Publications by authors named "Makio Tamura"

8 Publications

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Combinations of peptides synergistically activate the regenerative capacity of skin cells in vitro.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To explore synergistic effects related to skin regeneration, peptides with distinct biological mechanisms of action were evaluated in combination with different skin cell lines in the presence or absence of niacinamide (Nam). Furthermore, the synergistic responses of peptide combinations on global gene expression were compared with the changes that occur with fractional laser resurfacing treatment, a gold standard approach for skin rejuvenation, to further define optimal peptide combinations.

Methods: Microarray profiling was used to characterize the biological responses of peptide combinations (+/- Nam) relative to the individual components in epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblast cell lines. Cellular functional assays were utilized to confirm the synergistic effects of peptide combinations. Bioinformatics approaches were used to link the synergistic effects of peptide combinations on gene expression to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response from fractional laser treatment.

Results: Microarray analysis of skin cells treated with peptide combinations revealed synergistic changes in gene expression compared with individual peptide controls. Bioinformatic analysis of synergy genes in keratinocytes revealed the activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress responses by a combination of Ac-PPYL, Pal-KTTKS and Nam. Additional analysis revealed direct downstream transcriptional targets of NRF2/ARE exhibiting synergistic regulation by this combination of materials, which was corroborated by a cellular reporter assay. NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways were also found to be activated in the transcriptomics of the early skin rejuvenation response to fractional laser treatment, suggesting the importance of this biology in the early stages of tissue repair. Additionally, the second combination of peptides (pal-KT and Ac-PPYL) was found to synergistically restore cellular ATP levels that had been depleted due to the presence of ROS, indicating an additional mechanism, whereby peptide synergies may accelerate skin repair.

Conclusion: Through combinatorial synergy studies, we have identified additional in vitro skin repair mechanisms beyond the previously described functions of individual peptides and correlated these to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response of fractional laser treatment. These findings suggest that specific peptides can act together, via complementary and synergistic mechanisms, to holistically enhance the regenerative capacity of in vitro skin cells.
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July 2021

Niacinamide mitigates SASP-related inflammation induced by environmental stressors in human epidermal keratinocytes and skin.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2020 Oct 20;42(5):501-511. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Mason, OH, 45040, USA.

Objective: To evaluate whether niacinamide (Nam) can mitigate production of inflammatory and senescence-related biomarkers induced by environmental stressors.

Methods: Human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to UVB, urban dust, diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke extract and treated with Nam or vehicle control. Full thickness 3-D skin organotypic models were exposed to a combination of UVB and PM and treated with Nam or vehicle control. Quantitation of the SASP-related inflammatory mediators PGE , IL-6 and IL-8 was performed on cultured media. UVB-exposed keratinocytes treated with and without Nam were immunostained for the senescence biomarker Lamin B1 (LmnB1). Transcriptomics profiling of cigarette smoke extract effects on keratinocytes was performed. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical was conducted on 40 female panellists that were pretreated on back sites for two weeks with 5% Nam or vehicle and then exposed to 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) solar-simulated radiation (SSR). Treated sites were compared with non-treated exposed sites for erythema and the skin surface IL-1αRA/IL-1α inflammatory biomarkers.

Results: Ultraviolet B induced synthesis of PGE , IL-8 and IL-6 and reduced LmnB1 levels in keratinocytes. Urban dust and diesel exhaust only stimulated synthesis of IL-8 whereas cigarette smoke extract only stimulated levels of PGE . In all exposures, treatment with Nam significantly mitigated synthesis of the inflammatory mediators and restored levels of UVB-reduced LmnB1. In the 3D skin equivalent model, Nam reduced IL-8 levels stimulated by a combination of topical PM and UV exposure. In a UV challenge clinical, pretreatment with 5% Nam reduced erythema and skin surface IL-1αRA/IL-1α inflammatory biomarkers that were induced by SSR.

Conclusion: Since it is known that Nam has anti-inflammatory properties, we tested whether Nam can inhibit environmental stress-induced inflammation and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) biomarkers. We show Nam can reduce PGE , IL-6 and IL-8 levels induced by environmental stressors. Additionally, in vivo pretreatment with Nam can reduce UV-induced erythema and skin surface inflammatory biomarkers. These findings add to the body of evidence that Nam can mitigate the skin's inflammatory response elicited by environmental stressors. This supports Nam can potentially inhibit senescence and premature ageing and thereby maintain skin's functionality and appearance.
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October 2020

Age-induced and photoinduced changes in gene expression profiles in facial skin of Caucasian females across 6 decades of age.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Jan 14;78(1):29-39.e7. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including ultraviolet irradiation, lead to visible signs of skin aging.

Objective: We evaluated molecular changes occurring in photoexposed and photoprotected skin of white women 20 to 74 years of age, some of whom appeared substantially younger than their chronologic age.

Methods: Histologic and transcriptomics profiling were conducted on skin biopsy samples of photoexposed (face and dorsal forearm) or photoprotected (buttocks) body sites from 158 women. 23andMe genotyping determined genetic ancestry.

Results: Gene expression and ontologic analysis revealed progressive changes from the 20s to the 70s in pathways related to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, senescence, and epidermal barrier; these changes were accelerated in the 60s and 70s. The gene expression patterns from the subset of women who were younger-appearing were similar to those in women who were actually younger.

Limitations: Broader application of these findings (eg, across races and Fitzpatrick skin types) will require further studies.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a wide range of molecular processes in skin affected by aging, providing relevant targets for improving the condition of aging skin at different life stages and defining a molecular pattern of epidermal gene expression in women who appear younger than their chronologic age.
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January 2018

Microbial genotype-phenotype mapping by class association rule mining.

Bioinformatics 2008 Jul 8;24(13):1523-9. Epub 2008 May 8.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Computing Applications and Research Department/Chemistry, Materials, Earth and Life Sciences Department, Microbial Systems Biology Group, Livermore, CA 94550, USA.

Motivation: Microbial phenotypes are typically due to the concerted action of multiple gene functions, yet the presence of each gene may have only a weak correlation with the observed phenotype. Hence, it may be more appropriate to examine co-occurrence between sets of genes and a phenotype (multiple-to-one) instead of pairwise relations between a single gene and the phenotype. Here, we propose an efficient class association rule mining algorithm, netCAR, in order to extract sets of COGs (clusters of orthologous groups of proteins) associated with a phenotype from COG phylogenetic profiles and a phenotype profile. netCAR takes into account the phylogenetic co-occurrence graph between COGs to restrict hypothesis space, and uses mutual information to evaluate the biconditional relation.

Results: We examined the mining capability of pairwise and multiple-to-one association by using netCAR to extract COGs relevant to six microbial phenotypes (aerobic, anaerobic, facultative, endospore, motility and Gram negative) from 11,969 unique COG profiles across 155 prokaryotic organisms. With the same level of false discovery rate, multiple-to-one association can extract about 10 times more relevant COGs than one-to-one association. We also reveal various topologies of association networks among COGs (modules) from extracted multiple-to-one correlation rules relevant with the six phenotypes; including a well-connected network for motility, a star-shaped network for aerobic and intermediate topologies for the other phenotypes. netCAR outperforms a standard CAR mining algorithm, CARapriori, while requiring several orders of magnitude less computational time for extracting 3-COG sets.

Availability: Source code of the Java implementation is available as Supplementary Material at the Bioinformatics online website, or upon request to the author.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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July 2008

Three-dimensional motifs from the SCOR, structural classification of RNA database: extruded strands, base triples, tetraloops and U-turns.

Nucleic Acids Res 2004 30;32(8):2342-52. Epub 2004 Apr 30.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA.

Release 2.0.1 of the Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database,, contains a classification of the internal and hairpin loops in a comprehensive collection of 497 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. This report discusses findings of the classification that have not been reported previously. The SCOR database contains multiple examples of a newly described RNA motif, the extruded helical single strand. Internal loop base triples are classified in SCOR according to their three-dimensional context. These internal loop triples contain several examples of a frequently found motif, the minor groove AGC triple. SCOR also presents the predominant and alternate conformations of hairpin loops, as shown in the most well represented tetraloops, with consensus sequences GNRA, UNCG and ANYA. The ubiquity of the GNRA hairpin turn motif is illustrated by its presence in complex internal loops.
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May 2004

SCOR: Structural Classification of RNA, version 2.0.

Nucleic Acids Res 2004 Jan;32(Database issue):D182-4

Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

SCOR, the Structural Classification of RNA (, is a database designed to provide a comprehensive perspective and understanding of RNA motif three-dimensional structure, function, tertiary interactions and their relationships. SCOR 2.0 represents a major expansion and introduces a new classification organization. The new version represents the classification as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), which allows a classification node to have multiple parents, in contrast to the strictly hierarchical classification used in SCOR 1.2. SCOR 2.0 supports three types of query terms in the updated search engine: PDB or NDB identifier, nucleotide sequence and keyword. We also provide parseable XML files for all information. This new release contains 511 RNA entries from the PDB as of 15 May 2003. A total of 5880 secondary structural elements are classified: 2104 hairpin loops and 3776 internal loops. RNA motifs reported in the literature, such as 'Kink turn' and 'GNRA loops', are now incorporated into the structural classification along with definitions and descriptions.
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January 2004

Sequence and structural conservation in RNA ribose zippers.

J Mol Biol 2002 Jul;320(3):455-74

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Structural Biology Department, Physical Biosciences Division, 1 Cyclotron Road, 132 Melvin Calvin Lab, Bldg 3, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

The "ribose zipper", an important element of RNA tertiary structure, is characterized by consecutive hydrogen-bonding interactions between ribose 2'-hydroxyls from different regions of an RNA chain or between RNA chains. These tertiary contacts have previously been observed to also involve base-backbone and base-base interactions (A-minor type). We searched for ribose zipper tertiary interactions in the crystal structures of the large ribosomal subunit RNAs of Haloarcula marismortui and Deinococcus radiodurans, and the small ribosomal subunit RNA of Thermus thermophilus and identified a total of 97 ribose zippers. Of these, 20 were found in T. thermophilus 16 S rRNA, 44 in H. marismortui 23 S rRNA (plus 2 bridging 5 S and 23 S rRNAs) and 30 in D. radiodurans 23 S rRNA (plus 1 bridging 5 S and 23 S rRNAs). These were analyzed in terms of sequence conservation, structural conservation and stability, location in secondary structure, and phylogenetic conservation. Eleven types of ribose zippers were defined based on ribose-base interactions. Of these 11, seven were observed in the ribosomal RNAs. The most common of these is the canonical ribose zipper, originally observed in the P4-P6 group I intron fragment. All ribose zippers were formed by antiparallel chain interactions and only a single example extended beyond two residues, forming an overlapping ribose zipper of three consecutive residues near the small subunit A-site. Almost all ribose zippers link stem (Watson-Crick duplex) or stem-like (base-paired), with loop (external, internal, or junction) chain segments. About two-thirds of the observed ribose zippers interact with ribosomal proteins. Most of these ribosomal proteins bridge the ribose zipper chain segments with basic amino acid residues hydrogen bonding to the RNA backbone. Proteins involved in crucial ribosome function and in early stages of ribosomal assembly also stabilize ribose zipper interactions. All ribose zippers show strong sequence conservation both within these three ribosomal RNA structures and in a large database of aligned prokaryotic sequences. The physical basis of the sequence conservation is stacked base triples formed between consecutive base-pairs on the stem or stem-like segment with bases (often adenines) from the loop-side segment. These triples have previously been characterized as Type I and Type II A-minor motifs and are stabilized by base-base and base-ribose hydrogen bonds. The sequence and structure conservation of ribose zippers can be directly used in tertiary structure prediction and may have applications in molecular modeling and design.
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July 2002

SCOR: a Structural Classification of RNA database.

Nucleic Acids Res 2002 Jan;30(1):392-4

Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

The Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database provides a survey of the three-dimensional motifs contained in 259 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. In one classification, the structures are grouped according to function. The RNA motifs, including internal and external loops, are also organized in a hierarchical classification. The 259 database entries contain 223 internal and 203 external loops; 52 entries consist of fully complementary duplexes. A classification of the well-characterized tertiary interactions found in the larger RNA structures is also included along with examples. The SCOR database is accessible at
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January 2002