Publications by authors named "Majid Pirestani"

34 Publications

Immunoinformatic analysis of immunogenic B- and T-cell epitopes of MIC4 protein to designing a vaccine candidate against through an in-silico approach.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2021 Jan 31;10(1):59-77. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Toxoplasmosis, transmitted by , is a worldwide parasitic disease that affects approximately one-third of the world's inhabitants. Today, there are no appropriate drugs to deter tissue cysts from developing in infected hosts. So, developing an effective vaccine would be valuable to avoid from toxoplasmosis. Considering the role of microneme antigens such as microneme protein 4 (MIC4) in pathogenesis, it can be used as potential candidates for vaccine against .

Materials And Methods: In this study several bioinformatics methods were used to assess the different aspects of MIC4 protein such as secondary and tertiary structure, physicochemical characteristics, the transmembrane domains, subcellular localization, B-cell, helper-T lymphocyte, cytotoxic-T lymphocyte epitopes, and other notable characteristic of this protein design a suitable vaccine against .

Results: The studies revealed that MIC4 protein includes 59 potential post-translational modification sites without any transmembrane domains. Moreover, several probable epitopes of B- and T-cells were detected for MIC4. The secondary structure comprised 55.69% random coil, 5.86% beta-turn, 19.31% extended strand, and 19.14% alpha helix. According to the Ramachandran plot results, 87.42% of the amino acid residues were located in the favored, 9.44% in allowed, and 3.14% in outlier regions. The protein allergenicity and antigenicity revealed that it was non-allergenic and antigenic.

Conclusion: This study gives vital basic on MIC4 protein for further research and also established an effective vaccine with different techniques against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2021.10.1.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892946PMC
January 2021

Infections, inflammation, and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders: the neglected role of "co-infection".

Heliyon 2020 Dec 8;6(12):e05645. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) have multiple etiological factors, mainly genetic background, environmental conditions and immunological factors. The host immune responses play a pivotal role in various physiological and pathophysiological process. In NPDs, inflammatory immune responses have shown to be involved in diseases severity and treatment outcome. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are involved in various neurobiological pathways, such as GABAergic signaling and neurotransmitter synthesis. Infectious agents are among the major amplifier of inflammatory reactions, hence, have an indirect role in the pathogenesis of NPDs. As such, some infections directly affect the central nervous system (CNS) and alter the genes that involved in neurobiological pathways and NPDs. Interestingly, the most of infectious agents that involved in NPDs (e.g., , cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus) is latent (asymptomatic) and co-or-multiple infection of them are common. Nonetheless, the role of co-or-multiple infection in the pathogenesis of NPDs has not deeply investigated. Evidences indicate that co-or-multiple infection synergically augment the level of inflammatory reactions and have more severe outcomes than single infection. Hence, it is plausible that co-or-multiple infections can increase the risk and/or pathogenesis of NPDs. Further understanding about the role of co-or-multiple infections can offer new insights about the etiology, treatment and prevention of NPDs. Likewise, therapy based on anti-infective and anti-inflammatory agents could be a promising therapeutic option as an adjuvant for treatment of NPDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725732PMC
December 2020

analysis and expression of a new chimeric antigen as a vaccine candidate against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Nov;23(11):1409-1418

Parasitology Department, Medical Sciences Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Since leishmaniasis is one of the health problems in many countries, the development of preventive vaccines against it is a top priority. Peptide vaccines may be a new way to fight the Leishmania infection. In this study, a silicon method was used to predict and analyze B and T cells to produce a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Materials And Methods: Immunodominant epitope of were selected from four TSA, LPG3, GP63, and Lmsti1 antigens and linked together using a flexible linker (SAPGTP). The antigenic and allergenic features, 2D and 3D structures, and physicochemical features of a chimeric protein were predicted. Finally, through bioinformatics methods, the mRNA structure was predicted and was produced chemically and cloned into the pLEXY-neo2 vector.

Results: Results indicated, polytope had no allergenic properties, but its antigenicity was estimated to be 0.92%. The amino acids numbers, molecular weight as well as negative and positive charge residuals were estimated 390, ~41KDa, 41, and 30, respectively. The results showed that the designed polytope has 50 post-translationally modified sites. Also, the secondary structure of the protein is composed of 25.38% alpha-helix, 12.31% extended strand, and 62.31% random coil. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blotting revealed the recombinant protein with ~ 41 kDa. The results of Ramachandran plot showed that 96%, 2.7%, and 1.3% of amino acid residues were located in the preferred, permitted, and outlier areas, respectively.

Conclusion: It is expected that the TLGL polytope will produce a cellular immune response. Therefore, the polytope could be a good candidate for an anti-leishmanial vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.45394.10561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671421PMC
November 2020

Antigenic properties of dense granule antigen 12 protein using bioinformatics tools in order to improve vaccine design against .

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2020 Jul 31;9(2):81-96. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: is an opportunistic parasite infecting all warm-blooded animals including humans. The dense granule antigens (GRAs) play an important role in parasite survival and virulence and in forming the parasitophorous vacuole. Identification of protein characteristics increases our knowledge about them and leads to develop the vaccine and diagnostic studies.

Materials And Methods: This paper gave a comprehensive definition of the important aspects of GRA12 protein, including physico-chemical features, a transmembrane domain, subcellular position, secondary and tertiary structure, potential epitopes of B-cells and T-cells, and other important features of this protein using different and reliable bioinformatics methods to determine potential epitopes for designing of a high-efficient vaccine.

Results: The findings showed that GRA12 protein had 53 potential post-translational modification sites. Also, only one transmembrane domain was recognized for this protein. The secondary structure of GRA12 protein comprises 35.55% alpha-helix, 19.50% extended strand, and 44.95% random coil. Moreover, several potential B- and T-cell epitopes were identified for GRA12. Based on the results of the Ramachandran plot, 79.26% of amino acid residues were located in favored, 11.85% in allowed and 8.89% in outlier regions. Furthermore, the results of the antigenicity and allergenicity assessment noted that GRA12 is immunogenic and non-allergenic.

Conclusion: This research provided important basic and conceptual data on GRA12 to develop an effective vaccine against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis for further investigations. More studies are required on vaccine development using the GRA12 alone or combined with other antigens in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2020.9.2.81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445328PMC
July 2020

Computational probing of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigen 1 (SAG1) for enhanced vaccine design against toxoplasmosis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Oct 11;147:104386. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P. O. Box 14115-111, Tehran, Iran.

The SAG1 is a tachyzoite-specific protein critical for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) adhesion to surface receptors of the host cells. In this study we've comprehensively excavated the sequence of SAG1 using online bioinformatics servers toward better vaccine design against toxoplasmosis. Web-based tools were used to assess the physico-chemical properties, post-translational modifications (PTMs), transmembrane domains, subcellular localization, secondary and 3D structures, as well as B-cell, Cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) epitopes. The 336 amino acid sequence possessed a molecular weight of 34829.02 D, aliphatic index of 80.15 and GRAVY score of 0.129. There was 47 PTM sites without any transmembrane domains. Also, the SAG1 protein was appointed to be immunogen and non-allergen. The secondary structure comprised 62.5% random coil, 26.79% extended strand and 10.71% alpha helix. Ramachandran plot of the refined model demonstrated 94.4% residues in the favored region, 4.8% in allowed region and 0.8% in outlier region. Additionally, various potential B-cell (linear and conformational), CTL and HTL epitopes were predicted for T. gondii SAG1. This in silico investigation would be a premise for appropriate immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis. More studies are anticipated to be done empirically using SAG1 immunoprotective epitopes combined with other antigenic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104386DOI Listing
October 2020

Toxoplasma infection in patients with myocardial infarction.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2020 Dec 5;132(23-24):736-741. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Parasitology Department, Medical Sciences Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects one third of the global human population. Very little information is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from myocardial infarction.The infection rate of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in 86 patients with myocardial infarction (troponin‑T positive) and 86 age and gender-matched controls (troponin‑T negative) was examined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The DNA extraction was performed on separated buffy coats of serologically positive blood samples (32 samples with high titer of anti-Toxoplasma IgG). The GRA6 gene of T. gondii was amplified using PCR. The existence of polymorphic restriction sites for endonuclease MseI was used with the PCR-RFLP method and the bases of GRA6 gene were sequenced to determine the type of strains (I, II and III).A positive anti-Toxoplasma IgG level was found in 61.6% of the myocardial infarction samples and in 24.4% of the healthy controls (P- value < 0.05). The PCR results showed that only 3 of the anti-Toxoplasma IgG positive patients were found to be positive with GRA6 gene for T. gondii. The PCR-RFLP results showed that 2 of the 3 positive sample had 75bp and 623 bp DNA fragments belonging to type II genotype. The sequencing result confirmed the genotype II of T. gondii. Toxoplasma infection should be considered in myocardial infarction cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-020-01682-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Structural predication and antigenic analysis of ROP16 protein utilizing immunoinformatics methods in order to identification of a vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii: An in silico approach.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 19;142:104079. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic disease, affecting almost one-third of the world's population. Currently, there are no effective treatments for inhibiting the formation of chronic tissue cysts in infected hosts. Thus, the production of appropriate vaccines against this pathogen is an important goal to avoid toxoplasmosis. considering the role of rhoptry antigens like ROP16 in virulence and satisfactory immunogenicity, they can be used as promising vaccine candidates against T. gondii. In the present study, an in silico approach was used to analyze various aspects of the ROP16 protein, including physicochemical characteristics, the potential epitopes of B and T-cells, the secondary and tertiary structure, the subcellular localization, the transmembrane domain, and other important features of this protein using several bioinformatics tools to design a proper vaccine against T. gondii. The results showed that ROP16 protein includes 93 potential post-translational modification sites. The secondary structure of the ROP16 protein comprises 34.23% alpha-helix, 54.46% random coil, and 11.32% extended strand. Moreover, several potential B- and T-cell epitopes were identified for ROP16. Based on the results of Ramachandran plot, 84.64% of the amino acid residues were located in the favored, 10.34% in allowed, and 5.02% in outlier regions. Furthermore, the results of the antigenicity and allergenicity assessment noted that this protein was immunogenic and non-allergenic. Our findings suggested that structural and functional predictions applied to ROP16 protein using in silico tools can reduce the failure risk of the laboratory studies. This research provided an important basis for further studies and also developed an effective vaccine against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis by various strategies. Further studies are needed on the development of vaccines in vivo using ROP16 alone or in combination with other antigens in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104079DOI Listing
February 2020

In vitro toxicity evaluation of short cationic antimicrobial peptide (CM11) on Blastocystis sp.

Acta Trop 2020 Apr 1;204:105384. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Parasitology and Entomology Dept., Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Blastocystis infection accounts for one of the causes of gastrointestinal problems with the prevalence rate of 3-100% worldwide. There is a wide range of drugs examined for the treatment of infected patients, among them metronidazole (MTZ) has been introduced as one of the efficient drugs. Besides to the suitable clinical effects, the administration of MTZ has some reported side-effects which emphasize on the identification of putative alternates. To this end, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity effect of a newly-introduced synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) named CM11 on in vitro cultured Blastocystis. Our results exhibited that CM11 treatment affected the viability of parasites in two cultural conditions including culturing alone and in co-culture with the Caco-2 cell line. The time- and dose-dependent effect of CM11 was consistent with the effect of MTZ which was used as control positive. The highest toxicity effect of CM11 was observed at the concentration of 24 μg/ml, leading to 28.7% and 25% viable parasites after 24 h and 48 h incubation times, respectively. Interestingly, the disruption of the Blastocystis cell membrane could be observed in the treated parasites. Therefore, CM11 can be suggested as a potential treatment for Blastocystis-infected patients after further in vitro and in vivo assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105384DOI Listing
April 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Biodiversity, genetic typing and host identification of phlebotomine species in endemic foci of southeastern Iran.

Heliyon 2019 Sep 6;5(9):e02369. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Leishmaniasis is a growing health challenge in many parts of Iran, including Kerman Province. Investigating vector ecology and parasite-harboring capacity is prerequisite to the disease control measures. This study included six provincial sites namely Bam (Bm), Dehbakri (Di), Jiroft (Jt), Mohammad-Abad (Md), Rostam-Abad (Rd) and Darb-e-Behesht (Dt) where sand flies were trapped. The specimens were then identified before being exposed to DNA extraction. PCR-RFLP was used to detect leishmanial infection rates and feeding preference of vectors. Diversity indices indicated that the highest effective numbers of species was in plain sites, whereas, the highest expected numbers of species was in mountainous sites. and showed similar feeding preferences to both human and animal bloods. from indoor catches was found infected with at a 2% rate. The ITS1 gene sequences of isolated parasites were >99% similar to related GenBank haplotypes. Bam and Rostam-Abad remain active foci of both types of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Md and Di are prone to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Jt is not at risk of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) due to absence of . Sand flies are absent in Dt, probably because of high elevation and cold climate. In conclusion, patterns of climate and ecosystem changes and vector-host-reservoirs interactions must be carefully scrutinized if leishmaniasis is to be controlled in the stricken sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734542PMC
September 2019

Anti-amoebic activity of a cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide (CM11) against trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2019 Sep 26;131(17-18):427-434. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Parasitology and Entomology Dept., Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Nasr, Jalal AleAhmad, P.O. Box: 14115-331, Tehran, Iran.

Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite that is located in the lumen of the human intestine and can attack the epithelium. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective against the wide range of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts, and protozoa. The CM11 is a chimeric peptide that is derived from bee venom and butterfly compounds. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of CM11 on Human colonic carcinoma (Caco‑2) cells and E. histolytica were assayed in various concentrations of peptide and metronidazole. The MTT results showed that the highest percentage of cytotoxicity on Caco‑2 cells was in 24 μg/ml of CM11 peptide at 24 h and 48 h, which was 49.8%, and 44.3%, respectively. In the metronidazole group, the highest cytotoxicity with 40 μg/ml concentration was observed after 24 h and 48 h, with 43.5%, and 42.1%, respectively. The highest rate of apoptosis induced by CM11 on Caco‑2 was 53.9% and 51.4% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively; however, these rates were 19.1% and 33.4% in the metronidazole group. The effect of peptide and metronidazole on E. histolytica at 24 h and 48 h showed that at the highest concentration of CM11 peptide (24 μg/ml) the cytotoxic effect was 93.7% and 94.9% and for metronidazole (40 μg/ml) was 65.5% and 74.3%, respectively. In coculture, 63.5% and 57.7% of parasites were killed in the highest concentration of CM11 and metronidazole, respectively. The results of this study revealed that CM11 peptide has a high toxicity on E. histolytica, and the use of antimicrobial peptides in the future can be considered as anti-amoebic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-019-01540-9DOI Listing
September 2019

Molecular Genotyping of the Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):151-158

Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The larval stage of the tapeworm (cestode) is the etiological agent of hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis, which is the zoonotic parasitic disease causing morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. Due to a lack of accurate data on the human isolates of in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, the current study aimed to survey the population genetic pattern of cystic echinococcosis isolated from humans by sequencing the mitochondrial genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 ().

Methods: Overall, 47 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPT) blocks were collected from patients' files in various pathology departments of Mazandaran Province in Iran from 2003 to 2015. PCR was performed to amplify a 398bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial . PCR products were sequenced by Bioneer Corporation (South Korea), and the resulting data were analyzed via relevant software to determine the genotypes.

Results: The gene was successfully amplified on 10 from all of the isolates. Overall, 66.6% and 33.3% of the isolates in the studied area displayed the G1 and G2-G3 genotypes, respectively.

Conclusion: This study may provide the foundation for further studies in revealing the regional transmission patterns and also in designing adequate control procedures.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511598PMC
May 2019

First molecular identification and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. isolated from hooded crows (Corvus cornix) and pigeons (Columba livia) in Tehran Province, Iran.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Feb 30;62:25-30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite among humans and animals such as non-human primates, pigs, cattle, birds, amphibians, and less frequently, rats, reptiles and insects. Since Blastocystis is a widely transmissible parasite between humans and mammals or birds, it is prominent to determine whether newly secluded non-human isolates are zoonotic. There are no comprehensive studies in Iran assessing the prevalence and molecular identification of Blastocystis infection in birds, especially in pigeons and crows. So, the aim of this study was to identify Blastocystis subtypes (STs) in crows and pigeons in Tehran province, Iran, using Nested PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Overall, 300 Blastocystis isolates from birds (156 pigeons and 144 crows) were subtyped by PCR, and the homology among isolates was then confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection was detected 42.9% in pigeons and 44.4% in crows. All positive pigeons were owned by ST13 (100%). Among crows, 46 samples (71.8%) like pigeons were ST13, and 13 samples (20.3%) were ST14. Five samples (7.9%) remained unknown. This study was the first report of ST13 and ST14 of Blastocystis from birds. In the present study, our data revealed a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in pigeon's and crow's samples and the isolates from these birds were classified into two genetically distinct STs. Therefore, birds appear to be infected with various STs. It is important to determine the phylogenetic relationships between unknown STs from these birds and the multiple STs of Blastocystis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2018.11.013DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular Phylodiagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in Children with Cancer: Microsporidia in Malignancies as an Emerging Opportunistic Infection.

Acta Parasitol 2019 Mar 14;64(1):103-111. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

BACKGROUND : Microsporidia may cause infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent populations. The best strategy to control microsporidiosis is obtaining thorough knowledge of its outbreak and pathogenicity. PURPOSE : Because of the lack of precise estimation of microsporidia prevalence among Iranian children with cancer, the current study aimed at evaluating the rate of intestinal microsporidia in children undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods:  Patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy in a children's hospital in Northwestern Iran were studied; 132 stool samples were collected and stained by the Weber and Ryan-blue modified trichrome staining techniques. The extracted DNA samples were evaluated by the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. All positive isolates were sequenced for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: A total of 17 (12.8%) samples were microscopically positive for microsporidia infection, whereas only 14 (10.6%) cases were positive based on nested PCR results. In the positive samples detected with nested PCR, the frequency of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis infections was 71.4% (n = 10) and 28.6% (n = 4), respectively. After sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the genotype of E. bieneusi was type D and the sequences of the isolated species were similar to those of the registered ones.

Conclusion: E. bieneusi is a major contributor to microsporidiosis in young immunocompromised patients in Iran. Microsporidia species are well-detected when confirmatory techniques such as molecular methods are in agreement with staining. So, to ensure this, a suggestion has been made to introduce a certain diagnostic test for microsporidiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-018-00012-wDOI Listing
March 2019

Isolation of from crows living in urban parks of Tehran, Iran: an investigation with zoonotic aspect.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 22;42(4):494-499. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Parasitology and Entomology Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Al Ahmad St, P.O. Box: 14115-4838, Tehran, Iran.

Microsporidia are eukaryotic, intracellular obligate parasites that widely involve many organisms including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. One of the genera of Microsporidia is , which contains several opportunistic pathogens. Since spp. are zoonotic and opportunistic pathogens, it is important to find their reservoir hosts; hence, the current study aimed at isolating and identifying spp. in the crows by the light microscopy observations and molecular methods. For this purpose, 36 samples were collected by the dropping method; however, due to the low volume of samples, the total samples were collected in a sterile stool container and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect spp. Accordingly, 300-bp bands, specific to spp., were observed and by sequencing was identified. Crows can be considered as the hosts of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1024-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261143PMC
December 2018

Parasitic Helminths in Wild Boars () in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):416-422

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Wild boars () are distributed worldwide and found in many parts of Iran. Although is reservoirs for many parasites, there is little data on helminthic prevalence in them. We aimed to survey the status of helminthic infections in in the Mazandaran Province of northern Iran.

Methods: Twenty-one wild boars were captured and examined for helminth infection during Dec 2012-Mar 2014. Adult worms such as were identified by helminth size and shape, and the arrangement of the proboscis hooks. The sedimentation and flotation techniques were used to detect parasite eggs and larvae in faecal samples. Muscle samples were also surveyed for larvae by artificial digestion method.

Results: Of the 21 samples, 13 (61.9%) were infected with one or more helminth species. Seven helminth types were identified in the alimentary track, comprising 5 nematodes, 1 trematode, and 1 acanthocephalan, with prevalence rates of (57.14%) spp. (33.33%) (19.04), (14.28%), (14.28%), (4.76%), and (4.76%).

Conclusion: Wild boars might be involved in transmitting zoonotic parasites to humans. The abundance of these animals near human habitation creates favorable conditions for infection. So the risk of parasitic helminth diseases increases in other animals and humans.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243164PMC
November 2018

Screening of toxoplasmosis in cancer patients: a concern.

Trop Doct 2019 Jan 30;49(1):31-34. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

5 Professor, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran.

Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infectious disease in immunocompromised patients, including cancer patients, whose detection is by molecular and serological methods. A total of 106 blood samples from patients with different types of cancer were evaluated for anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the parasite DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These were detected in 41.51% (44/106) and 0.94% (1/106), respectively, but T. gondii IgM antibody was not detected at all. These results suggest that the screening of toxoplasmosis should be considered more routinely in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475518801618DOI Listing
January 2019

Neglected risk factors of childhood morbidity and mortality caused by Cryptosporidium infection.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 10;6(10):e1068

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-111, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30377-2DOI Listing
October 2018

Molecular assessment of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hooded crows (Corvus cornix) in Tehran, Iran.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Apr 14;57:69-73. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, P.O.Box: 14115-111, Tehran, Iran.

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. From a total of 55 brain samples, 5 (9.9%) and 9 (16.36%) samples were positive for N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. Sequencing of a N. caninum isolate revealed 95%-100% identity with the deposited N. caninum in GenBank. Genotyping of T. gondii isolates by PCR-RFLP analysis of the GRA6 gene revealed type III genotype in 8 isolates. The results of this study indicate that hooded crows may have a putative role in transmission of N. caninum and T. gondii to canines and felines definitive hosts, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2018.06.008DOI Listing
April 2018

A modified PCR-RFLP method to determine genetic diversity of Giardia lamblia human isolates based on triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene.

Acta Trop 2018 Oct 13;186:58-62. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Parasitology and Entomology Dept., Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

An infection of digestive system, Giardiasis, caused by tiny parasites called Giardia lamblia (also known Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). Giardia sp. is the most common intestinal parasite of humans and other animals throughout the world. Isolates of G. lamblia are classified into eight assemblages based on isoenzyme and DNA analyses. Assemblages A and B infect humans and a broad range of other hosts. The purpose of this study was to genotype human isolates of G. lamblia by PCR-RFLP in Karaj city. 60 positive fecal samples of G. lamblia were collected. DNA extraction and amplification of TPI gene were successfully conducted by nested-PCR. Subsequently, all samples were positive. Sequencing on 5 samples was conducted to determine genetic differences. The presence of 2 genotypes of G. lamblia (A and B) was revealed by the alignment of the TPI sequences obtained with reference sequences. The results of RFLP technique show that 35 of 60 (58.3%) isolates belonged to assemblage A, and 17 of 60 (28.3%) belonged to assemblage B but 1(1.7%) sample was not determined. Whereas, 7 (11.6%) specimens were detected as mixed infections. The latter RFLP was carried out to identify subtypes.The final results were 100% (35/35) AII, 82.3% (14/17) BIII, and 17.7% (3/17) BIV. This study suggests that the modified RFLP method is favorably time saving and easily achievable and highly economical. Hence, the sub-assemblage AII might be dominant in Karaj city.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.06.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Bioinformatics analysis of ROP8 protein to improve vaccine design against Toxoplasma gondii.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 08 26;62:193-204. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Rhoptry proteins (ROPs) are involved in the different stages of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) invasion and are also critical for survival within host cells. ROP8 is expressed in the early stages of infection and have a key role in the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation. In this paper, we have combined several bioinformatics online servers for immunogenicity prediction of ROP8 protein. In this study, several bioinformatics approaches were used to analyze the different aspects of ROP8 protein, including the physico-chemical properties, transmembrane domain, subcellular localization, secondary and tertiary structure, B and T-cell potential epitopes, and other important characteristics of this protein. The findings showed that ROP8 protein had 60 potential post-translational modification sites. Also, only one transmembrane domain was recognized for this protein. The secondary structure of ROP8 protein comprises 33.04% alpha-helix, 18.26% extended strand, and 48.70% random coil. Moreover, several potential B and T-cell epitopes were identified for ROP8. In addition, the obtained findings from antigenicity and allergenicity evaluation remarked that this protein is immunogenic and non-allergen. Based on the results of Ramachandran plot, 94.8%, 4.1%, and 1.1% of amino acid residues were incorporated in the favored, allowed, and outlier regions, respectively. This paper provides a foundation for further investigations, and laid a theoretical basis for the development of an appropriate vaccine against toxoplasmosis. More studies are needed experimentally using the ROP8 alone or in combination with other antigens in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.033DOI Listing
August 2018

The PCR-RFLP-Based Detection and Identification of the Species Causing Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Khorasan-Razavi Province, Northeast of Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Sep 8;11(3):383-392. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: , the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and , which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), are endemic in Iran.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was designed to identify species in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients who referred to Mashhad Health Centers from 2013 to 2014 using ITS-PCR-RFLP technique. First, physical examinations were performed in all suspected patients and CL cases were confirmed with microscopical examinations. A questionnaire was prepared and completed for each confirmed patient and DNA from each lesion smear was extracted, separately. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer was amplified with appropriate primers and PCR products were digested by enzyme restrict enzyme.

Results: From all patients, 51 cases (54.3%) were men and 43 of them (45.7%) were women. The most frequent age group was 20-29 years old (27.2%). Hands, face and feet were the most common sites for appearance of skin lesions. All of the 94 cases (100%) tested found to be positive by ITS-PCR-RFLP. Overall, species were identified in all of the 94 lesion smears which 33 (35%) of them were and 61 (65%) of the remained isolates were identified .

Conclusion: Characterization of isolates collected from different parts of Khorasan-Razavi Province showed that is predominant agents of CL, especially in large and medium sized cities such as Mashhad and Shandiz. Moreover, this study revealed that ITS-PCR-RFLP based on our designed primers is a suitable method for species characterization.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758634PMC
September 2017

Construction and Identification of a Recombinant Plasmid Encoding Oncosphere Antigen (EG95).

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Oct-Dec;12(4):490-497

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented control programs, few countries have been able to decrease or eliminate this infection. Vaccination of the intermediate host offers an additional strategy to control the parasite transmission and EG95 antigen is considered more than the others in the vaccine issue. According to the high protection induced by the EG95 recombinant vaccine, this study was designed to construct recombinant plasmid formulation of EG95 antigen.

Methods: In 2015, the eggs were recovered from an infected dog in Parasitological laboratory of Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. Following hatching, the oncospheres of were activated to increase the presence of the desired mRNA. The extracted mRNA was transcribed to the cDNA which used as template in RTPCR. Then the EG95 gene cloned into pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmids expression was investigated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Results: The recombinant plasmid encoding EG95 antigen was successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. In vitro expression of the EG95 antigen was confirmed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis.

Conclusion: Because of potential advantages of DNA vaccines, including ability to induce long-term immune responses, low production cost and stability in different temperatures, this study carried out to construct the EG95 gene into a vector. This recombinant vector can be evaluated in further studies as a DNA vaccine may provide new prospects for the development of a vaccine against cystic hydatid disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756298PMC
January 2018

Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in a wildcat (Felis silvestris) in Iran.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2017 12 8;10:58-61. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The zoonotic helminth, Spirometra, has several species with almost global distribution. Herein, we describe the first detailed molecular detection of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in a road-killed wildcat (Felis silvestris) in Iran and its identification at the species level using CO1 gene. Genomic DNA was extracted using CTAB extraction method. The DNA then was applied for PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene. Afterwards, PCR product was sequenced and obtained data were analyzed and multiple aligned using BLAST program, ClustalX and Bioedit software. Microscopy findings and diagnostic clues revealed that the parasite is a Spirometra sp. cestode. Consequently, molecular analysis on the basis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene demonstrated that the species is Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. Regarding optimum climate conditions and previous reports of animal infection in this region, the likelihood of human involvement should be potentially considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2017.08.004DOI Listing
December 2017

Molecular and Morphological Characterizations of from Human and Animal Isolates in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):177-187

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran.

Background: One of the most important zoonotic helminths in the world is known as . Different strains of the have been described based on morphological and molecular characterizations, however, there is limited information regarding the characteristics of the phenotypes and genotypes of in Iran.

Methods: The present study was prepared to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of isolates collected from human, goat, sheep, and cattle based on 19 standard morphometric parameters and mitochondrial and nuclear genes (, and ) in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran during 2013-2014.

Results: The biometric analysis for the 19 characters revealed that the 19 morphometric values of cattle isolates were exceptionally higher than human, goat, and sheep isolates (<0.05). Molecular analysis confirms the morphological findings. Phylogenic analysis of the , and genes for all isolates, independent of the host, revealed that the common sheep strain (G1) is traveling among livestock in Kashan and the strains are highly adapted to goats, cattle, sheep, and humans.

Conclusion: Both morphological and molecular results of this study indicated that the only genotype G1 of travels between humans and other intermediate hosts of this parasite in the area study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5527027PMC
August 2017

Identification of latent neosporosis in sheep in Tehran, Iran by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the Nc-5 gene.

Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2016 Aug 11;83(1):e1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Department of Parasitology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences.

Little is known about latent infection and molecular characterisation of Neospora caninum in sheep (Ovis aries). In this study, 330 sheep samples (180 hearts and 150 brains) were analysed for N. caninum DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Nc-5 gene. Neospora caninum DNA was detected in 3.9% (13/330) of sheep samples. The parasite's DNA was detected in 6.7% of heart samples (12/180) and 0.7% (1/150) of brain samples. No clinical signs were recorded from infected or uninfected animals. Sequencing of the genomic DNA revealed 96% - 99% similarity with each other and 95.15% - 100% similarity with N. caninum sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of PCR to identify latent neosporosis in sheep in Iran. The results of this study have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the role of N. caninum-infected sheep in the epidemiology of neosporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238813PMC
August 2016

Molecular detection of microsporidiosis in various samples of Iranian immunocompromised patients.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Dec 5;39(4):634-8. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Microsporidia infections occur in virtually all invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, including humans. The aim of this study is detection of microsporidiosis in various samples of Iranian immunosuppressed patients during 2011-2012 by molecular methods. The samples included stool samples from the healthy participants and samples from biological fluids of the patients according to consult of their physician and the site of infection. The sample size was determined as 258 for each group. Clinical and demographical data related to each participant was collected. DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction were carried out on all the samples. In the control group, the rates of Encephalitozoon and Enterocytozoon infections were 5.3 and 4 % respectively higher in males and in the age range of 30-45, and all positive cases had gastrointestinal symptoms. In the patient group, most infection cases occurred in male patients and in the age range of 60 and above. Patients with microsporidiosis mostly had the symptoms of chronic diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, dyspepsia, and malabsorption. In BAL samples from patients 2 % Encephalitozoon and 0.7 % Enterocytozoon, in the sampling bone marrow transplantation from patients 5.7 % Encephalitozoon, 1.43 % Enterocytozoon and from patients who underwent kidney transplantation 5.26 % Enterocytozoon were detected. The most cases of human microsporidiosis are associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection or other states of immunosuppression, particularly in organ transplant recipients; the result of this study confirms this claim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0432-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675584PMC
December 2015

Molecular detection of Neospora caninum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Iran.

Avian Pathol 2015 ;44(4):319-22

a Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences , Kashan University of Medical Science , Kashan , Iran.

Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite with a wide range of intermediate bird hosts. There is little information describing the prevalence and genetic characterization of N. caninum in bird hosts worldwide and in Iran. In this study, a total of 217 brain samples of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) were examined for N. caninum presence by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the Nc-5 gene. N. caninum DNA was detected in 3.68% (8/217) of sparrows. Sequencing of the Nc5 genomic DNA revealed 97-99% of similarity with N. caninum sequences deposited in Genbank. To our knowledge, this study is the first molecular evidence of N. caninum DNA in bird hosts in Iran. The results of this study highlight the role of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in maintaining and spreading N. caninum infection to canines in the feral and domestic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2015.1050583DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Novel Isoform of EG95 (EG95-5G1) From Echinococcus granulosus in BALB/C Mice.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Oct-Dec;9(4):491-502

Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease of humans and various herbivorous domestic animals transmitted by the contact with domestic and wild carnivores, mainly dogs and foxes. The aim of this study is the production, purification and evaluation immunogenicity of new construction of EG95 protein.

Methods: The recombinant plasmid pET32-a+ used for Eg95 expression was constructed with the EG95 gene of Echinococcus granulosus fused with the thioredoxin tag. This recombinant clone was over expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE-3). The expressed fusion protein was found almost entirely in the insoluble form (inclusion bodies) in cell lysate. The purification was performed under denaturing conditions in the presence of 8M urea by Ni-NTA column and dialysis. The purified recombinant proteins were confirmed with western blot analysis using polyclonal antiserum. To find out the immunogenicity of the purified protein, the BALB/c mice (10 mice/group) were immunized by injecting 20 μg rEG95 protein formulated in Freund's and alum adjuvant.

Results: Immunization of mice with rEG95 using CFA/IFA and alum adjuvant generated high level of total antibody. In proliferation assay, the lymphocytes were able to mount a strong proliferative response with related production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α but with low secretion of either IL-4 or IL-10. The humoral and cellular immune responses against rEG95 suggested a mixed Th1/Th2 response with high intensity toward Th1.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that new construct of rEG95 formulated with CFA/IFA and alum adjuvant elicited strong cellular and humoral responses supporting further development of this vaccine candidate.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345088PMC
March 2015