Publications by authors named "Majid Teymoori-Rad"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potential role of viral infection and B cells as a linker between innate and adaptive immune response in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Immunol Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that involves several organ systems. Although B cells play a key role in SLE pathogenesis, the mechanisms behind B cell dysregulation in SLE development remained controversial. Finding the modules containing highly co-expressed genes in B cells could explain biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SLE, which may further support the reasons for the altered function of B cells in SLE disease. A total of three microarray gene expression datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. SLE samples were prepared from the purified B lymphocyte cells of the patients who have not received immunosuppressive drugs as well as high dose immunocytotoxic therapies or steroids. A weighted gene co-expression network was then constructed to find the relevant modules implicated in the SLE progression. Among 17 identified modules, 3 modules were selected through mapping to STRING and finding the ones that had highly connection at the protein level. These modules clearly indicate the involvement of several pathways in the pathogenesis of SLE including viral infection, adaptive immune response, and innate immune response in B lymphocytes. The WGCN analysis further revealed the co-expressed genes involved in both innate and adaptive immune systems. Mix infections and primary immunodeficiency might also dysregulate B lymphocytes, which may facilitate SLE development. As such, identifying novel biomarkers and pathways in lupus would be of importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-021-09186-4DOI Listing
March 2021

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) versus adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

BMC Res Notes 2021 Mar 23;14(1):109. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Objectives: Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) infection may lead to one or both diseases including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). The complete interactions of the virus with host cells in both diseases is yet to be determined. This study aims to construct an interaction network for distinct signaling pathways in these diseases based on finding differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HAM/TSP and ATLL.

Results: We identified 57 hub genes with higher criteria scores in the primary protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). The ontology-based enrichment analysis revealed following important terms: positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in meiotic cell cycle and positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter by histone modification. The upregulated genes TNF, PIK3R1, HGF, NFKBIA, CTNNB1, ESR1, SMAD2, PPARG and downregulated genes VEGFA, TLR2, STAT3, TLR4, TP53, CHUK, SERPINE1, CREB1 and BRCA1 were commonly observed in all the three enriched terms in HAM/TSP vs. ATLL. The constructed interaction network was then visualized inside a mirrored map of signaling pathways for ATLL and HAM/TSP, so that the functions of hub genes were specified in both diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05521-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989087PMC
March 2021

Illuminating the in vitro effects of Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D on immune response in multiple sclerosis patients.

J Neurovirol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Given the complexity of immune complex diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and the plausible interactions between different risk factors, delineating the interplay between them would be imperative. The current study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and vitamin D on immune response in MS patients and healthy controls. The status of vitamin D and EBV load was evaluated using multiple techniques. In vitro EBV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in the presence or absence of vitamin D, were checked for IL-10, IFN-γ, and vitamin D receptor. MS patients showed significantly higher plasma levels of 1,25-(OH)2D but not 25-OHD, increased EBV load, and lower levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was observed between VDR expression and EBV load in PBMCs. Indeed, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 production were significantly higher in supernatant collected from in vitro EBV-infected PBMCs in MS patients compared with controls. While all vitamin D-treated PBMCs showed reduced levels of IFN-γ production, in vitro treatment of vitamin D showed no influence in IL-10 production. EBV and vitamin D were found to exert opposite in vitro effects on immune dysregulation in these patients. Our results highlight the complex interactions of different risk factors with immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-021-00951-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Immunopathogenesis and Cellular Interactions in Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis.

Front Microbiol 2020 22;11:614940. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neuropathological disorder in 1-3% of individuals infected with Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). This condition is characterized by progressive spastic lower limb weakness and paralysis, lower back pain, bladder incontinence, and mild sensory disturbances resembling spinal forms of multiple sclerosis. This disease also causes chronic disability and is therefore associated with high health burden in areas where HTLV-1 infection is endemic. Despite various efforts in understanding the virus and discovery of novel diagnostic markers, and cellular and viral interactions, HAM/TSP management is still unsatisfactory and mainly focused on symptomatic alleviation, and it hasn't been explained why only a minority of the virus carriers develop HAM/TSP. This comprehensive review focuses on host and viral factors in association with immunopathology of the disease in hope of providing new insights for drug therapies or other forms of intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.614940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783048PMC
December 2020

Vitamin D and Covid-19: From potential therapeutic effects to unanswered questions.

Rev Med Virol 2021 03 28;31(2):e2159. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation could potentially be effective either in treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Indeed, several studies and trials have begun to investigate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this review, we focus on the potential mechanisms of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. We consider whether deficiency of vitamin D may be one of the underlying biological factors that could explain the excess mortality seen among non-Caucasians. We also raise several important questions which need to be addressed to provide a clear picture of the extent to which vitamin D supplementation may benefit patients with Covid-19, particularly those with underlying risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2159DOI Listing
March 2021

CAR T cells: Living HIV drugs.

Rev Med Virol 2020 Nov 26;30(6):1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Colorectal Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), is a major global public health issue. Although the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) has made significant progress in inhibiting HIV replication in patients, HIV-infected cells remain the principal cellular reservoir of HIV, this allows HIV to rebound immediately upon stopping ART, which is considered the major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cell therapy has provided new opportunities for HIV treatment. Engineering T cells or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate CAR T cells is a rapidly growing approach to develop an efficient immune cell to fight HIV. Herein, we review preclinical and clinical data available for the development of CAR T cells. Further, the advantages and disadvantages of clinical application of anti-HIV CAR T cells will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2139DOI Listing
November 2020

Ten challenging questions about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2020 09 30;14(9):881-888. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Golestan University of Medical Sciences , Gorgan, Iran.

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently introduced as a global public health problem by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus outbreak has been documented around the world. Updating data in different aspects of the virus could force us to revise our idea about the main questions concerning coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Areas Covered: Although our knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is largely based on the very limited data, the information is growing rapidly. The renewed answers to the specific research questions concerning updating data not only reveal gaps for future research but also re-categorized our information. Here, we attempt to briefly discuss 10 important questions about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.

Expert Opinion: Since our knowledge about different aspects of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be in its infancy and is rapidly changing, the provision of the right data is more difficult in this regard. However, we try to rely on results from more extensive research to answer the main questions about this new virus. Therefore, further studies, particularly in the context of the virus pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development, are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2020.1782197DOI Listing
September 2020

An insight to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) pathogenesis; evidence from high-throughput data integration and meta-analysis.

Retrovirology 2019 12 30;16(1):46. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system that significantly affected spinal cord, nevertheless, the pathogenesis pathway and reliable biomarkers have not been well determined. This study aimed to employ high throughput meta-analysis to find major genes that are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

Results: High-throughput statistical analyses identified 832, 49, and 22 differentially expressed genes for normal vs. ACs, normal vs. HAM/TSP, and ACs vs. HAM/TSP groups, respectively. The protein-protein interactions between DEGs were identified in STRING and further network analyses highlighted 24 and 6 hub genes for normal vs. HAM/TSP and ACs vs. HAM/TSP groups, respectively. Moreover, four biologically meaningful modules including 251 genes were identified for normal vs. ACs. Biological network analyses indicated the involvement of hub genes in many vital pathways like JAK-STAT signaling pathway, interferon, Interleukins, and immune pathways in the normal vs. HAM/TSP group and Metabolism of RNA, Viral mRNA Translation, Human T cell leukemia virus 1 infection, and Cell cycle in the normal vs. ACs group. Moreover, three major genes including STAT1, TAP1, and PSMB8 were identified by network analysis. Real-time PCR revealed the meaningful down-regulation of STAT1 in HAM/TSP samples than AC and normal samples (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively), up-regulation of PSMB8 in HAM/TSP samples than AC and normal samples (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), and down-regulation of TAP1 in HAM/TSP samples than those in AC and normal samples (P = 0.008 and P = 0.02, respectively). No significant difference was found among three groups in terms of the percentage of T helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (P = 0.55 and P = 0.12).

Conclusions: High-throughput data integration disclosed novel hub genes involved in important pathways in virus infection and immune systems. The comprehensive studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the pathogenesis pathways and also biomarkers of complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-019-0508-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937958PMC
December 2019

The interplay between vitamin D and viral infections.

Rev Med Virol 2019 03 6;29(2):e2032. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The pleiotropic role of vitamin D has been explored over the past decades and there is compelling evidence for an epidemiological association between poor vitamin D status and a variety of diseases. While the potential anti-viral effect of vitamin D has recently been described, the underlying mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency could contribute to viral disease development remain poorly understood. The possible interactions between viral infections and vitamin D appear to be more complex than previously thought. Recent findings indicate a complex interplay between viral infections and vitamin D, including the induction of anti-viral state, functional immunoregulatory features, interaction with cellular and viral factors, induction of autophagy and apoptosis, and genetic and epigenetic alterations. While crosstalk between vitamin D and intracellular signalling pathways may provide an essential modulatory effect on viral gene transcription, the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D on viral infections appears to be transient. The interplay between viral infections and vitamin D remains an intriguing concept, and the global imprint that vitamin D can have on the immune signature in the context of viral infections is an area of growing interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2032DOI Listing
March 2019

Integrational analysis of miRNAs data sets as a plausible missing linker between Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D in relapsing remitting MS patients.

Gene 2019 Mar 12;689:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Given the multifactorial state of autoimmune complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), it is not clear if different risk factors act jointly or independently. Despite intensive studies investigating multi aspects of MS risk factors, findings with regards to potential biomarkers that may link these risk factors remained largely inconclusive. System biology or data integration utilizes different validated datasets to extract meaningful information and map the plausible biological pathways and networks. As such, we integrated eight transcriptome datasets to find the differentially expressed miRNAs in peripheral blood (PB) between relapsing remitting MS patients (RRMS) and normal group. After identification the targeted genes of miRNAs, the hub genes were used to construct the underlying protein-protein interaction network and signaling pathways. As results, 9 miRNAs were best exemplified by significant dysregulation including hsa-mir-15a, hsa-mir-484, hsa-mir-30d, hsa-mir-145, hsa-mir-363, has-let-7e, hsa-mir-30a, hsa-let-7b, and hsa-mir-146a. System biology analysis of miRNAs in PB of RRMS patients clearly indicates the involvement of miRNAs in many vital pathways and highlighted the possibility of an association between miRNAs with EBV and vitamin D in MS pathogenesis. Described novel pathways and genes related to miRNAs such as Transient receptor potential channels and Acid sphingomyelinase may provide a potential target for therapeutic approaches although further functional studies are warranted to test these candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.004DOI Listing
March 2019

The potential roles of herpesvirus and cytomegalovirus in the exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris.

Dermatol Pract Concept 2018 Oct 31;8(4):262-271. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Autoimmune Bullous Disease Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Razi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Among exogenous etiologies, the critical role of microbial agents such as herpesviruses (HSV1/2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in triggering and flaring autoimmune conditions such as pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been recently discovered.

Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the plausible role of these viruses in the exacerbation of PV using serological and molecular methods.

Patients/methods: Sixty patients with PV (30 with relapse type and 30 with remission type) were recruited for the purpose of this case-control study. Skin, mucosal, and throat specimens were obtained and examined for viruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To determine the immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used.

Results: Desmoglein1-specific IgG was positive in 56.7% of patients with the relapse form and in 20.0% of those with the remission form indicating a significant difference across the 2 groups (P = 0.003), but the rate of positivity for desmoglein3-specific IgG in the relapse and remission types was 76.7% and 63.3%, respectively, with no significant difference (P = 0.260). There was no difference in the mean levels of HSV-IgG and CMV-IgG in the relapse and remission groups. HSV and CMV positivity in PV patients was independent of the site of the samples. Using the multivariable linear regression model, the level of CMV-IgG in PV patients was directly affected by female sex and advanced ages.

Conclusions: Our study could not demonstrate the role of HSV1/2 and CMV as triggering factors for PV exacerbation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential role of these viruses in PV exacerbation especially considering demographic variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5826/dpc.0804a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6246069PMC
October 2018

Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNAs and Their Potential for Inflammatory Diseases Treatment.

Front Immunol 2018 25;9:1377. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Inflammation is a complicated biological and pathophysiological cascade of responses to infections and injuries, and inflammatory mechanisms are closely related to many diseases. The magnitude, the complicated network of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, and the direction of the inflammatory response can impact on the development and progression of various disorders. The currently available treatment strategies often target the symptoms and not the causes of inflammatory disease and may often be ineffective. Since the onset and termination of inflammation are crucial to prevent tissue damage, a range of mechanisms has evolved in nature to regulate the process including negative and positive feedback loops. In this regard, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key gene regulators to control inflammation, and it is speculated that they are fine-tune signaling regulators to allow for proper resolution and prevent uncontrolled progress of inflammatory reactions. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to significant roles of miRNAs in immune regulation, especially the potential utility of these molecules as novel anti-inflammatory agents to treat inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the possibilities of using miRNAs as drugs in the form of miRNA mimics or miRNA antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026627PMC
June 2018

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) pathogenesis: A systems virology study.

J Cell Biochem 2018 05 19;119(5):3968-3979. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The main mechanisms of interaction between Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and its hosts in the manifestation of the related disease including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) are yet to be determined. It is pivotal to find out the changes in the genes expression toward an asymptomatic or symptomatic states. To this end, the systems virology analysis was performed. Firstly, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were taken pairwise among the four sample sets of Normal, Asymptomatic Carriers (ACs), ATLL, and HAM/TSP. Afterwards, the protein-protein interaction networks were reconstructed utilizing the hub genes. In conclusion, the pathways of cells proliferation and transformation were identified in the ACs state. In addition to immune pathways in ATLL, the inflammation and cancer pathways were discened in both diseases of ATLL and HAM/TSP. The outcomes can specify the genes involved in the pathogenesis and help to design the drugs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26546DOI Listing
May 2018

Opioids and Viral Infections: A Double-Edged Sword.

Front Microbiol 2016 22;7:970. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran, Iran.

Opioids and their receptors have received remarkable attention because they have the ability to alter immune function, which affects disease progression. In vitro and in vivo findings as well as observations in humans indicate that opioids and their receptors positively or negatively affect viral replication and virus-mediated pathology. The present study reviews recent insights in the role of opioids and their receptors in viral infections and discusses possible therapeutic opportunities. This review supports the emerging concept that opioids and their receptors have both favorable and unfavorable effects on viral disease, depending on the type of virus. Targeting of the opioid system is a potential option for developing effective therapies; however caution is required in relation to the beneficial functions of opioid systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4916179PMC
July 2016

The role of microRNAs in respiratory viral infection: friend or foe?

Rev Med Virol 2016 11 4;26(6):389-407. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of regulatory RNAs in host-pathogen interactions. Aberrant miRNA expression seems to play a central role in the pathology of several respiratory viruses, promoting development and progression of infection. miRNAs may thus serve as therapeutic and prognostic factors for respiratory viral infectious disease caused by a variety of agents. We present a comprehensive review of recent findings related to the role of miRNAs in different respiratory viral infections and discuss possible therapeutic opportunities aiming to attenuate the burden of viral infections. Our review supports the emerging concept that cellular and viral-encoded miRNAs might be broadly implicated in human respiratory viral infections, with either positive or negative effects on virus life cycle. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169129PMC
November 2016