphosis, prior spinal deformity surgery, combined anterior-posterior procedures, left-sided approaches, operating on the concavity side of a scoliotic curve, and intra- or postoperative hypotension. In addition, eight studies analyzed operative considerations to reduce spinal cord ischemic complications in anterior thoracolumbar surgery, including intraoperative neuromonitoring and preoperative spinal angiography.

Conclusions: While spinal cord infarction related to anterior thoracolumbar surgery is rare, it warrants proper consideration in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative periods. The spine surgeon must be aware of the relevant risk factors as well as the pre- and intraoperative adjuncts that can minimize these risks. Most importantly, an understanding of the relevant spinal vascular anatomy is critical to minimizing the risks associated with anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.FOCUS20373DOI Listing
September 2020

Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

J Neurosurg 2020 Aug 28:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

3Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web.

Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics.

Results: A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up.

Conclusions: CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.JNS201107DOI Listing
August 2020

Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System.

Neurocrit Care 2021 06 24;34(3):748-759. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background And Purpose: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (p ≤ .001) and 10.0% in historical controls (p ≤ .001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results.

Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01077-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444897PMC
June 2021

Acute stroke care in a New York City comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 20;29(9):105068. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused unprecedented demand and burden on emergency health care services in New York City. We aim to describe our experience providing acute stroke care at a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and the impact of the pandemic on the quality of care for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from a quality improvement registry of consecutive AIS patients at New York University Langone Health's CSC between 06/01/2019-05/15/2020. During the early stages of the pandemic, the acute stroke process was modified to incorporate COVID-19 screening, testing, and other precautionary measures. We compared stroke quality metrics including treatment times and discharge outcomes of AIS patients during the pandemic (03/012020-05/152020) compared with a historical pre-pandemic group (6/1/2019-2/29/2020).

Results: A total of 754 patients (pandemic-120; pre-pandemic-634) were admitted with a principal diagnosis of AIS; 198 (26.3%) received alteplase and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Despite longer median door to head CT times (16 vs 12 minutes; p = 0.05) and a trend towards longer door to groin puncture times (79.5 vs. 71 min, p = 0.06), the time to alteplase administration (36 vs 35 min; p = 0.83), door to reperfusion times (103 vs 97 min, p = 0.18) and defect-free care (95.2% vs 94.7%; p = 0.84) were similar in the pandemic and pre-pandemic groups. Successful recanalization rates (TICI≥2b) were also similar (82.6% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.48). After adjusting for stroke severity, age and a prior history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, pandemic patients had increased discharge mortality (adjusted OR 2.90 95% CI 1.77 - 7.17, p = 0.021) CONCLUSION: Despite unprecedented demands on emergency healthcare services, early multidisciplinary efforts to adapt the acute stroke treatment process resulted in keeping the stroke quality time metrics close to pre-pandemic levels. Future studies will be needed with a larger cohort comparing discharge and long-term outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305900PMC
September 2020

Acute Stroke Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Does Confinement Impact Eligibility for Endovascular Therapy?

Stroke 2020 08 1;51(8):2593-2596. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departments of Neurology and Neuroradiology, Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal (J.P.M., J.N.R.).

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the World Health Organization recommended measures to mitigate the outbreak such as social distancing and confinement. Since these measures have been put in place, anecdotal reports describe a decrease in the number of endovascular therapy (EVT) treatments for acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect on EVT for patients with acute ischemic stroke during the COVID-19 confinement. In this retrospective, observational study, data were collected from November 1, 2019, to April 15, 2020, at 17 stroke centers in countries where confinement measures have been in place since March 2020 for the COVID-19 pandemic (Switzerland, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Canada, and United States). This study included 1600 patients treated by EVT for acute ischemic stroke. Date of EVT and symptom onset-to-groin puncture time were collected. Mean number of EVTs performed per hospital per 2-week interval and mean stroke onset-to-groin puncture time were calculated before confinement measures and after confinement measures. Distributions (non-normal) between the 2 groups (before COVID-19 confinement versus after COVID-19 confinement) were compared using 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The results show a significant decrease in mean number of EVTs performed per hospital per 2-week interval between before COVID-19 confinement (9.0 [95% CI, 7.8-10.1]) and after COVID-19 confinement (6.1 [95% CI, 4.5-7.7]), (<0.001). In addition, there is a significant increase in mean stroke onset-to-groin puncture time (<0.001), between before COVID-19 confinement (300.3 minutes [95% CI, 285.3-315.4]) and after COVID-19 confinement (354.5 minutes [95% CI, 316.2-392.7]). Our preliminary analysis indicates a 32% reduction in EVT procedures and an estimated 54-minute increase in symptom onset-to-groin puncture time after confinement measures for COVID-19 pandemic were put into place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340133PMC
August 2020

Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS.

J Neuroimaging 2020 09 27;30(5):625-630. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge.

Results: Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37).

Conclusion: Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12729DOI Listing
September 2020

Endovascular Reconstruction of Intracranial Aneurysms with the Pipeline Embolization Device in Pediatric Patients: A Single-Center Series.

Interv Neurol 2020 Jan 15;8(2-6):101-108. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Radiology Section, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Pediatric intracranial aneurysms tend to differ in etiology, size, and location from their adult counterparts, and they are often less amenable to microsurgical clip reconstruction techniques. Endovascular treatment with detachable coils is an accepted treatment technique for pediatric patients, though high recurrence rates have been reported with coil embolization of large and giant aneurysms in this population. While the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is FDA-approved for adult intracranial aneurysms, the use of PEDs in pediatric patients is considered off-label.

Case Descriptions: We present 3 cases of pediatric intracranial aneurysms in a 5-year-old male, a 12-year-old male, and a 12-year-old female who presented with symptoms including seizure, headache, and blurred vision. The 2 male patients were found to have intradural vertebral artery saccular aneurysms, while the female patient had a paraophthalmic right internal carotid complex aneurysm. After endovascular reconstruction of the aneurysms with PEDs, follow-up angiography showed complete occlusion of the previous aneurysms with no residual aneurysm filling in all 3 cases.

Conclusion: While further investigation is needed, the evidence presented here supports the conclusion that the PED can be an effective and viable treatment strategy in the pediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253861PMC
January 2020

DynaCT Enhancement of Subdural Membranes After Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization: Insights into Pathophysiology.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 13;139:e265-e270. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization could be an effective method of inhibiting neovascularization of the subdural capsular membrane and preventing hematoma maintenance. We sought to better understand how the MMA might affect subdural hematoma physiology and how this process might be modified by embolization.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 27 patients with 29 subdural hematomas (SDHs) who had undergone MMA embolization from July 2018 to May 2019. Of the 27 patients, 8 had undergone postembolization DynaCT imaging studies and were included in the present study.

Results: The average patient age was 75 years. The baseline noncontrast-enhanced cranial computed tomography (CT) scans showed the presence of a hematoma membrane in all 8 patients. The postembolization DynaCT scans of all patients demonstrated enhancement of all 4 components (i.e., dura, capsular membrane, septations, and subdural hematoma fluid). All patients had a minimum of 60-day imaging and clinical follow-up data available. The average decrease in SDH volume at the last follow-up examination was 87% compared with that at baseline. A significant difference was found between the average baseline and average last follow-up SDH volume (P < 0.0001, paired t test) in all 8 patients. The average interval from the date of the procedure to the last follow-up scan was 89 days (range, 61-122 days). No patient experienced postembolization complications, subsequent SDH drainage, or mortality.

Conclusions: Our data lend support to the theory of contiguous vascular networks between the MMA and SDH membranes. Targeting these leaky vascular networks might remove the source of hematoma accumulation. These data add to the pathophysiological understanding of the disease and suggests potential insights into the mechanism of action of MMA embolization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.188DOI Listing
July 2020

Neuroanatomy of the middle cerebral artery: implications for thrombectomy.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Aug 27;12(8):768-773. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Radiology and Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Our perspective on anatomy frequently depends on how this anatomy is utilized in clinical practice, and by which methods knowledge is acquired. The thrombectomy revolution, of which the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common target, is an example of a clinical paradigm shift with a unique perspective on cerebrovascular anatomy. This article reviews important features of MCA anatomy in the context of thrombectomy. Recognizing that variation, frequently explained by evolutionary concepts, is the rule when it comes to branching pattern, vessel morphology, territory, or collateral potential is key to successful thrombectomy strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015782DOI Listing
August 2020

Radial Arterial Access for Thoracic Intraoperative Spinal Angiography in the Prone Position.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 4;137:e358-e365. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Section of Neurointerventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Verification of complete occlusion or resection of neurovascular lesions is often performed using intraoperative angiography. Surgery for spinal vascular lesions such as arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is typically performed with the patient in the prone position, making intraoperative angiography difficult. No standardized protocol is available for intraoperative angiography during spinal surgery with the patient in the prone position. We have described our experience using radial artery access for intraoperative angiography in thoracic spinal neurovascular procedures performed with the patient in the prone position.

Methods: We reviewed the data from all patients who had undergone surgical resection of spinal vascular lesions in the prone position with radial artery vascular access for intraoperative angiography. The patients were treated in a hybrid endovascular operating room.

Results: A total of 4 patients were treated in the prone position using transradial artery access intraoperative angiography for confirmation of complete resection of the vascular lesions. Of the 4 patients, 2 had undergone surgery for a dural AVF, 1 for a pial AVF, and 1 for an AVM of the filum terminale. None of the patients had experienced any procedural complications.

Conclusion: Radial artery access for intraoperative angiography during spinal neurovascular procedures in which selective catheterization of a thoracic branch is necessary is feasible, safe, and practical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.208DOI Listing
May 2020

Progressive myelopathy associated with spinal epidural lipomatosis in three non-obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Apr 16;411:116688. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

Background: Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition defined as pathological overgrowth of the normally present epidural fat within the spinal canal. SEL is associated with Cushing disease, obesity and chronic corticosteroid therapy. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) has not known to be a risk factor for SEL. The neurological symptoms of SEL are attributed mainly to mechanical compression on the spinal cord and the cauda equina.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients evaluated at NYU Multiple Sclerosis Care Center identified three diabetic patients with progressive myelopathy associated with SEL. We report the clinical course, diagnostic workup and outcomes in these three patients with SEL-associated myelopathy.

Results: Three patients (2 females and 1 male) had long-standing DM1 and developed progressive myelopathy in their early 40's. All were found to have thoracic SEL (extensive extradural T1, T2 hyperintense signal; biopsy confirmed in one case) with associated extensive abnormal cord signal in lower cervical/upper thoracic spinal cord. A comprehensive evaluation for metabolic, infectious, autoimmune and vascular causes of myelopathy that included serologies, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and spinal angiography did not reveal an alternative cause for myelopathy. One of the patients underwent a surgical decompression of SEL with subsequent clinical and radiologic improvement.

Conclusions: Our case series suggest that patients with DM1 and myelopathy of unknown cause should be evaluated for SEL. Timely diagnosis and appropriate intervention may forestall progression of neurological disability and even result in neurologic improvement. SEL should be considered on the short list of diagnoses that cause potentially reversible progressive myelopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116688DOI Listing
April 2020

Flow Diversion for Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment: Trials Involving Flow Diverters and Long-Term Outcomes.

Neurosurgery 2020 01;86(Suppl 1):S36-S45

The Bernard and Irene Schwartz Neurointerventional Radiology Section, Center for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Flow diverters (FDs) have changed the management of brain aneurysms; not only for complex aneurysms (giant, fusiform and blister) refractory to conventional therapies, but also for unruptured lesions previously managed by traditional surgical or coil-based endovascular methods. Since 2011 when the PipelineTM Embolization Device (Medtronic) was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration for adults with large or giant wide-neck intracranial aneurysms of the internal carotid artery proximal to the posterior communicating segment, the role of flow diversion for aneurysm treatment has expanded-supported by favorably low complication and high cure rates compared with alternative treatments. Here we review the key clinical trials and the long term outcomes that have demonstrated safety and efficacy of minimized porosity endoluminal devices in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz345DOI Listing
January 2020

Microsurgical Resection of a Spinal Cord Pial Arteriovenous Fistula: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 08;19(2):E152

Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

We present a patient who was diagnosed 20 yr prior to current presentation with a spinal arteriovenous malformation. This patient had a 10-yr history of worsening back pain (and underwent lumbar fusion), urinary dysfunction leading to 3-yr dependence on intermittent catheterization, lower extremity paresthesias and pain, and progressive weakness with multiple falls, leading to walker then wheelchair dependence for mobility. Magnetic resonance studies showed extensive thoracic cord expansion and edema with enlarged spinal cord surface veins and flow voids extending from spinal levels T6 to the conus medullaris. Partial embolization at an outside institution elicited transient symptom improvement. Repeated spinal angiogram demonstrated persistent T10 pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) supplied by the posterior spinal artery arising from the right T11 segmental artery as well as by the anterior spinal artery from the left T10 segmental artery. Because additional embolization carried significant risk, we planned open surgery with fistula resection. Informed consent for the surgery and video recording was obtained. The patient was placed in the prone position, and a radial artery access was obtained for intraoperative angiogram. Following a posterior T9-T11 laminectomy and dural opening, a pial dissection was performed to expose the AVF. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography was used to assist in identifying the feeders and major drainage of the AVF. Post-AVF resection, a formal intraoperative radial access spinal angiogram demonstrated complete resection of the lesion with no residual shunt or early venous drainage. The patient improved significantly and, on last follow-up, is ambulating without any assistive devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594179PMC
August 2020

Possible Empirical Evidence of Glymphatic System on Computed Tomography After Endovascular Perforations.

World Neurosurg 2020 Feb 23;134:e400-e404. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The glial-lymphatic pathway is a fluid-clearance pathway consisting of a para-arterial route for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid along perivascular spaces and subsequently toward the brain interstitium. In this case series, we aim to investigate an empirical demonstration of glymphatic clearance of extravasated iodine following perforation incurred during endovascular therapy on serial computed tomography.

Methods: Six consecutive cases of endovascular perforation during thrombectomy performed between 2005 and 2018 were retrospectively collected by searching our internal database of total 446 thrombectomies. Two cases were excluded because care was withdrawn shortly following the procedure and no follow-up imaging was available. One case was excluded because a ventricular drain was placed. Three cases were hence included in this analysis.

Results: All 3 cases demonstrated progressive absorption of contrast by the brain parenchyma with eventual contrast disappearance.

Conclusions: We described a likely in vivo computed tomography correlate of the glymphatic system in a cohort of patients who sustained intraprocedural extravasation during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.089DOI Listing
February 2020

Preoperative Imaging for Facial Transplant: A Guide for Radiologists.

Radiographics 2019 Jul-Aug;39(4):1098-1107. Epub 2019 May 24.

From the Department of Radiology (V.P., M.H., Y.W.L., A.J.D., M.S.) and Hanjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery (N.M.P., J.R.D.S., E.D.R.), New York University Langone Health, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016; Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md (C.W.S., A.S.M.); and Department of Radiology, MedStar Health, Baltimore, Md (A.S.M.).

Facial transplant (FT) is a viable option for patients with severe craniomaxillofacial deformities. Transplant imaging requires coordination between radiologists and surgeons and an understanding of the merits and limitations of imaging modalities. Digital subtraction angiography and CT angiography are critical to mapping vascular anatomy, while volume-rendered CT allows evaluation of osseous defects and landmarks used for surgical cutting guides. This article highlights the components of successful FT imaging at two institutions and in two index cases. A deliberate stepwise approach to performance and interpretation of preoperative FT imaging, which consists of the modalities and protocols described here, is essential to seamless integration of the multidisciplinary FT team. RSNA, 2019 See discussion on this article by Lincoln .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2019180167DOI Listing
May 2020

Spinal dural fistula and anterior spinal artery supply from the same segmental artery: Case report of volumetric T2 MRI diagnosis and rational endovascular treatment.

Interv Neuroradiol 2019 Oct 9;25(5):579-584. Epub 2019 May 9.

Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Spinal dural fistulas (SDAVFs) occasionally arise from the same segmental artery as the radiculomedullary branch to the anterior spinal artery. In such cases, selective fistula embolization that does not endanger the anterior spinal artery is not possible, and surgical fistula disconnection is recommended. We present an exceptional case in which rational embolization strategy of SDAVF was feasible because of separate origins from a common segmental artery pedicle of the ventral radiculomedullary artery and the dorsal radicular artery branch supplying the fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019918825017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777115PMC
October 2019