Publications by authors named "Makoto Arai"

270 Publications

Vitamin B6 deficiency hyperactivates the noradrenergic system, leading to social deficits and cognitive impairment.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 3;11(1):262. Epub 2021 May 3.

Project for Schizophrenia Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan.

We have reported that a subpopulation of patients with schizophrenia have lower levels of vitamin B (VB6) in peripheral blood than do healthy controls. In a previous study, we found that VB6 level was inversely proportional to the patient's positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) score for measuring symptom severity, suggesting that the loss of VB6 might contribute to the development of schizophrenia symptoms. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between VB6 deficiency and schizophrenia, we generated VB6-deficient (VB6(-)) mice through feeding with a VB6-lacking diet as a mouse model for the subpopulation of schizophrenia patients with VB6 deficiency. After feeding for 4 weeks, plasma VB6 level in VB6(-) mice decreased to 3% of that in control mice. The VB6(-) mice showed social deficits and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the VB6(-) mice showed a marked increase in 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in the brain, suggesting enhanced noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in VB6(-) mice. We confirmed the increased NA release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum (STR) of VB6(-) mice through in vivo microdialysis. Moreover, inhibiting the excessive NA release by treatment with VB6 supplementation into the brain and α2A adrenoreceptor agonist guanfacine (GFC) suppressed the increased NA metabolism and ameliorated the behavioral deficits. These findings suggest that the behavioral deficits shown in VB6(-) mice are caused by enhancement of the noradrenergic (NAergic) system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01381-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093222PMC
May 2021

Comprehensive mutational analysis of background mucosa in patients with Lugol-voiding lesions.

Cancer Med 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Somatic mutations including the background mucosa in patients with Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs) are still not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the somatic mutations of the background mucosa in patients with LVLs (Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), intraepithelial neoplasia (IN), and hyperplasia). Twenty-five patients with LVLs (9 with SCC, 6 with IN, and 10 with hyperplasia) were included. A targeted sequence was performed for LVLs and background mucosa using an esophageal cancer panel. Each mutation was checked whether it was oncogenic or not concerning OncoKB. In LVLs, TP53 was the most dominant mutation (80%). Furthermore, 72% of TP53 mutations was putative drivers. In background mucosa, NOTCH1 was the most dominant mutation (88%) and TP53 was the second most dominant mutation (48%). Furthermore, 73% of TP53 mutations and 8% of NOTCH1 mutations were putative drivers. Putative driver mutations of TP53 had significantly higher allele frequency (AF) in SCC than in IN and hyperplasia. Conversely, putative driver mutations of NOTCH1 did not have a significant accumulation of AF in the progression of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, in SCC, AF of TP53 mutations was significantly higher in LVLs than in background mucosa, but not in IN and hyperplasia. Regarding NOTCH1, a significant difference was not observed between LVLs and background mucosa in each group. The background mucosa in patients with LVLs already had putative driver mutations such as TP53 and NOTCH1. Of these two genes, TP53 mutation could be the main target gene of carcinogenesis in esophageal SCC. Clinical Trials registry: UMIN000034247.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3905DOI Listing
May 2021

Accumulation of Carbonyl Proteins in the Brain of Mouse Model for Methylglyoxal Detoxification Deficits.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo 204-8588, Japan.

Recent studies have shown that carbonyl stress is a causative factor of schizophrenia, categorized as carbonyl stress-related schizophrenia (CS-SCZ). However, the correlation between carbonyl stress and the pathogenesis of this disease is not well established. In this study, glyoxalase 1(Glo1)-knockout and vitamin B6-deficient mice (KO/VB6 (-) mice), which are susceptible to methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced oxidative damages, were used as a CS-SCZ model to analyze MGO-modified protein and the carbonyl stress status in the brain. A comparison between Wild/VB6(+) mice and KO/VB6(-) mice for accumulated carbonyl proteins levels, with several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the brain, revealed that carbonyl protein levels with the Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl) ornithine (MG-H1) moiety were significantly increased in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, striatum, cerebral cortex, and brainstem regions of the brain in KO/VB6(-) mice. Moreover, two-dimensional electrophoresis and Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed MG-H1-modified arginine residues in mitochondrial creatine kinase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1, and T-complex protein in the hippocampus region of KO/VB6(-) mice, but not in Wild/VB6(+) mice. In particular, MG-H1 modification of mitochondrial creatine kinase was quite notable. These results suggest that further studies focusing on MG-H1-modified and accumulated proteins in the hippocampus may reveal the onset mechanism of CS-SCZ induced by MGO-induced oxidative damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068291PMC
April 2021

GH-induced LH hyporesponsiveness as a potential mechanism for hypogonadism in male patients with acromegaly.

Endocr J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan.

Male patients with acromegaly frequently have hypogonadism. However, whether excess GH affects gonadal function remains unclear. We retrospectively compared clinical features affecting total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels between 112 male patients with acromegaly and 100 male patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) without hyperprolactinemia. Median maximum tumor diameter (14.4 vs. 26.5 mm) and suprasellar extension rate (33 vs. 100%) were lower in acromegaly, but LH, FSH, TT, and FT were not significantly different. In acromegaly, TT was less than 300 ng/dL in 57%, and FT was below the age-specific reference range in 77%. TT and FT were negatively correlated with GH, IGF-1, and the tumor size, and positively correlated with LH. In NFPA, they were positively correlated with IGF-1, LH, FSH, ACTH, cortisol, and free T4, reflecting hypopituitarism. Multiple regression analysis showed that TT and FT had the strongest correlation with GH in acromegaly, and with LH in NFPA. Surgical remission was achieved in 87.5% of 56 follow-up patients with acromegaly. TT and FT increased in 80.4 and 87.5%, respectively, with a significant increase in LH. In acromegaly, the degree of postoperative increase in TT(FT) correlated with the fold increase of TT(FT)/LH ratio, a potential parameter of LH responsiveness, but not with fold increase of LH, whereas in NFPA it correlated with both. These results suggest that excessive GH is the most relevant factor for hypogonadism in male acromegaly, and may cause impaired LH responsiveness as well as the suppression of LH secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0596DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness of nivolumab affected by prior cetuximab use and neck dissection in Japanese patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer: results from a retrospective observational study in a real-world setting.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita15 Nishi7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: To examine the effect of prior use of cetuximab and neck dissection on the effectiveness of nivolumab, we conducted a large-scale subgroup analysis in Japanese patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer.

Methods: Data on the effectiveness of nivolumab were extracted from patient medical records. All patients were analyzed for effectiveness by prior cetuximab use. In the analyses for prior neck dissection, only patients with locally advanced disease were included.

Results: Of 256 patients analyzed, 155 had received prior cetuximab. Nineteen of 50 patients with local recurrence underwent neck dissection. The objective response rate was 14.7 vs 17.2% (p = 0.6116), median progression-free survival was 2.0 vs 3.1 months (p = 0.0261), and median overall survival was 8.4 vs 12 months (p = 0.0548) with vs without prior cetuximab use, respectively. The objective response rate was 23.1 vs 25.9% (p = 0.8455), median progression-free survival was 1.8 vs 3.0 months (p = 0.6650), and median overall survival was 9.1 vs 9.9 months (p = 0.5289) with vs without neck dissection, respectively.

Conclusions: These findings support the use of nivolumab for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer regardless of prior cetuximab use or neck dissection history.

Trial Registration Number: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000032600), Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03569436).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-021-01900-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Texture and Color Enhancement Imaging in visualizing gastric mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasms.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6910. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba-City, 260-8670, Japan.

In 2020, Olympus Medical Systems Corporation introduced the Texture and Color Enhancement Imaging (TXI) as a new image-enhanced endoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neoplasms and mucosal atrophy in the upper gastrointestinal tract through TXI. We evaluated 72 and 60 images of 12 gastric neoplasms and 20 gastric atrophic/nonatrophic mucosa, respectively. The visibility of gastric mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasm was assessed by six endoscopists using a previously reported visibility scale (1 = poor to 4 = excellent). Color differences between gastric mucosal atrophy and nonatrophic mucosa and between gastric neoplasm and adjacent areas were assessed using the International Commission on Illumination L*a*b* color space system. The visibility of mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasm was significantly improved in TXI mode 1 compared with that in white-light imaging (WLI) (visibility score: 3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for mucosal atrophy; visibility score: 2.8 ± 1.0 vs. 2.0 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for gastric neoplasm). Regarding gastric atrophic and nonatrophic mucosae, TXI mode 1 had a significantly greater color difference than WLI (color differences: 14.2 ± 8.0 vs. 8.7 ± 4.2, respectively, p < 0.01). TXI may be a useful observation modality in the endoscopic screening of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86296-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994634PMC
March 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Stem Cell and Molecular Medicine, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Cooperation of LIM domain-binding 2 (LDB2) with EGR in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e12574. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laboratory for Phyloinformatics, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Kobe, Japan.

Genomic defects with large effect size can help elucidate unknown pathologic architecture of mental disorders. We previously reported on a patient with schizophrenia and a balanced translocation between chromosomes 4 and 13 and found that the breakpoint within chromosome 4 is located near the LDB2 gene. We show here that Ldb2 knockout (KO) mice displayed multiple deficits relevant to mental disorders. In particular, Ldb2 KO mice exhibited deficits in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Analysis of the amygdala suggested that dysregulation of synaptic activities controlled by the immediate early gene Arc is involved in the phenotypes. We show that LDB2 forms protein complexes with known transcription factors. Consistently, ChIP-seq analyses indicated that LDB2 binds to > 10,000 genomic sites in human neurospheres. We found that many of those sites, including the promoter region of ARC, are occupied by EGR transcription factors. Our previous study showed an association of the EGR family genes with schizophrenia. Collectively, the findings suggest that dysregulation in the gene expression controlled by the LDB2-EGR axis underlies a pathogenesis of subset of mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033514PMC
April 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Departmetn of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Structural diverseness of neurons between brain areas and between cases.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 14;11(1):49. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan.

The cerebral cortex is composed of multiple cortical areas that exert a wide variety of brain functions. Although human brain neurons are genetically and areally mosaic, the three-dimensional structural differences between neurons in different brain areas or between the neurons of different individuals have not been delineated. Here we report a nanometer-scale geometric analysis of brain tissues of the superior temporal gyrus of schizophrenia and control cases. The results of the analysis and a comparison with results for the anterior cingulate cortex indicated that (1) neuron structures are significantly dissimilar between brain areas and that (2) the dissimilarity varies from case to case. The structural diverseness was mainly observed in terms of the neurite curvature that inversely correlates with the diameters of the neurites and spines. The analysis also revealed the geometric differences between the neurons of the schizophrenia and control cases. The schizophrenia cases showed a thin and tortuous neuronal network compared with the controls, suggesting that the neuron structure is associated with the disorder. The area dependency of the neuron structure and its diverseness between individuals should represent the individuality of brain functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01173-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809156PMC
January 2021

A structured summary of a study protocol for a multi-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of COVID-19 prevention with Kampo medicines (Integrative Management in Japan for Epidemic Disease by prophylactic study: IMJEDI P1 study).

Trials 2021 Jan 6;22(1):23. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Akashi Clinic Kanda, 3-8, Kandaogawamachi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo, 101-0052, Japan.

Objective: We aimed to test our hypothesis that traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, hochuekkito (Hochu-ekki-to: HET) has a preventive effect for the symptoms on COVID-19.

Trial Design: The study is designed as a multi-center, interventional, parallel-group, randomized (1:1 ratio), investigator sponsored, two-arm study.

Participants: Six thousand participants will be recruited from healthy hospital workers in 7 Japanese University Hospitals.

Inclusion Criteria: 1. Age from 20 to 75 years old at the time of registration 2. Asymptomatic and body temperature below 37°C at the time of registration 3. Capable of eating orally Exclusion criteria: 1. Previous upper respiratory inflammation due to viral infection (including suspected COVID-19) 2. Taking immunosuppressants 3. Allergic to the Kampo medicines used in this study 4. History of hypokalaemia, severe hypertension, severe liver dysfunction, and interstitial pneumonia 5. Regularly taking other Kampo medicines 6. Pregnant or possibly pregnant 7. Participating in other research 8. Judged to be unsuitable for this study by the doctor in charge INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Kampo group: participants receive HET in 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks.

Control Group: participants receive placebo in the same dosage as the Intervention group - 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. Placebo tablets are identical in appearance and package to HET. Taste of placebo is different from that of HET. The Ohsugi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan manufactured the placebo and HET.

Main Outcomes: Primary outcome: Number of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result with at least one symptom (fever, cough, sputum, malaise, shortness of breath) during the 12-week study period (including the 4-week observation period after oral administration).

Secondary Outcomes: 1. Period from infection to onset 2. Period from the appearance of symptoms to the disappearance of PCR positive 3. Number of days until the appearance or improvement of symptoms 4. Severe stage: presence of hospitalization 5. Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort.

Randomisation: Patients are randomized (1:1 ratio) to each group using minimization implemented with the Electric data capture system (DATATRAK Enterprise Cloud), with balancing of the arms with age range (under 50 years of age or not) and having a history of risk factors for COVID-19 (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases).

Blinding (masking): Only participants will be randomized.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): The main research hypothesis of this study is that Kampo medicines significantly prevent the onset of COVID-19. It is assumed that the infection rate before the administration of the drug under consideration will be 0% and that the incidence of COVID-19 thereafter will be 2- 3%, of which 70%-80% will show symptoms of COVID-19. Assuming that the pharmaceutical effect of the drug will be effective in 50% of patients and that the incidence rates in the placebo and drug groups will be 1.4%-2.4% and 0.7%-1.2%, respectively, the placebo is calculated at 2%, and the study drug at 1%. Since the frequency of verification is low and the number of cases will be large, we set a total of 10 analyses (9 interim analyses and a final analysis). Since the number of cases at the time of the final analysis will be 4,986 under the conditions of α = 0.05 and a power of 80% by the Peto method. We set at 600 cases in each interim analysis with an estimated dropout rate of 16.9%. Finally, the total number of cases is set to 6,000 with 3,000 in the placebo group and 3,000 in the HET group.

Trial Status: Protocol version 1.3 of October 23rd , 2020. Recruitment start (expected): December 1, 2020. Recruitment finish (expected): December 31, 2022.

Trial Registration: This trial is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCTs031200150 ) on 14 October 2020.

Full Protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04939-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787232PMC
January 2021

Colonoscopic evaluation of diarrhea/colitis occurring as an immune-related adverse event.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar;51(3):363-370

Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Objective: Diarrhea is often observed as an immune-related adverse event. In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of the severity of diarrhea, its treatment and the endoscopic findings in patients developing diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event.

Methods: From August 2015 to June 2019, a total of 369 patients received treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors at our hospital. For this study, development of grade 2 or more diarrhea in these patients was defined as an immune-related adverse event. We analyzed the histopathological severity of the bowel lesions according to the Nancy histological index for ulcerative colitis.

Results: Of the 369 patients, 27 (7.3%) developed diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event. Of these 27 patients, 18 received steroid treatment. Colonoscopy was performed in 17 patients and culture of the feces in 18. The tests revealed evidence of bacterial colitis (Aeromonas hydrophila) in two patients. The Nancy histological index was 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 in two, three, two, two and seven patients, respectively. No findings on colonoscopy were observed in 7 of the 17 patients (41%) who underwent colonoscopy, and most of these patients recovered without steroid treatment. Patients with lower values of the Nancy histological index tended to show better responses to steroid treatment.

Conclusions: To avoid unnecessary steroid administration, colonoscopic evaluation is essential in patients receiving treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors who present with diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event. In addition, the endoscopic findings could be useful to predict the response to steroid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa203DOI Listing
March 2021

Linked color imaging can improve the visibility of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors.

Sci Rep 2020 11 26;10(1):20667. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba City, 260-8670, Japan.

The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of linked color imaging (LCI) in improving the visibility of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs). We prospectively evaluated 44 consecutive patients diagnosed with SNADETs. Three trainees and three experts assessed the visibility scores of white light imaging (WLI), LCI, and blue laser imaging-bright (BLI-b) for SNADETs, which ranged from 1 (not detectable without repeated cautious examination) to 4 (excellent visibility). In addition, the L* a* b* color values and color differences (ΔE*) were evaluated using the CIELAB color space system. For SNADETs, the visibility scores of LCI (3.53 ± 0.59) were significantly higher than those of WLI and BLI-b (2.66 ± 0.79 and 3.41 ± 0.64, respectively). The color differences (ΔE*) between SNADETs and the adjacent normal duodenal mucosa in LCI mode (19.09 ± 8.33) were significantly higher than those in WLI and BLI-b modes (8.67 ± 4.81 and 12.92 ± 7.95, respectively). In addition, the visibility score of SNADETs and the color differences in LCI mode were significantly higher than those in WLI and BLI-b modes regardless of the presence of milk white mucosa (MWM). LCI has potential benefits, and it is considered a promising clinical modality that can increase the visibility of SNADETs regardless of the presence of MWM.This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000028840).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77726-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691495PMC
November 2020

Effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in patients with head and neck cancer in Japanese real-world clinical practice: a multicenter retrospective clinical study.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 21;26(3):494-506. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita15 Nishi7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: To fill the data gap between clinical trials and real-world settings, this study assessed the overall effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) during Japanese real-world clinical practice.

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective study in Japanese patients with recurrent or metastatic HNC who received nivolumab for the first time between July and December 2017. Data on the clinical use, effectiveness, and safety of nivolumab were extracted from patient medical records.

Results: Overall, 256 patients were enrolled in this study. The median duration of nivolumab treatment was 72.5 days, with patients receiving a median of 6.0 (range 1-27) doses. Median overall survival (OS) was 9.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2-12.0) months and the estimated 12-month OS rate was 43.2%. The objective response rate (ORR) was 15.7% overall and 21.1%, 7.1%, and 13.6% in patients with primary nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, and salivary gland tumors, respectively, who had been excluded from CheckMate 141. Grade ≥ 3 immune-related adverse events occurred in 5.9% of patients. No new safety signals were identified compared with adverse events noted in CheckMate 141.

Conclusions: The effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in real-world clinical practice are consistent with data from the CheckMate 141 clinical trial. Therapeutic response was also observed in the groups of patients excluded from CheckMate 141.

Trial Registration Number: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000032600), Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03569436).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01829-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895797PMC
March 2021

Analyses of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization prior to Designing Clinical Trials.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 22;9(5):596-612. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high frequency of recurrence and progression to advanced stage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), particularly in patients with high tumor burden. Promising new results from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and ICI-based therapies are expected to replace TACE, especially in HCC patients with high tumor burden.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of TACE with a view to design clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified intermediate-stage HCC patients undergoing TACE from our database and subdivided patients into low- and high-burden groups based on three subclassification models using the diameter of the maximum tumor and the number of tumors. Clinical outcomes were compared between low- and high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Results: Of 1,161 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 316 were diagnosed with intermediate-stage disease and underwent TACE. The median overall survival from high-burden intermediate-stage disease was not significantly different by clinical course, reaching high tumor burden in all subclassification models. The prognosis of high-burden patients after initial TACE was poor compared with low-burden patients for two models (except for the up-to-seven criteria). In all three models, high-burden patients showed a poor durable response rate (DRR) both ≥3 months and ≥6 months and poor prognosis after TACE. Moreover, patients with confirmed durable response ≥3 months and ≥6 months showed better survival outcomes for high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the basis for selecting a population that would not benefit from TACE and setting DRR ≥3 months or ≥6 months as alternative endpoints when designing clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548915PMC
September 2020

locus disruption on 4p16.1 as a risk factor for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Hum Genome Var 2020 29;7:31. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Schizophrenia Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

We had previously reported the case of a male patient with schizophrenia, having de-novo balanced translocation. Here, we determined the exact breakpoints in chromosomes 4 and 13. The breakpoint within chromosome 4 was mapped to a region 32.6 kbp upstream of the LDB2 gene encoding Lim domain binding 2. Variant screening in revealed a rare novel missense variant in patients with psychiatric disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41439-020-00117-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524746PMC
September 2020

Water-assisted colonoscopy: an international modified Delphi review on definitions and practice recommendations.

Gastrointest Endosc 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, VA Palo Alto, California, United States.

Background And Aims: Since 2008, a plethora of research studies has compared the efficacy of water-assisted (aided) colonoscopy (WAC) and underwater resection (UWR) of colorectal lesions with standard colonoscopy. We reviewed and graded the research evidence with potential clinical application. We conducted a modified Delphi consensus among experienced colonoscopists on definitions and practice of water immersion (WI), water exchange (WE), and UWR.

Methods: Major databases were searched to obtain research reports that could potentially shape clinical practice related to WAC and UWR. Pertinent references were graded (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Extracted data supporting evidence-based statements were tabulated and provided to respondents. We received responses from 55 (85% surveyed) experienced colonoscopists (37 experts and 18 nonexperts in WAC) from 16 countries in 3 rounds. Voting was conducted anonymously in the second and third round, with ≥80% agreement defined as consensus. We aimed to obtain consensus in all statements.

Results: In the first and the second modified Delphi rounds, 20 proposed statements were decreased to 14 and then 11 statements. After the third round, the combined responses from all respondents depicted the consensus in 11 statements (S): definitions of WI (S1) and WE (S2), procedural features (S3-S5), impact on bowel cleanliness (S6), adenoma detection (S7), pain score (S8), and UWR (S9-S11).

Conclusions: The most important consensus statements are that WI and WE are not the same in implementation and outcomes. Because studies that could potentially shape clinical practice of WAC and UWR were chosen for review, this modified Delphi consensus supports recommendations for the use of WAC in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.10.011DOI Listing
October 2020

The Efficacy of Linked Color Imaging in the Endoscopic Diagnosis of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2020 29;2020:9604345. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of linked color imaging (LCI) in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).

Methods: A total of 112 and 12 consecutive patients with BE and EAC were analyzed. The visibility scores of BE and EAC ranging from 4 (excellent visibility) to 0 (not detectable) were evaluated by three trainees and three experts using white light imaging (WLI), LCI mode, and blue laser imaging bright (BLI-b) mode. In addition, L∗a∗b∗ color values and color differences (ΔE∗) were evaluated using the CIELAB color space system.

Results: The visibility score of the BE in LCI mode (2.94 ± 1.32) was significantly higher than those in WLI (2.46 ± 1.48) and BLI-b mode (2.35 ± 1.46) ( < 0.01). The color difference (ΔE∗) from the adjacent gastric mucosa in LCI mode (17.11 ± 8.53) was significantly higher than those in other modes (12.52 ± 9.37 in WLI and 11.96 ± 6.59 in BLI-b mode, < 0.01). The visibility scores of EAC in LCI mode (2.56 ± 1.47) and BLI-b mode (2.51 ± 1.28) were significantly higher than that in WLI (1.64 ± 1.46) ( < 0.01). The color difference (ΔE∗) from the adjacent normal Barrett's mucosa in LCI mode (19.96 ± 7.97) was significantly higher than that in WLI (12.95 ± 11.86) ( = 0.03).

Conclusion: The present findings suggest that LCI increases the visibility of BE and EAC and contributes to the improvement of the detection of these lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9604345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542478PMC
September 2020

The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in a schizophrenic patient with a glyoxalase 1 frameshift mutation: An autopsy study.

Schizophr Res 2020 09 29;223:356-358. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.09.012DOI Listing
September 2020

Potential of Lenvatinib for an Expanded Indication from the REFLECT Trial in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Aug 5;9(4):382-396. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and verify the possibility of lenvatinib for the expanded indication from the REFLECT trial in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in real-world practice, primarily focusing on the population that was excluded in the REFLECT trial.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who were administered lenvatinib in 7 institutions in Japan.

Results: Of 152 advanced HCC patients, 95 and 57 patients received lenvatinib in first-line and second- or later-line systemic therapies, respectively. The median progression-free survival in Child-Pugh class A patients was nearly equal between first- and second- or later-line therapies (5.2 months; 95% CI 3.7-6.9 for first line, 4.8 months; 95% CI 3.8-5.9 for second or later line, = 0.933). According to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the objective response rate of 27 patients (18%) who showed a high burden of intrahepatic lesions (i.e., main portal vein and/or bile duct invasion or 50% or higher liver occupation) at baseline radiological assessment was 41% and similar with that of other population. The present study included 20 patients (13%) with Child-Pugh class B. These patients observed high frequency rates of liver function-related adverse events due to lenvatinib. The 8-week dose intensity of lenvatinib had a strong correlation with liver function according to both the Child-Pugh and albumin - bilirubin scores.

Conclusion: Lenvatinib had potential benefits for patients with advanced HCC with second- or later-line therapies and a high burden of intrahepatic lesions. Dose modification should be paid increased attention among patients with poor liver function, such as Child-Pugh class B patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506220PMC
August 2020

Enhanced carbonyl stress and disrupted white matter integrity in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2020 09 22;223:242-248. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.

Carbonyl stress is a state caused by an increase in rich reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs); RCOs facilitate the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are associated with various age-related illnesses. Recently, enhanced carbonyl stress and lower levels of pyridoxal, a kind of vitamin B6 that scavenges RCOs, have been shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Meanwhile, lower levels of pyridoxal have been reported to decrease myelination through the biochemical process of carbonyl stress. Despite a number of reports on white matter disruption in schizophrenia, it is unclear whether this disruption is related to enhanced carbonyl stress. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between carbonyl stress and white matter integrity in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging. A total of 53 patients with schizophrenia and 83 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. We used plasma pentosidine, an AGE, and serum pyridoxal as carbonyl stress markers. Between-group differences in these carbonyl stress markers and their relationships with white matter integrity were investigated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. In the schizophrenia group, plasma pentosidine level was significantly higher and serum pyridoxal level was lower than those of controls. There was a significant negative correlation between plasma pentosidine and white matter integrity in the schizophrenia group, but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that enhanced carbonyl stress is a possible underlying mechanism of white matter microstructural disruption in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.08.007DOI Listing
September 2020

Comprehensive Analysis of Barrett's Esophagus: Focused on Carcinogenic Potential for Barrett's Cancer in Japanese Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 Aug 25. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba-City, 260-8670, Japan.

Background/aim: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Therefore, an accurate diagnosis of BE is important for the subsequent follow-up and early detection of EAC. However, the definitions of BE have not been standardized worldwide; columnar-lined epithelium (CLE) without intestinal metaplasia (IM) and/or < 1 cm is not diagnosed as BE in most countries. This study aimed to clarify the malignant potential of CLE without IM and/or < 1 cm genetically.

Method: A total of 96 consecutive patients (including nine patients with EAC) who had CLE were examined. Biopsies for CLE were conducted, and patients were divided into those with IM and > 1 cm (Group A) and those without IM and/or < 1 cm (Group B). Malignant potential was assessed using immunochemical staining for p53. Moreover, causative genes were examined using next-generation sequencing (NGS) on ten patients without Helicobacter pylori infection and without atrophic gastritis.

Result: Of the 96 patients, 66 were in Group B. The proportion of carcinoma/dysplasia in Group A was significantly higher than that in Group B (26.7% in Group A and 1.5% in Group B; p < 0.01). However, one EAC patient was found in Group B. In the immunostaining study for non-EAC patients, an abnormal expression of p53 was not observed in Group A, whereas p53 loss was observed in three patients (4.6%) in Group B. In the NGS study, a TP53 mutation was found in Group B.

Conclusion: CLE without IM and/or < 1 cm has malignant potential. This result suggests that patients with CLE as well as BE need follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06563-1DOI Listing
August 2020

Computer-aided diagnosis system using only white-light endoscopy for the prediction of invasion depth in colorectal cancer.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Mar 29;93(3):647-653. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aims: Endoscopic treatment is recommended for low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and colorectal cancer (CRC) with submucosal (SM) invasion <1000 μm. However, diagnosis of invasion depth requires experience and is often difficult. This study developed and evaluated a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to determine whether endoscopic treatment is appropriate for colorectal lesions using only white-light endoscopy (WLE).

Methods: We extracted 3442 images from 1035 consecutive colorectal lesions (105 LGDs, 377 HGDs, 107 CRCs with SM <1000 μm, 146 CRCs with SM ≥1000 μm, and 300 advanced CRCs). All images were WLE, nonmagnified, and nonstained. We developed a novel CAD system using 2751 images; the remaining 691 images were evaluated by the CAD system as a test set. The capability of the CAD system to distinguish endoscopically treatable lesions and untreatable lesions was assessed and compared with the results from 2 trainees and 2 experts.

Results: The CAD system distinguished endoscopically treatable from untreatable lesions with 96.7% sensitivity, 75.0% specificity, and 90.3% accuracy. These values were significantly higher than those from trainees (92.1%, 67.6%, and 84.9%; P < .01, <.01, and <.01, respectively) and were comparable with those from experts (96.5%, 72.5%, and 89.4%, respectively). Trainees assisted by the CAD system demonstrated a diagnostic capability comparable with that of experts.

Conclusions: The CAD system had good diagnostic capability for making treatment decisions for colorectal lesions. This system may enable a more convenient and accurate diagnosis using only WLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.07.053DOI Listing
March 2021

Disclosure of secondary findings in exome sequencing of 2480 Japanese cancer patients.

Hum Genet 2021 Feb 24;140(2):321-331. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Research Institute of Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

High-throughput sequencing has greatly contributed to precision medicine. However, challenges remain in reporting secondary findings (SFs) of germline pathogenic variants and managing the affected patients. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of SFs in Japanese cancer patients using whole exome sequencing (WES) and to understand patient preferences regarding SF disclosure. WES was conducted for 2480 cancer patients. Genomic data were screened and classified for variants of 59 genes listed by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics SF v2.0 and for an additional 13 hereditary cancer-related genes. Majority of the participants (68.9%; 1709/2480) opted for disclosure of their SFs. Thirty-two pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, including BRCA1 (7 patients), BRCA2 (4), CHEK2 (4), PTEN (3), MLH1 (3), SDHB (2), MSH6 (1), NF1 (1), EXT2 (1), NF1 (1), NTRK1 (1), MYH7 (3), MYL2 (1), TNNT2 (1), LDLR (2), FBN1 (1), and KCNH2 (1) were recognized in 36 patients (1.5%). Twenty-eight (77.8%) patients underwent genetic counseling and received their SF results. Eighteen (64.3%) patients underwent clinical management for SFs. Genetic validation tests were administered significantly more frequently to patients with than without a SF-related personal history (P = 0.025). This was a first attempt at a large-scale systematic exome analysis in Japan; nevertheless, many cancer patients opted for disclosure of SFs and accepted or considered clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02207-6DOI Listing
February 2021

ARHGAP10, which encodes Rho GTPase-activating protein 10, is a novel gene for schizophrenia risk.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 07 22;10(1):247. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is known to be a heritable disorder; however, its multifactorial nature has significantly hampered attempts to establish its pathogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we performed genome-wide copy-number variation (CNV) analysis of 2940 patients with SCZ and 2402 control subjects and identified a statistically significant association between SCZ and exonic CNVs in the ARHGAP10 gene. ARHGAP10 encodes a member of the RhoGAP superfamily of proteins that is involved in small GTPase signaling. This signaling pathway is one of the SCZ-associated pathways and may contribute to neural development and function. However, the ARHGAP10 gene is often confused with ARHGAP21, thus, the significance of ARHGAP10 in the molecular pathology of SCZ, including the expression profile of the ARHGAP10 protein, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we focused on one patient identified to have both an exonic deletion and a missense variant (p.S490P) in ARHGAP10. The missense variant was found to be located in the RhoGAP domain and was determined to be relevant to the association between ARHGAP10 and the active form of RhoA. We evaluated ARHGAP10 protein expression in the brains of reporter mice and generated a mouse model to mimic the patient case. The model exhibited abnormal emotional behaviors, along with reduced spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, primary cultured neurons prepared from the mouse model brain exhibited immature neurites in vitro. Furthermore, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from this patient, and differentiated them into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in order to analyze their morphological phenotypes. TH-positive neurons differentiated from the patient-derived iPSCs exhibited severe defects in both neurite length and branch number; these defects were restored by the addition of the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. Collectively, our findings suggest that rare ARHGAP10 variants may be genetically and biologically associated with SCZ and indicate that Rho signaling represents a promising drug discovery target for SCZ treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00917-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376022PMC
July 2020

Changes in Heart Rate Variability after Yoga are Dependent on Heart Rate Variability at Baseline and during Yoga: A Study Showing Autonomic Normalization Effect in Yoga-Naïve and Experienced Subjects.

Int J Yoga 2020 May-Aug;13(2):160-167. Epub 2020 May 1.

Schizophrenia Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: Yoga therapy is widely applied to the maintenance of health and to treatment of various illnesses. Previous researches indicate the involvement of autonomic control in its effects, although the general agreement has not been reached regarding the acute modulation of autonomic function.

Aim: The present study aimed at revealing the acute effect of yoga on the autonomic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) measurement.

Methods: Twenty-seven healthy controls participated in the present study. Fifteen of them (39.5 ± 8.5 years old) were naïve and 12 (45.1 ± 7.0 years old) were experienced in yoga. Yoga skills included breath awareness, two types of asana, and two types of pranayama. HRV was measured at the baseline, during yoga, and at the resting state after yoga.

Results: In both yoga-naïve and experienced participants, the changes in low-frequency (LF) component of HRV and its ratio to high-frequency (HF) component (LF/HF) after yoga were found to be correlated negatively with the baseline data. The changes in LF after yoga were also correlated with LF during yoga. The changes in HF as well as the raw HRV data after yoga were not related to the baseline HRV or the HRV during yoga.

Conclusion: The results indicate that yoga leads to an increase in LF when LF is low and leads to a decrease in LF when it is high at the baseline. This normalization of LF is dependent on the autonomic modulation during yoga and may underlie the clinical effectiveness of yoga therapy both in yoga-naïve and experienced subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_39_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336948PMC
May 2020

"Kampo-sommelier Practice": A Trial for an Active Learning Program in Kampo (Japanese Traditional) Medicine.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2020 Jul 20;45(2):63-68. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Kampo Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Kampo-sommelier practice, an active learning program on crude drugs used in Kampo formulations.

Methods: The participants were fourth-year Tokai University School of Medicine students as of 2017. Eighteen small teams attended a 20-minute Kampo-sommelier practice session and were provided 10 kinds of crude drugs (Licorice, Cinnamon, Ginger, etc.) in three forms, original, cut, and powdered, while blinded to the drugs. Each team was asked to distinguish each drug in terms of form, scent, flavor, and color with reference to described characteristics. The ability to match the names of the drugs with their descriptions was assessed in the participants one month later, and also in human science "A" and medicine "B" students, without prior education, and pharmacy "C" students, with professional education.

Results: The 117 participants received an average score of 6.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± S.D.) out of 10, which was significantly higher than 3.4 ± 1.8 in 97 "A" students and 3.1 ± 2.4 in 85 "B" students and lower than 8.4 ± 2.1 in 135 "C" students (p < 0.05 for all).

Conclusions: The effectiveness of this team-based learning approach is suggested by the significantly higher scores of the participants.
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July 2020

"Gas" laryngopharyngeal reflux cause unexplained chronic cough.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Esophageal & Lung Institute, Allegheny Health Network, 4815 Liberty Avenue, Mellon Pavilion, Suite 158, Pittsburgh PA 15224, USA. Electronic address:

Hypopharyngeal multichannel intraluminal impedance (HMII) that can measure laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) events has supported the causal relationship between chronic cough (CC) and LPR containing liquid. However the role of "gas" LPR associated with CC has been poorly understood. We present two cases of patients with CC who had negative LPR containing liquid but had multiple episodes of "gas" LPR on HMII. The majority of "gas" LPR events had a minor pH drop at hypopharynx. Since any etiology of CC was excluded and medical therapy failed, both patients underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS). Both of the patients had complete resolution of cough postoperatively. The present cases demonstrated successful outcome of LARS to treat the patients with CC who had documented "gas" LPR on HMII, thus suggesting the causal relationship between CC and "gas" LPR. The number of "gas" LPR events may need to be considered as an important diagnostic parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2020.05.015DOI Listing
June 2020

Impact of ineffective esophageal motility on chemical clearance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

Dis Esophagus 2020 Sep;33(9)

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is the most common manometric abnormality in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the impact of IEM on esophageal chemical clearance has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to determine the impact of IEM on esophageal chemical clearance in patients with GERD. A total of 369 patients with GERD symptoms who underwent upper endoscopy and high-resolution manometry (HRM) test were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between IEM and erosive esophagitis was examined. In addition, the impact of IEM on chemical clearance was examined in patients who underwent an additional combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) test. Esophageal chemical clearance capability was evaluated via postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and acid clearance time (ACT). Of 369 patients, 181 (49.1%) had esophageal motility disorders, of which 78 (21.1%) had IEM. The proportion of IEM patients in those with erosive esophagitis and those without were 16.2% and 21.7%, respectively, and no significant difference was observed (P = 0.53). After excluding patients other than those with IEM and normal esophageal motility, 64 subsequently underwent MII-pH test. The median values of the PSPW index in the IEM and normal esophageal motility group were 11.1% (4.2%-20.0%) and 17.1% (9.8%-30.6%), respectively. The PSPW index was significantly lower in the IEM group than in the normal esophageal motility group (P < 0.05). The median ACT values in the IEM group and normal esophageal motility group were 125.5 (54.0-183.5) seconds and 60.0 (27.2-105.7) seconds, respectively. The ACT was significantly longer in the IEM group than in the normal esophageal motility group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IEM was found to be associated with chemical clearance dysfunction as measured against the PSPW index and ACT. As this condition could be a risk factor for GERD, future treatments should be developed with a focus on chemical clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doaa026DOI Listing
September 2020