Publications by authors named "Majid Kermani"

36 Publications

The influence of combined low-strength ultrasonics and micro-aerobic pretreatment process on methane generation and sludge digestion: Lipase enzyme, microbial activation, and energy yield.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Mar 22;73:105531. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Low-frequency ultrasonics is a potential technology to reduce the hydrolysis phase period in anaerobic digestion process. In this study, theinfluence of combined low frequency ultrasonics and micro-aerobic (MA) pretreatment on sewage sludge solubilization, enzyme activity and anaerobic digestion were assessed. Initially, the effect of ultrasonic density (0.012, 0.014, 0.016, 0.018, 0.1, 0.12 and 0.14 W/mL) and irradiation time (1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 12 min) of 20 kHz frequency waves were investigated. Accordingly, the effect of micro-aerobic pretreatment (Air flow rate (AFR) = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 VVM) within 20, 30, 40.48 and 60 h were examined. In addition, the effect of combined pretreatment on COD solubilization, lipase enzyme activation, ATP, percentage of live bacteria and methane gas production during the anaerobic process were examined. The results showed that the highest lipase activity (14.9 Umol/mL) was obtained under the effect of ultrasonic density of 0.1 W/ml within 9 min. The highest solubilization (65%) was observed under optimal micro-aerobic conditions: AFR = 0.2 (VVM) and micro-aerobic time: 40 h. Combined ultrasonic and micro-aerobic (US + MA) pretreatment increases the solubilization (70%), microbial activity (2080%) and lipase enzymatic activity (129%) compared to individual pretreatment. The Biogas production during anaerobic digestion pretreated with combined methods increased by 193% compared to the control, while the elevated values of biogas production in reactors pretreated by ultrasonic and micro-aerobic pretreatment alone were observed to be 101% and 165%, respectively. The net energy in reactor with the combined pre-treatment methods was calculated to be 1.26 kWh, while this value for control, pretreated ultrasonic and micro-aerobic reactors were obtained to be 0.56, 0.67 and 1.2 kWh, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105531DOI Listing
March 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of human biomonitoring studies on exposure to environmental pollutants in Iran.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 2;212:111986. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Population exposure to environmental contaminants can be precisely observed through human biomonitoring studies. The present study aimed to systematically review all the biomonitoring studies conducted in Iran on some selected carcinogen environmental pollutants. In this systematic review study, 11 carcinogen agents were selected including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lindane, benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), pentachlorophenol (PCP), radon-222, radium-224, - 226, - 228, and tobacco smoke. The Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English. After several screening steps, data were extracted from the studies. Meta-analyses (a random-effect model using the DerSimonian-Laired method) were performed only for the biomarkers with more than three eligible articles, including cadmium in blood and breast milk, and arsenic in breast milk. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. Of the 610 articles found in the database search, 30 studies were eligible for qualitative review, and 13 were included in the meta-analysis (cadmium in blood (n = 3), cadmium in breast milk (n = 6), and arsenic in breast milk (n = 4)). The overall pooled average concentrations (95% CI) of cadmium in blood, cadmium in breast milk, and arsenic in breast milk were 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.14), 5.38 (95% CI: 3.60, 6.96), and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.81) µg/L, respectively. These values were compared with the biomarker concentrations in other countries and health-based guideline values. This study showed that there is a need for comprehensive action plans to reduce the exposure of general population to these environmental contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111986DOI Listing
April 2021

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the air of public places and transportation.

Atmos Pollut Res 2021 Mar 2;12(3):302-306. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in air of public places such as shopping centers, a post office, banks, governmental offices, and public transportation facilities including an airport, subways, and buses in Tehran, Iran. A total of 28 air samples were collected from the eight groups of public and transportation locations. The airborne particle samples were collected on PTFE or glass fiber filters using two types of samplers with flow rates of 40 and 3.5 L/min, respectively. The viral samples were leached and concentrated, and RNA was extracted from each. The presence of viral RNA was evaluated using novel coronavirus nucleic acid diagnostic real time PCR kits. In 64% of the samples, SARS-CoV-2 RNA (62% and 67% from the public places and transportation, respectively) was detected. Positive samples were detected in banks (33%), shopping centers (100%), governmental offices (50%), the airport (80%), subway stations (50%), subway trains (100%), and buses (50%). Logistic regression showed that number of people present during the sampling and the sampled air volume were positively associated with presence of SARS-CoV-2; while the percentage of people with masks, air temperature, and sampling site's volume were negatively related to SARS-CoV-2's presence. However, none of these associations were statistically significant. This study showed that most public places and transportation vehicles were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Thus, strategies to control the spread of COVID-19 should include reducing the number of people in indoor spaces, more intense disinfection of transport vehicles, and requiring people to wear masks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833664PMC
March 2021

Short-term effects of air pollutants on hospitalization rate in patients with cardiovascular disease: a case-crossover study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Considering the increasing rate of hospitalization due to the symptoms intensification, and the increasing trend of air pollution, this study aimed to determine the relationship between the amount of air pollutants and the incidence of cardiovascular disease leading to hospitalization. This case-crossover study was carried out on the data of admitted patients with cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease in Urmia during 2011-2016. Weather data about air pollutants (NO2, PM10, SO2, and CO) were obtained from the meteorological department of Urmia. The data were coded for each patient and matched with the meteorological data for statistical modeling. The data were analyzed through STATA version 14. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease adjusted to air temperature, relative humidity, and air pollutants. The final analysis was performed on 43,424 patients with cardiovascular disease using code I10-I99 including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease adjusted to air temperature and relative humidity. Of all pollutants, CO with each increase 10 μg/m had a meaningful relationship with the incidence of cardiovascular hospitalization. By selecting the window of exposure, 1, 2, and 6 days before admission, lag 6 (6 days) was the best estimation for exposure time in the patients with cardiovascular patients (OR 1.0056, CI 1.0041-1.007), and in the patients with ischemic heart disease (OR 1.000055, CI 1.000036-1.000075) and in the patients with hypertension (OR 1.000076, CI 1.00002-1.000132). Regarding cerebrovascular disease, no statistically significant association was observed. The results showed that only CO was associated with an increased risk of admission in patients with cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, and there was no clear evidence for pollution effects on cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12390-2DOI Listing
January 2021

A global systematic review, meta-analysis and health risk assessment on the quantity of Malathion, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos in Vegetables.

Chemosphere 2021 May 26;270:129382. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Food Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran. Electronic address:

It is widely believed that an increasing trend in the production and consumption of vegetables has led to a dramatic rise in the use of pesticides potentially threatening the health of consumers around the world. This systematic study along with meta-analysis has mainly centered on the evaluation of the quantity of three well-known pesticides namely, Malathion (MLT), Diazinon (DZN) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF) in vegetables. In this regard, a comprehensive literature search has been performed over the last decade (January 1, 2011 to June 21, 2020) within the scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Of 1239 articles identified through the database screening, 22 plus 37 data report were retained and included in the meta-analysis phase. Additionally, the probabilistic human health risks for the consumers due to the intake of CPF, DZN and MLT from eating vegetables were estimated by the Monte Carlo Simulated (MCS) method. According to the findings, the maximum quantities of MLT, DZN and CPF in the vegetables were observed in Pakistan (222 μg/kg, 95%CI = 214.94-229.08), Thailand (245.00, 95% CI = 235.2-254.8) and South Korea (440 μg/kg, 95% CI = 437.19-442.81), while the lowest concentration levels were reported in China (1.7 μg/kg, 95% CI = 1.56-1.84), Poland (0.57, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68) and Poland (5.78 μg/kg, 95% CI = 4.40-7.12), respectively. The results of the Egger's and the Begg's tests revealed that no bias with regard to the potential publication was observed. Finally, non-carcinogenic risk assessment results demonstrated that the exposure to the studied pesticides thorough vegetables consumption could not threaten the health of consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129382DOI Listing
May 2021

Spatio-seasonal variation, distribution, levels, and risk assessment of airborne asbestos concentration in the most industrial city of Iran: effect of meteorological factors.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2;28(13):16434-16446. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Like other dangerous pollutants in the air, asbestos has negative and adverse effects on human and animal health. The present study is designed to determine the concentration of asbestos in the air of the most industrial city of Iran (Karaj) in 2018-2019. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from different areas of the air of Karaj during a year with an SKC pump and flow of 6 L/min for 8 h and in 45 days, and a total of 68 samples of asbestos fibers were collected. Then, the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast microscope (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eventually, the health effects of asbestos fibers were evaluated by the IRIS EPA method. The average concentration of asbestos fibers was 1.84 f/L PCM and 18.16 f/L SEM. Also, the results of statistical correlation analysis indicated that asbestos fibers are positively correlated with wind speed but negatively correlated with the other three parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and pressure). On the other hand, the average annual risk of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Karaj for all samples was in the range of 4.32 × 10 to 1.81 × 10 which in some places had more danger than the recommended risk range. According to the EPA guidelines, carcinogenicity acceptable levels are in the range of 10 and 10. Values higher than 10 have more carcinogenic risk and values lower than 10 have a lower carcinogenic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11941-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparing the efficiency of unmodified dried sludge adsorbents and those modified via chemical and microwave methods in removing 2,4-dinitrophenol from aqueous solutions.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 27;18(2):1521-1530. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is found in small amounts in the effluent of many wastewater treatment plants. The contamination of drinking water with this pollutant, even in trace amounts, causes toxicity, health problems, and unfavorable taste and odor. This study aims to compare the efficiency of non-modified and modified dried sludge adsorbents in removing 2,4 DNP from aqueous solutions. The results of 2,4DNP removal by high-performance liquid chromatography method at the wavelength of 360 nm in a batch mode were obtained by changing the influential factors including contact time, pH, initial concentration of the contaminant, and adsorbent dosage. Eventually, the results were analyzed by kinetic and isotherm models. In this research, the optimal time was obtained as 60 min and pH as seven for all three adsorbents. The results showed that the removal percentage increases by rising adsorbent dosage and reducing contaminant concentration. The correlation coefficient value of linear and non-linear led that in kinetic studies, it follows the pseudo-second order model. In contrast, in isotherm studies, examining linear and non-linear models of isotherms showed that the data for every three types of adsorbents follow the Freundlich model well. The adsorption process is highly dependent on pH and affects the adsorbent surface properties, ionization degree, and removal percentage. At high pH, hydroxide ions (OH) compete with 2,4 DNP molecules for the adsorption sites. The adsorption occurs quickly and gradually reaches a constant value because, over time, the adsorption sites are occupied until reaching a saturated limit. By increasing the adsorbent dosage, the adsorption percentage increased significantly, which is due to the fact that higher amounts of adsorbent cause more adsorption sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00568-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721970PMC
December 2020

Exposure to heavy metal contamination and probabilistic health risk assessment using Monte Carlo simulation: a study in the Southeast Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 17;18(2):1217-1226. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The rice contamination to heavy metals and its associated health risks have been less addressed in the southeast of Iran. In the present study, in the mentioned region, we assessed the concentration of nine elements in rice, and the health risk related to the measured elements was determined using the data which were gathered by a questionnaire. For this purpose, 36 samples of the 12 most widely consumed rice brands were collected. Using ICP-MS, the concentrations of Ni, Cr, Hg, Sr, Mn, Fe, Se, Ba, and Zn were measured in the studied samples as 0.599 ± 0.124, 0.483 ± 0.28, 0.0157 ± 0.005, 0.85 ± 1.307, 11.5 ± 1.97, 178.46 ± 67.27, 0.212 ± 0.083, 0.845 ± 0.62, and 8.416 ± 1.611 mg/kg, respectively. We found that, regarding the other studies, the levels of Ni, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Ba were higher. Besides, using 258 distributed questionnaires among citizens, the daily rice consumption was determined to be 295.66 ± 171.005 g/person/ day. Based on this consumption rate and Monto Carlo uncertainty simulation, Fe (0.741 ± 0.54 mg/kg/day) and Se (8.95E-04 ± 6.33E-04 mg/kg/day) showed the highest and lowest daily intake, respectively. Also, using Hazard Quotient (HQ), the non-carcinogenic risk effects of the surveyed elements were estimated. The obtained results of HQ revealed that Fe (2.48) and Mn (1.06) could pose non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers. Moreover, the calculated hazard Index showed that the overall health risk of the surveyed elements is in an unsafe range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00539-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721777PMC
December 2020

Use of NHCl for activation of carbon xerogel to prepare a novel efficacious adsorbent for benzene removal from contaminated air streams in a fixed-bed column.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 4;18(2):1141-1149. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Ammonium chloride as an explosive salt has proved to be a prominent activation agent for adsorbents and increase the specific surface area and volume of cavities. In this work, the ability of this substance was scrutinized for activation of carbon aerogel to prepare an efficient adsorbent for benzene removal from air streams.

Methods: A carbon xerogel was fabricated from Novallac polymer and activated by ammonium chloride.The changes in structure and morphology were considered via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. Also, comprehensive studies were conducted to vouchsafe the properties of the new adsorbent for benzene removal, using a fixed-bed column mode.

Results: The results showed both the successful synthesis and the suitability of the activation process. ACX possessed a higher specific surface area (1008 g/m), compared to the parent carbon xerogel (CX; 543.7 g/m) and organic xerogel (OX; 47 g/m), as well as a higher adsorption capacity.

Conclusion: NHCL is a very beneficial for modifying the structure and morphology of carbon aerogel, and the dynamic behavior of the column with respect inlet benzene concentration can be explained by Yan-Nelson model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00533-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721951PMC
December 2020

Development and implementation of water safety plans for groundwater resources in the southernmost city of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 8;18(2):629-637. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The transfer of water from the source to the consumption point is always associated with the possibility of contamination in any of its various components. To resolve this problem, the World Health Organization has considered a water safety plan. The purpose of this study is to implement water safety plan in the water supply system of Bukan city. This study was performed on Bukan's water supply system in 2019-20 using a software to guarantee the quality of the water safety plan and the WHO and IWA guidelines. The software checklists were prepared and after confirming the validity of the translation and its facial and content validity, it was completed based on the records of the Water and Sewerage Company and interviews with experts. Out of a total of 440 points of full-application of the program and 392 points for the reviewed phases, 183.6 points were acquired and 43.7% of WSP-coordinated implementation was observed. The highest percentage of WSP-coordinated implementation (75.2%) was assigned to the validation stage with the highest point, and the support program stage had the lowest percentage of performance (1.1%). Among the major components of the water supply system, the final consumption point received the most attention from the system. Given the lifespan of the introduction and use of WSP in the world, it was expected that better results would be obtained from evaluating the implementation and progress of this approach in Bukan's water supply system. However, the implementation rate of this program in this city compared to other cities in Iran, showed that according to the implementation time (one year), the obtained results are relatively convincing and good and the water supply system has a moderate level of safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00488-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721941PMC
December 2020

Occurrence, spatial distribution, seasonal variations, potential sources, and inhalation-based health risk assessment of organic/inorganic pollutants in ambient air of Tehran.

Environ Geochem Health 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

The present study evaluated the concentrations, spatial distribution, seasonal variations, potential sources, and risk assessment of organic/inorganic pollutants in ambient air of Tehran city. Totally, 180 air samples were taken from 9 sampling stations from March 2018 to March 2019 and were analyzed to determine the concentrations of organic pollutants (BTEX compounds and PM-bound PAHs) plus inorganic pollutants (PM-bound metals and asbestos fibers). The results revealed that the mean concentrations of ∑ PAHs, BTEX, ∑ heavy metals, and asbestos fibers were 5.34 ng/m, 60.55 µg/m, 8585.12 ng/m, and 4.13 fiber/ml in the cold season, respectively, and 3.88 ng/m, 33.86 µg/m, 5682.61 ng/m, and 3.21 fiber/ml in the warm season, respectively. Source apportionment of emission of the air pollutants showed that PAHs are emitted from diesel vehicles and industrial activities. BTEX and asbestos are also released mainly by vehicles. The results of the inhalation-based risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic risk of PAHs, BTEX, and asbestos exceeded the recommended limit by The US environmental protection agency (US EPA) and WHO (1 × 10). The risk of carcinogenesis of heavy metal of lead and chromium also exceeded the recommended limit. Thus, proper management strategies are required to control the concentration of these pollutants in Tehran's ambient air in order to maintain the health of Tehran's citizens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00779-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Estimation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM10 using AirQ model in Urmia during 2011-2017.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 10;34:60. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran of University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Quantification of the attributed effects of air pollution determines the impact of air pollutants on the community and shows the critical condition of air quality. This study aimed to quantify and estimate the cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM10 in Urmia during 2011-2016. In this descriptive-analytic study, at first, hourly data of pollutant PM10 concentrations were received from air pollutants station located in the Department of Environmental Protection. The data were evaluated using AirQ2.2.3 software after primary and secondary processes and filtering. The results showed that the mean annual concentration of PM10 during 2011-2016 was 88.66, 92.45, 81.22, 78.38, 113.78, and 92.67 μg /m3, respectively. The number of hospitalized cases due to respiratory diseases attributed to PM10 in this period was 486, 525, 459, 453, 684, and 552, respectively, and the number of cases due to cardiovascular diseases was 188, 203, 177, 175, 263, and 213, respectively. Considering the attributed health effects of PM10, the necessary measures should be taken to identify the causative agents and to understand the mechanisms of these processes and correct them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500423PMC
June 2020

How climate change can affect cholera incidence and prevalence? A systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 14;27(28):34906-34926. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although the number of cholera infection decreased universally, climate change can potentially affect both incidence and prevalence rates of disease in endemic regions. There is considerable consistent evidence, explaining the associations between cholera and climatic variables. However, it is essentially required to compare and interpret these relationships globally. The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic review in order to identify and appraise the literature concerning the relationship between nonanthropogenic climatic variabilities such as extreme weather- and ocean-related variables and cholera infection rates. The systematic literature review of studies was conducted by using determined search terms via four major electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach. This search focused on published articles in English-language up to December 31, 2018. A total of 43 full-text studies that met our criteria have been identified and included in our analysis. The reviewed studies demonstrated that cholera incidence is highly attributed to climatic variables, especially rainfall, temperature, sea surface temperature (SST) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The association between cholera incidence and climatic variables has been investigated by a variety of data analysis methodologies, most commonly time series analysis, generalized linear model (GLM), regression analysis, and spatial/GIS. The results of this study assist the policy-makers who provide the efforts for planning and prevention actions in the face of changing global climatic variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09992-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Degradation of furfural in aqueous solution using activated persulfate and peroxymonosulfate by ultrasound irradiation.

J Environ Manage 2020 Jul 22;266:110616. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran. Electronic address:

Furfural is a toxic compound that can cause many problems for human health and the environment. In this study, we addressed the degradation of furfural in aqueous solution using the activated persulfate (SPS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) through the ultrasonic (US) wave. Besides, the effect of various parameters (pH, oxidizing dose, initial furfural concentration, US frequency, Inorganic anions concentration, and scavenger) on SPS + US (SPS/US) and PMS + US (PMS/US) processes were examined. The results showed, in order to furfural removal, the US had excellent efficiency in activating SPS and PMS, as in SPS/US and PMS/US processes, 95.3% and 58.4% of furfural (at 25 mg/L concentration) was decomposed in 90 min, respectively. The furfural degradation rate increased with increasing oxidizing dose and US frequency in both SPS/US and PMS/US processes. Considering the synergistic effect, the best removal rate has occurred in the SPS/US process. In the SPS/US and PMS/US processes, furfural removal increased at natural pH (pH 7), and the presence of inorganic anions such as NO and Cl had negative effects on furfural removal efficiency. Also CO and HCO acted as a radical scavenger in the SPS/US process but these anions in the PMS/US process produced more SO radicals, and subsequently, they increased the furfural degradation rate. The results also showed that the predominant radical in the oxidation reactions is the sulfate radical. This study showed that the SPS/US and PMS/US processes are promising methods for degrading organic pollutants in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110616DOI Listing
July 2020

Air pollution and exacerbation of skin itching and sleep disturbance in Iranian atopic dermatitis patients.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 23;17(2):811-816. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran, 1417613151 Iran.

Background: For about three decades now, the number of people suffering from atopy including atopic dermatitis (AD) has been increasing in developed countries. Genetic background and environmental factors including air pollution play an effective role in its incidence. This study examined the association between air pollutants and exacerbation of AD symptoms including sleep disturbance and itching in AD patients of Tehran.

Methods: In this panel study, 31 patients with AD who admitted to Razi Hospital, dermatology hospital in Tehran, entered the research. Daily information including questions on disease symptoms (sleep disturbance, itching) and duration of outdoor stay (in hours) were collected using a questionnaire. The mean 24-h concentrations of PM and PM pollutants were obtained from the Air Quality Control Company. The relationship between the concentrations of the pollutants and exacerbation of the disease symptoms was investigated using the GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations) model.

Results: There was a significant relationship between the concentrations of air pollutants and exacerbation of sleep disturbance and itching on the same day, before, and after adjusting the effects of the confounding variables, so that the estimated odds ratios (95% confidence interval) between PM and PM and exacerbation of itching were 1.06 (1.02-1.10) and 1.17 (1.07-1.28), respectively.

Conclusions: There was a significant statistical relationship between the concentration of particulate matter (PM and PM) and exacerbation of sleep disturbance and itching. PM showed a stronger relationship with the exacerbation of symptoms compared to PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00397-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985420PMC
December 2019

The effect of climate change on cholera disease: The road ahead using artificial neural network.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(11):e0224813. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Climate change has been described to raise outbreaks of water-born infectious diseases and increases public health concerns. This study aimed at finding out these impacts on cholera infections by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) from 2021 to 2050. Daily data for cholera infection cases in Qom city, which is located in the center of Iran, were analyzed from 1998 to 2016. To determine the best lag time and combination of inputs, Gamma Test (GT) was applied. General circulation model outputs were utilized to project future climate pattern under two scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Statistical downscaling was done to produce high-resolution synthetic time series weather dataset. ANNs were applied for simulating the impact of climate change on cholera. The observed climate variables including maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation were tagged as predictors in ANNs. Cholera cases were considered as the target outcome variable. Projected future (2020-2050) climate in previous step was carried out to assess future cholera incidence. A seasonal trend in cholera infection was seen. Our results elucidated that the best lag time was 21 days. According to the results of downscaling tool, future climate in the study area by 2050 will be warmer and wetter. Simulation of cholera cases indicated that there is a clear trend of increasing cholera cases under the worst scenario (RCP8.5) by the year 2050 and the highest cholera cases observe in warmer months. The precipitation was recognized as the most effective input variable by sensitivity analysis. We observed a significant correlation between low precipitation and cholera infection. There is a strong evidence to show that cholera disease is correlated with environment variables, as low precipitation and high temperatures in warmer months could provide the swifter bacterial replication. These conditions in Iran, especially in the central parts, may raise the cholera infection rates. Furthermore, ANNs is an executive tool to simulate the impact of climate change on cholera to estimate the future trend of cholera incidence for adopting protective measures in endemic areas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224813PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834266PMC
March 2020

Comparative health risk assessment of in-vehicle exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for taxi drivers and passengers: Effects of zone, fuel, refueling, vehicle's age and model.

Environ Pollut 2019 Nov 30;254(Pt A):112943. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of in-vehicle exposure in Tehran, Iran to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for different models of taxis, and to explore the effects of city zone, taxi vehicle type, the taxi's age (<1, 1-5, 5-10), fuel type (gasoline, CNG, and LPG), and refueling activities on the estimated health risks based on previously measured concentrations. The overall and age-specific carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of these compounds for taxi drivers and passengers were estimated separately using Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios of exposure frequency were defined for taxis commuting in different zones of city: Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) as two plans to reduce air pollution, and no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risks for drivers and passengers, the average risks of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for most cases were above the 1 × 10. The health risks were greater in Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ) and Odd-Even Zone (OEZ) in comparison to no-restriction zone (NRZ). The carcinogenic risk from formaldehyde exposures were higher than those for acetaldehyde in all cases. Taxis fueled with LPG showed lower cancer risks for both acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. Refueling increased the carcinogenic risk from both compounds. For non-carcinogenic risks from acetaldehyde, the average hazard ratios for both drivers and passengers were >1, indicating a non-negligible risk. Cancer and non-cancer risks for the taxi drivers were greater than the passengers given the higher time of occupancy. The present study showed that transportation in taxis can impose significant long-term health risks to both passengers and drivers. Development and investment in cleaner choices for public transportations are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.111DOI Listing
November 2019

Investigating the effect of several factors on concentrations of bioaerosols in a well-ventilated hospital environment.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Jun 4;191(7):407. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study characterized and quantified the bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in nine wards of the Razavi Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) that is equipped with an advanced heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system including HEPA filters for air cleaning. In this study, 432 samples were taken from the indoor air of multiple hospital wards during the morning and afternoon shifts during summer and autumn. The particle number concentrations with sizes of > 0.3, > 0.5, > 1, > 2, > 5, and > 10 μm were measured using a 6-channel handheld particle counter. A greater diversity of bioaerosol types were observed during the morning shifts and during summer. The microbial load was not affected significantly by the temperature, relative humidity, working shift, season, and number of visitors, indicating the effectiveness of a well-designed ventilation system to eliminate site-specific variations. For microbial number concentrations, a significant correlation was only observed between the number of particles with a diameter of > 10 μm and the airborne microbial loading. Thus, passive sampling may not properly reflect the actual concentrations of smaller bioaerosols. In conclusion, HEPA filters in the HVAC system successfully decreased the bioaerosol concentrations in the hospital environment. Additionally, we recommend that active sampling be used in cases where a well-functioning HVAC system exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7559-0DOI Listing
June 2019

Exposure to BTEX in beauty salons: biomonitoring, urinary excretion, clinical symptoms, and health risk assessments.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Apr 17;191(5):286. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in beauty salons (BS) and in the urine of the beauty practitioners and a control group. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of BTEX were measured in 36 randomly selected salons. Before- and after-shift urinary BTEX were measured from one female non-smoker employee in each salon, and repeated three times. Clinical symptoms in that beautician were assessed by a physician. Thirty-six unexposed women were included as the control group. Cancer and non-cancer risks of exposure were assessed using deterministic and stochastic methods. Average indoor concentrations of BTEX were higher than those in the ambient air. Urinary BTEX concentrations in the beauty practitioners were significantly higher than in the control group. Linear regression showed that 77% of urinary benzene and toluene variations can be explained by their airborne concentrations. A positive significant relationship was found between age and urinary BTEX concentrations. Although the BTEX cancer and non-cancer risks were not significant, BTEX led to irritation of the eyes, throat, lung, and nose. In addition, toluene caused menstrual disorders among beauty practitioners. These results suggest that it is essential to decrease the exposure of beauty practitioners to BTEX compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7455-7DOI Listing
April 2019

Estimation of Short-term Mortality and Morbidity Attributed to Fine Particulate Matter in the Ambient Air of Eight Iranian Cities.

Ann Glob Health 2018 08 31;84(3):408-418. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, IR.

Amongst the various pollutants in the air, particulate matters (PM) have significant adverse effects on human health. The current research is based on existing epidemiological literature for quantitative estimation of the current health impacts related to particulate matters in some selected principal Iranian megacities. In order to find the influence of air pollution on human health, we used the AirQ software tool presented by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH), Bilthoven Division. The adverse health outcomes used in the study consist of mortality (all causes excluding accidental causes), due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory (RES) diseases, and morbidity (hospital admissions for CVD and RES causes). For this purpose, hourly PM10 data were taken from the monitoring stations in eight study cities during 2011 and 2012. Results showed annual average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in all megacities exceeded national and international air quality standards and even reached levels nearly ten times higher than WHO guidelines in some cities. Considering the short-term effects, PM2.5 had the maximum effects on the health of the 19,048,000 residents of the eight Iranian cities, causing total mortality of 5,670 out of 87,907 during a one-year time-period. Hence, reducing concentrations and controlling air pollution, particularly the presence of particles, is urgent in these metropolises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29024/aogh.2308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748288PMC
August 2018

A case study of BTEX characteristics and health effects by major point sources of pollution during winter in Iran.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 24;247:607-617. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study characterized spatio-temporal variations in the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds in the vicinity of gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) stations in Tehran, Iran. Health risk assessment (HRA) was computed using Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) for evaluating inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR), the hazard quotient (HQ), and sensitivity analysis (SA) for BTEX exposure in different age groups (birth to <81) and as a function of distance (0-250 m) from the center of the stations. For all monitoring stations, the average values of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in winter were 466.09 ± 132.25, 873.13 ± 233.51, 493.05 ± 141.22, and 910.57 ± 145.40 μg m, respectively. The mean wintertime ratios of T/B for the 12 stations ranged from 1.69 to 2.04. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of BTEX with either the specific month or distance from the center of stations (p > 0.05). Factors promoting BTEX formation in the study region were fuel evaporation and gas/CNG station emissions. The LTCRs for the target compounds in the winter for different age groups and distances from the center of stations was limited to 2.11 × 10 to 1.82 × 10 and 2.30 × 10 to 2.01 × 10, respectively, which exceeded proposed values by U.S. EPA. Moreover, the HQs for BTEX for three age groups and distances were limited to between 2.89 × 10 and 9.33 × 10, which were lower than the acceptable limit (HQs < 1). The results of this work are applicable to similar areas that are heavily populated with vehicular traffic. This study motivates a closer look at mitigation strategies to limit the health effects of carcinogenic emissions such as benzene and ethylbenzene from gas/CNG stations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.070DOI Listing
April 2019

The association of hospital emergency admissions due to respiratory-cardiovascular diseases and acute myocardial infarction with air pollution in Tehran during 2005-2014.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 26;32:76. Epub 2018 Aug 26.

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Air pollution is one of the main reasons for disease and emergency hospitalizations. Therefore, air pollution control and hospital preparedness are of paramount importance. This study was conducted to determine the association of air pollutant levels with the rate of hospital emergency admissions due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and acute myocardial infarction in Tehran during the last decade. This was a cross sectional study. At first, information on hourly concentration of air pollutants was gathered from Tehran Environmental Protection Agency and Air Quality Control Company. Raw data and meteorological parameters were used in Excel format to prepare an input file. The number of emergency hospital admissions due to pollutant exposure was assessed using the AirQ2.2.3 model. Results of this study revealed that there were 54 352 cases of emergency hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases in a relative risk of 1.0048 [1.0008-1.0112] and 20 990 cases of emergency hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases in a relative risk of 1.009[1.006-1.013] during 2005-2014. In addition, 3478 patients were admitted to the emergency department because of acute myocardial infarction with RR of 1.0026 [1.0026-1.0101]. This study demonstrated that a high percentage of hospital emergency admissions was because of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, it was found that acute myocardial infarction could be due to the high level of air pollution and could increase admissions to the emergency department. Therefore, appropriate measures are needed to reduce air pollution and increase hospital preparedness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325295PMC
August 2018

Monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers in an urban ambient air of Shahryar City, Iran: levels, spatial distribution, seasonal variations, and health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 8;26(7):6450-6459. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Asbestos, as with other pollutants in the air, has adverse effects on the health of human beings and animals. Today, the relationship between presence of asbestos fibers in the air breathed by humans and developing serious diseases such as lung cancer (asbestosis) and mesothelioma has been proven. This study was designed and conducted within the time period of August 2017 and June 2018 to determine the concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City and to evaluate their health effects for the general population of the city. For this purpose, samples were taken from four points, and overall 32 air samples were taken along the year. The samples were then analyzed by the phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method. Also, to investigate the type of asbestos and for more accurate counting of fibers, SEM analysis was utilized. Finally, based on the EPA IRIS method, the health effects resulting from asbestos risks were also evaluated. The results of this study indicated that the mean annual concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City was obtained as 0.0019 f/ml PCM and 0.0072 f/ml SEM. Furthermore, the most polluted point was S1 point (0.0119 -0.0026 f/ml, PCM), while the lowest concentration was related to S4 point (0.001 f/ml PCM-0.0021 f/ml SEM). The mean annual risk resulting from airborne asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City for all samples was obtained as 1.72 × 10 to 2.2 × 10, which was higher than the recommended risk range in some points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-4029-0DOI Listing
March 2019

Photocatalytic degradation data of benzene and toluene by ZnO coated on glass plates under simulated sunlight.

Data Brief 2018 Oct 21;20:490-495. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

For this data article the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene and toluene by ZnO nanoparticles coated on glass plates were studied under simulated sunlight. ZnO nanoparticles were coated on three glass plates by heat attachment methods. To evaluate the photocatalytic removal of benzene and toluene, coated plates irradiated by metal halide lamp in a rectangular reactor in batch mode. The effect of initial pollutants concentration, temperature, relative humidity, irradiation time, concentration of zinc oxide suspension, were assessed. The surface morphology and structure of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO coated on glass plates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Sampling and analysis of pollutants were performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method. To analyze the concentration of benzene and toluene, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used. The data results indicated that photocatalytic process by ZnO under irradiation of metal halide lamp could remove benzene and toluene at optimum experimental conditions. Coating of glass surfaces by ZnO suspension, resulted in 46% and 57% removal of benzene and toluene as concentration of 50 ppm at 45 °C, and relative humidity of 40% after 240 min irradiation of metal halide lamp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120591PMC
October 2018

Correction to: Indoor and outdoor concentrations of BTEX and formaldehyde in Tehran, Iran: effects of building characteristics and health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 09;25(27):27438

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The original publication of this paper contains a mistake. The correct name and affiliation of the 3rd Author is presented in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2870-9DOI Listing
September 2018

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of BTEX and formaldehyde in Tehran, Iran: effects of building characteristics and health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 23;25(27):27423-27437. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) and formaldehyde are toxic compounds that can induce adverse health effect in humans. This study measured in-home and ambient concentrations of BTEX and formaldehyde across Tehran, Iran. These pollutants were sampled from the indoor and adjacent outdoor air of 45 houses (9 in each city zone) during the winter of 2015. Sampling was repeated three times for each house. The analyses were performed according to NIOSH procedures. The effect of flooring material, wall covering, ventilation system, heating system, height above ground, presence of attached garages, and distance from highways was evaluated. In addition, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of these compounds were assessed. The average indoor concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and formaldehyde were 53.2, 21.5, 14.4, 21.1, and 17.9 μg/m, respectively. The average outdoor concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and formaldehyde were 43.5, 26.2, 10.0, 19.1, and 6.9 μg/m, respectively. Separate regression models showed that wall coating, ventilation system, heating system, flat level, and distance from highways explained 29, 60, 16, 60, and 59% of the BTEX concentrations, respectively. Houses with oil painted walls and parquet flooring had higher concentrations of BTEX and formaldehyde, respectively. The health risk assessment found that the carcinogenic risks of benzene and formaldehyde exceeded 1 × 10 and represent a definite risk. New buildings can be designed based on the results of this study to use better materials and optimum building designs to reduce exposure to these toxic air pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2794-4DOI Listing
September 2018

Fine particulate matter (PM) in a compost facility: heavy metal contaminations and health risk assessment, Tehran, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jun 25;25(16):15715-15725. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of PM particles, potential sources, and determination of health risk assessment of heavy metals in various parts of composting facilities of Tehran's Kahrizak. A total of 60 PM particle samples were collected every 3 days from January to March 2016. To analyze the heavy metals, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was applied. SEM-EDX analysis indicated that metals of Al, Si, Mg, Na, Au, S, Ca, K, and Co were dominant in the structure of particles. The concentration of PM was found to be the highest in the final processing site (c), followed by primary processing site (a) and the aerated site (b). The mean concentrations of Al and Fe in all sampling sites of a, b, and c were 7.46 ± 2.73, 1.48 ± 0.59, 24.30 ± 8.23 μg/m and 4.97 ± 2.83, 1.33 ± 0.48, 16.48 ± 7.36, respectively. The enrichment factor order of the trace elements was as follows: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > V > Cr > Ni > Mn > Fe > Al, with the highest EF value exceeding 10,000 for Cd at the a site. For all sampling sites in composting facilities, the cancer risk was more than > 1 × 10 as posed by the total of five carcinogenic metals (Pb, Cr, As, Ni, and Cd), indicating that risk factors were not negligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1625-yDOI Listing
June 2018

Investigation of in-cabin volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in taxis; influence of vehicle's age, model, fuel, and refueling.

Environ Pollut 2018 Jun 15;237:348-355. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The air pollutant species and concentrations in taxis' cabins can present significant health impacts on health. This study measured the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the cabins of four different taxi models. The effects of taxi's age, fuel type, and refueling were investigated. Four taxi models in 3 age groups were fueled with 3 different fuels (gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), and the concentrations of 6 air pollutants were measured in the taxi cabins before and after refueling. BTEX, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde sampling were actively sampled using NIOSH methods 1501, 2541, and 2538, respectively. The average BTEX concentrations for all taxi models were below guideline values. The average concentrations (±SD) of formaldehyde in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 889 (±356), 806 (±323), 1144 (±240), and 934 (±167) ppbv, respectively. Acetaldehyde average concentrations (±SD) in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 410 (±223), 441 (±241), 443 (±210), and 482 (±91) ppbv, respectively. Refueling increased the in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants primarily the CNG and LPG fuels. BTEX concentrations in all taxi models were significantly higher for gasoline. Taxi age inversely affected formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In conclusion, it seems that refueling process and substitution of gasoline with CNG and LPG can be considered as solutions to improve in-vehicle air concentrations for taxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.063DOI Listing
June 2018

Contaminants of emerging concern: a review of new approach in AOP technologies.

Environ Monit Assess 2017 Aug 24;189(8):414. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

The presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), flame retardants (FRs), pesticides, and artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in the aquatic environments remains a major challenge to the environment and human health. In this review, the classification and occurrence of emerging contaminants in aquatic environments were discussed in detail. It is well documented that CECs are susceptible to poor removal during the conventional wastewater treatment plants, which introduce them back to the environment ranging from nanogram per liter (e.g., carbamazepine) up to milligram per liter (e.g., acesulfame) concentration level. Meanwhile, a deep insight into the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on mitigation of the CECs from aquatic environment was presented. In this regard, the utilization of various treatment technologies based on AOPs including ozonation, Fenton processes, sonochemical, and TiO heterogeneous photocatalysis was reviewed. Additionally, some innovations (e.g., visible light heterogeneous photocatalysis, electro-Fenton) concerning the AOPs and the combined utilization of AOPs (e.g., sono-Fenton) were documented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6097-xDOI Listing
August 2017

Health benefits of PM reduction in Iran.

Int J Biometeorol 2017 Aug 5;61(8):1389-1401. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m increase in annual PM concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 10 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-017-1316-2DOI Listing
August 2017