Publications by authors named "Maja Tarailo-Graovac"

55 Publications

De novo stop-loss variants in CLDN11 cause hypomyelinating leukodystrophy.

Brain 2021 03;144(2):411-419

Dr. v. Hauner Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, LMU - University of Munich, 80337, Germany.

Claudin-11, a tight junction protein, is indispensable in the formation of the radial component of myelin. Here, we report de novo stop-loss variants in the gene encoding claudin-11, CLDN11, in three unrelated individuals presenting with an early-onset spastic movement disorder, expressive speech disorder and eye abnormalities including hypermetropia. Brain MRI showed a myelin deficit with a discrepancy between T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and some progress in myelination especially involving the central and peripheral white matter. Exome sequencing identified heterozygous stop-loss variants c.622T>C, p.(*208Glnext*39) in two individuals and c.622T>G, p.(*208Gluext*39) in one individual, all occurring de novo. At the RNA level, the variant c.622T>C did not lead to a loss of expression in fibroblasts, indicating this transcript is not subject to nonsense-mediated decay and most likely translated into an extended protein. Extended claudin-11 is predicted to form an alpha helix not incorporated into the cytoplasmic membrane, possibly perturbing its interaction with intracellular proteins. Our observations suggest that stop-loss variants in CLDN11 expand the genetically heterogeneous spectrum of hypomyelinating leukodystrophies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940174PMC
March 2021

Dissecting the Genetic and Etiological Causes of Primary Microcephaly.

Front Neurol 2020 15;11:570830. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH; "small head syndrome") is a rare, heterogeneous disease arising from the decreased production of neurons during brain development. As of August 2020, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database lists 25 genes (involved in molecular processes such as centriole biogenesis, microtubule dynamics, spindle positioning, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, Wnt signaling, and cell cycle checkpoints) that are implicated in causing MCPH. Many of these 25 genes were only discovered in the last 10 years following advances in exome and genome sequencing that have improved our ability to identify disease-causing variants. Despite these advances, many patients still lack a genetic diagnosis. This demonstrates a need to understand in greater detail the molecular mechanisms and genetics underlying MCPH. Here, we briefly review the molecular functions of each MCPH gene and how their loss disrupts the neurogenesis program, ultimately demonstrating that microcephaly arises from cell cycle dysregulation. We also explore the current issues in the genetic basis and clinical presentation of MCPH as additional avenues of improving gene/variant prioritization. Ultimately, we illustrate that the detailed exploration of the etiology and inheritance of MCPH improves the predictive power in identifying previously unknown MCPH candidates and diagnosing microcephalic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.570830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593518PMC
October 2020

metPropagate: network-guided propagation of metabolomic information for prioritization of metabolic disease genes.

NPJ Genom Med 2020 2;5:25. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are amenable to treatment, therefore early diagnosis is imperative. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) variant prioritization coupled with phenotype-guided clinical and bioinformatics expertise is typically used to identify disease-causing variants; however, it can be challenging to identify the causal candidate gene when a large number of rare and potentially pathogenic variants are detected. Here, we present a network-based approach, metPropagate, that uses untargeted metabolomics (UM) data from a single patient and a group of controls to prioritize candidate genes in patients with suspected IEMs. We validate metPropagate on 107 patients with IEMs diagnosed in Miller et al. (2015) and 11 patients with both CNS and metabolic abnormalities. The metPropagate method ranks candidate genes by label propagation, a graph-smoothing algorithm that considers each gene's metabolic perturbation in addition to the network of interactions between neighbors. metPropagate was able to prioritize at least one causative gene in the top 20 percentile of candidate genes for 92% of patients with known IEMs. Applied to patients with suspected neurometabolic disease, metPropagate placed at least one causative gene in the top 20 percentile in 9/11 patients, and ranked the causative gene more highly than Exomiser's phenotype-based ranking in 6/11 patients. Interestingly, ranking by a weighted combination of metPropagate and Exomiser scores resulted in improved prioritization. The results of this study indicate that network-based analysis of UM data can provide an additional mode of evidence to prioritize causal genes in patients with suspected IEMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-020-0132-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331614PMC
July 2020

Genetic Modifiers and Rare Mendelian Disease.

Genes (Basel) 2020 02 25;11(3). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Departments of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.

Despite advances in high-throughput sequencing that have revolutionized the discovery of gene defects in rare Mendelian diseases, there are still gaps in translating individual genome variation to observed phenotypic outcomes. While we continue to improve genomics approaches to identify primary disease-causing variants, it is evident that no genetic variant acts alone. In other words, some other variants in the genome (genetic modifiers) may alleviate (suppress) or exacerbate (enhance) the severity of the disease, resulting in the variability of phenotypic outcomes. Thus, to truly understand the disease, we need to consider how the disease-causing variants interact with the rest of the genome in an individual. Here, we review the current state-of-the-field in the identification of genetic modifiers in rare Mendelian diseases and discuss the potential for future approaches that could bridge the existing gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11030239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140819PMC
February 2020

De novo pathogenic DNM1L variant in a patient diagnosed with atypical hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 10 1;7(10):e00961. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Biochemical Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Profiling the entire genome at base pair resolution in a single test offers novel insights into disease by means of dissection of genetic contributors to phenotypic features.

Methods: We performed genome sequencing for a patient who presented with atypical hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, severe epileptic encephalopathy, global developmental delay, and growth hormone deficiency.

Results: Assessment of the variants detected by mapped sequencing reads followed by Sanger confirmation revealed that the proband is a compound heterozygote for rare variants within RETREG1 (FAM134B), a gene associated with a recessive form of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, but not with epileptic encephalopathy or global developmental delay. Further analysis of the data also revealed a heterozygous missense variant in DNM1L, a gene previously implicated in an autosomal dominant encephalopathy, epilepsy, and global developmental delay and confirmed by Sanger sequencing to be a de novo variant not present in parental genomes.

Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the importance of genome-wide sequencing in patients with a well-characterized genetic disease with atypical presentation. This approach reduces the potential for misdiagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785439PMC
October 2019

Bi-allelic GOT2 Mutations Cause a Treatable Malate-Aspartate Shuttle-Related Encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 15;105(3):534-548. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

On behalf of "United for Metabolic Diseases," 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Metabolic Laboratory, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Early-infantile encephalopathies with epilepsy are devastating conditions mandating an accurate diagnosis to guide proper management. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate the disease etiology in four children from independent families with intellectual disability and epilepsy, revealing bi-allelic GOT2 mutations. In-depth metabolic studies in individual 1 showed low plasma serine, hypercitrullinemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia. The epilepsy was serine and pyridoxine responsive. Functional consequences of observed mutations were tested by measuring enzyme activity and by cell and animal models. Zebrafish and mouse models were used to validate brain developmental and functional defects and to test therapeutic strategies. GOT2 encodes the mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. GOT2 enzyme activity was deficient in fibroblasts with bi-allelic mutations. GOT2, a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, plays an essential role in the intracellular NAD(H) redox balance. De novo serine biosynthesis was impaired in fibroblasts with GOT2 mutations and GOT2-knockout HEK293 cells. Correcting the highly oxidized cytosolic NAD-redox state by pyruvate supplementation restored serine biosynthesis in GOT2-deficient cells. Knockdown of got2a in zebrafish resulted in a brain developmental defect associated with seizure-like electroencephalography spikes, which could be rescued by supplying pyridoxine in embryo water. Both pyridoxine and serine synergistically rescued embryonic developmental defects in zebrafish got2a morphants. The two treated individuals reacted favorably to their treatment. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the biochemical abnormalities in GOT2 deficiency that may also hold for other MAS defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732527PMC
September 2019

Uncovering Missing Heritability in Rare Diseases.

Genes (Basel) 2019 04 4;10(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Departments of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.

The problem of 'missing heritability' affects both common and rare diseases hindering: discovery, diagnosis, and patient care. The 'missing heritability' concept has been mainly associated with common and complex diseases where promising modern technological advances, like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), were unable to uncover the complete genetic mechanism of the disease/trait. Although rare diseases (RDs) have low prevalence individually, collectively they are common. Furthermore, multi-level genetic and phenotypic complexity when combined with the individual rarity of these conditions poses an important challenge in the quest to identify causative genetic changes in RD patients. In recent years, high throughput sequencing has accelerated discovery and diagnosis in RDs. However, despite the several-fold increase (from ~10% using traditional to ~40% using genome-wide genetic testing) in finding genetic causes of these diseases in RD patients, as is the case in common diseases-the majority of RDs are also facing the 'missing heritability' problem. This review outlines the key role of high throughput sequencing in uncovering genetics behind RDs, with a particular focus on genome sequencing. We review current advances and challenges of sequencing technologies, bioinformatics approaches, and resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10040275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523881PMC
April 2019

Glutaminase Deficiency Caused by Short Tandem Repeat Expansion in .

N Engl J Med 2019 04;380(15):1433-1441

From Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Pediatrics, and Clinical Genetics, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism (A.B.P.K., R.L., J.K., J. Meijer, L.A.T., M.T., M.W., R.J.A.W., H.R.W., C.D.M.K.), and United for Metabolic Diseases (A.B.P.K., R.J.A.W., H.R.W., C.D.M.K.), Amsterdam, and the Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht (J.J.F.A.V., J.H.V.), and the Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium (J.J.F.A.V., J.H.V.), Utrecht - all in the Netherlands; the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (M.T.-G.), Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute (P.A.R., M.J.J., M.S.K., J. MacIsaac, W.W.W., C.D.M.K.), the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (B.I.D., G.E.B.W., C.J.R.), and the Departments of Medical Genetics (C.M., I.-S.R.-B., W.W.W.) and Pediatrics (C.D.M.K.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, the Zebrafish Centre for Advanced Drug Discovery, St. Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto (K.B.-A., F.K., M.L., Y.W., X.-Y.W.), the Centre for Applied Genomics, Genetics and Genome Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children (C.N., S.W.S., B.T., R.K.C.Y.), and the Department of Molecular Genetics (C.N., S.W.S., R.K.C.Y.), the McLaughlin Centre (S.W.S.), and the Departments of Medicine, Physiology, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Institute of Medical Science (X.-Y.W.), University of Toronto, Toronto, and the Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (J.S.W., M.T.G.) - all in Canada; the Departments of Medicine and Physiology, National University of Singapore (M.A.P.), and the Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (M.A.P., B.S., X.X., J.Z.) - both in Singapore; Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry-Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden (D.D.); Illumina, San Diego, CA (E.D., M.A.E.); Gene Structure and Disease Section, Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (B.H., D.K., K.U.); and the Department of Clinical Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (S.S.).

We report an inborn error of metabolism caused by an expansion of a GCA-repeat tract in the 5' untranslated region of the gene encoding glutaminase () that was identified through detailed clinical and biochemical phenotyping, combined with whole-genome sequencing. The expansion was observed in three unrelated patients who presented with an early-onset delay in overall development, progressive ataxia, and elevated levels of glutamine. In addition to ataxia, one patient also showed cerebellar atrophy. The expansion was associated with a relative deficiency of messenger RNA transcribed from the expanded allele, which probably resulted from repeat-mediated chromatin changes upstream of the repeat. Our discovery underscores the importance of careful examination of regions of the genome that are typically excluded from or poorly captured by exome sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1806627DOI Listing
April 2019

PLPHP deficiency: clinical, genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic insights.

Brain 2019 03;142(3):542-559

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391652PMC
March 2019

Deficiency of perforin and hCNT1, a novel inborn error of pyrimidine metabolism, associated with a rapidly developing lethal phenotype due to multi-organ failure.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 06 15;1865(6):1182-1191. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Pediatrics and Clinical Genetics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Pyrimidine nucleotides are essential for a vast number of cellular processes and dysregulation of pyrimidine metabolism has been associated with a variety of clinical abnormalities. Inborn errors of pyrimidine metabolism affecting enzymes in the pyrimidine de novo and degradation pathway have been identified but no patients have been described with a deficiency in proteins affecting the cellular import of ribonucleosides. In this manuscript, we report the elucidation of the genetic basis of the observed uridine-cytidineuria in a patient presenting with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent lactate acidosis, severely disturbed liver enzymes and ultimately multi-organ failure. Sequence analysis of genes encoding proteins directly involved in the metabolism of uridine and cytidine showed two variants c.1528C > T (p.R510C) and c.1682G > A (p.R561Q) in SLC28A1, encoding concentrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hCNT1). Functional analysis showed that these variants affected the three-dimensional structure of hCNT1, altered glycosylation and decreased the half-life of the mutant proteins which resulted in impaired transport activity. Co-transfection of both variants, mimicking the trans disposition of c.1528C > T (p.R510C) and c.1682G > A (p.R561Q) in the patient, significantly impaired hCNT1 biological function. Whole genome sequencing identified two pathogenic variants c.50delT; p.(Leu17Argfs*34) and c.853_855del; p.(Lys285del) in the PRF1 gene, indicating that our patient was also suffering from Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis type 2. The identification of two co-existing monogenic defects might have resulted in a blended phenotype. Thus, the clinical presentation of isolated hCNT1 deficiency remains to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.01.013DOI Listing
June 2019

Sialic acid catabolism by N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase is essential for muscle function.

JCI Insight 2018 12 20;3(24). Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Sialic acids are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids essential for cellular communication, infection, and metastasis. The importance of sialic acid biosynthesis in human physiology is well illustrated by the severe metabolic disorders in this pathway. However, the biological role of sialic acid catabolism in humans remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that sialic acid catabolism is important for heart and skeletal muscle function and development in humans and zebrafish. In two siblings, presenting with sialuria, exercise intolerance/muscle wasting, and cardiac symptoms in the brother, compound heterozygous mutations [chr1:182775324C>T (c.187C>T; p.Arg63Cys) and chr1:182772897A>G (c.133A>G; p.Asn45Asp)] were found in the N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase gene (NPL). In vitro, NPL activity and sialic acid catabolism were affected, with a cell-type-specific reduction of N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc). A knockdown of NPL in zebrafish resulted in severe skeletal myopathy and cardiac edema, mimicking the human phenotype. The phenotype was rescued by expression of wild-type human NPL but not by the p.Arg63Cys or p.Asn45Asp mutants. Importantly, the myopathy phenotype in zebrafish embryos was rescued by treatment with the catabolic products of NPL: N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) and ManNAc; the latter also rescuing the cardiac phenotype. In conclusion, we provide the first report to our knowledge of a human defect in sialic acid catabolism, which implicates an important role of the sialic acid catabolic pathway in mammalian muscle physiology, and suggests opportunities for monosaccharide replacement therapy in human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.122373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338320PMC
December 2018

Atypical cerebral palsy: genomics analysis enables precision medicine.

Genet Med 2019 07 13;21(7):1621-1628. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: The presentation and etiology of cerebral palsy (CP) are heterogeneous. Diagnostic evaluation can be a prolonged and expensive process that might remain inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and impact on management of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 50 individuals with atypical CP (ACP).

Methods: Patient eligibility criteria included impaired motor function with onset at birth or within the first year of life, and one or more of the following: severe intellectual disability, progressive neurological deterioration, other abnormalities on neurological examination, multiorgan disease, congenital anomalies outside of the central nervous system, an abnormal neurotransmitter profile, family history, brain imaging findings not typical for cerebral palsy. Previous assessment by a neurologist and/or clinical geneticist, including biochemical testing, neuroimaging, and chromosomal microarray, did not yield an etiologic diagnosis.

Results: A precise molecular diagnosis was established in 65% of the 50 patients. We also identified candidate disease genes without a current OMIM disease designation. Targeted intervention was enabled in eight families (~15%).

Conclusion: NGS enabled a molecular diagnosis in ACP cases, ending the diagnostic odyssey, improving genetic counseling and personalized management, all in all enhancing precision medicine practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0376-yDOI Listing
July 2019

Germline De Novo Mutations in ATP1A1 Cause Renal Hypomagnesemia, Refractory Seizures, and Intellectual Disability.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 11;103(5):808-816

Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Münster 48149, Germany.

Over the last decades, a growing spectrum of monogenic disorders of human magnesium homeostasis has been clinically characterized, and genetic studies in affected individuals have identified important molecular components of cellular and epithelial magnesium transport. Here, we describe three infants who are from non-consanguineous families and who presented with a disease phenotype consisting of generalized seizures in infancy, severe hypomagnesemia, and renal magnesium wasting. Seizures persisted despite magnesium supplementation and were associated with significant intellectual disability. Whole-exome sequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing identified heterozygous de novo mutations in the catalytic Na, K-ATPase α1 subunit (ATP1A1). Functional characterization of mutant Na, K-ATPase α1 subunits in heterologous expression systems revealed not only a loss of Na, K-ATPase function but also abnormal cation permeabilities, which led to membrane depolarization and possibly aggravated the effect of the loss of physiological pump activity. These findings underline the indispensable role of the α1 isoform of the Na, K-ATPase for renal-tubular magnesium handling and cellular ion homeostasis, as well as maintenance of physiologic neuronal activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218849PMC
November 2018

Gain-of-function KCNJ6 Mutation in a Severe Hyperkinetic Movement Disorder Phenotype.

Neuroscience 2018 08 29;384:152-164. Epub 2018 May 29.

Division of Biochemical Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, B.C. Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Genetics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Here, we describe a fourth case of a human with a de novo KCNJ6 (GIRK2) mutation, who presented with clinical findings of severe hyperkinetic movement disorder and developmental delay, similar to the Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome but without lipodystrophy. Whole-exome sequencing of the patient's DNA revealed a heterozygous de novo variant in the KCNJ6 (c.512T>G, p.Leu171Arg). We conducted in vitro functional studies to determine if this Leu-to-Arg mutation alters the function of GIRK2 channels. Heterologous expression of the mutant GIRK2 channel alone produced an aberrant basal inward current that lacked G protein activation, lost K selectivity and gained Ca permeability. Notably, the inward current was inhibited by the Na channel blocker QX-314, similar to the previously reported weaver mutation in murine GIRK2. Expression of a tandem dimer containing GIRK1 and GIRK2(p.Leu171Arg) did not lead to any currents, suggesting heterotetramers are not functional. In neurons expressing p.Leu171Arg GIRK2 channels, these changes in channel properties would be expected to generate a sustained depolarization, instead of the normal G protein-gated inhibitory response, which could be mitigated by expression of other GIRK subunits. The identification of the p.Leu171Arg GIRK2 mutation potentially expands the Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome phenotype to include severe dystonia and ballismus. Our study suggests screening for dominant KCNJ6 mutations in the evaluation of patients with severe movement disorders, which could provide evidence to support a causal role of KCNJ6 in neurological channelopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.05.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679957PMC
August 2018

SimPEL: Simulation-based power estimation for sequencing studies of low-prevalence conditions.

Genet Epidemiol 2018 07 22;42(5):480-487. Epub 2018 May 22.

Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Power estimations are important for optimizing genotype-phenotype association study designs. However, existing frameworks are designed for common disorders, and thus ill-suited for the inherent challenges of studies for low-prevalence conditions such as rare diseases and infrequent adverse drug reactions. These challenges include small sample sizes and the need to leverage genetic annotation resources in association analyses for the purpose of ranking potential causal genes. We present SimPEL, a simulation-based program providing power estimations for the design of low-prevalence condition studies. SimPEL integrates the usage of gene annotation resources for association analyses. Customizable parameters, including the penetrance of the putative causal allele and the employed pathogenic scoring system, allow SimPEL to realistically model a large range of study designs. To demonstrate the effects of various parameters on power, we estimated the power of several simulated designs using SimPEL and captured power trends in agreement with observations from current literature on low-frequency condition studies. SimPEL, as a tool, provides researchers studying low-frequency conditions with an intuitive and highly flexible avenue for statistical power estimation. The platform-independent "batteries included" executable and default input files are available at https://github.com/precisionomics/SimPEL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22129DOI Listing
July 2018

Integration of genomics and metabolomics for prioritization of rare disease variants: a 2018 literature review.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 05 2;41(3):435-445. Epub 2018 May 2.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are amenable to treatment; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Despite recent advances, the genetic basis of many metabolic phenotypes remains unknown. For discovery purposes, whole exome sequencing (WES) variant prioritization coupled with clinical and bioinformatics expertise is the primary method used to identify novel disease-causing variants; however, causation is often difficult to establish due to the number of plausible variants. Integrated analysis of untargeted metabolomics (UM) and WES or whole genome sequencing (WGS) data is a promising systematic approach for identifying disease-causing variants. In this review, we provide a literature-based overview of UM methods utilizing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and assess approaches to integrating WES/WGS and LC-MS UM data for the discovery and prioritization of variants causing IEMs. To embed this integrated -omics approach in the clinic, expansion of gene-metabolite annotations and metabolomic feature-to-metabolite mapping methods are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-018-0139-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959954PMC
May 2018

Genome sequencing reveals a novel genetic mechanism underlying dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: A novel missense variant c.1700G>A and a large intragenic inversion in DPYD spanning intron 8 to intron 12.

Hum Mutat 2018 07 10;39(7):947-953. Epub 2018 May 10.

Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Pediatrics and Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is associated with a variable clinical presentation. A family with three DPD-deficient patients presented with unusual clinical phenotypes including pregnancy-induced symptoms, transient visual impairment, severe developmental delay, cortical blindness, and delayed myelination in the brain. DPYD Sanger sequencing showed heterozygosity for the c.1905+1G>A mutation and a novel missense variant c.1700G>A (p.G567E). The recombinantly expressed p.G567E DPD variant showed increased temperature lability probably caused by structural rearrangements within the DPD protein. Genome sequencing of the affected son established compound heterozygosity for the c.1700G>A and an imperfect 115,731 bp inversion with breakpoints at chr1: 98,113,121 (intron 8) and chr1: 97,997,390 (intron 12) of the DPYD associated with a 4 bp deletion (chr1: 97,997,386_97,997,389del). Whole exome and mitochondrial DNA analyses for the mother and daughter did not reveal additional mutated genes of significance. Thus, an inversion in DPYD should be considered in patients with an inconclusive genotype or unusual clinical phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23538DOI Listing
July 2018

GNAO1 Mutation-Induced Pediatric Dystonic Storm Rescue With Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation.

J Child Neurol 2018 05;33(6):413-416

10 Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Dystonic storm or status dystonicus is a life-threatening hyperkinetic movement disorder with biochemical alterations due to the excessive muscle contractions. The medical management can require pediatric intensive care unit admission and a combination of medications while the underlying trigger is managed. Severe cases may require general anesthesia and paralytic agents with intubation and may relapse when these drugs are weaned. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidum has been reported to terminate dystonic storm in several pediatric cases. We present a 10-year-old boy with a de novo GNAO1 mutation-induced dystonic storm who required a 2-month pediatric intensive care unit admission and remained refractory to all medical treatments. Deep brain stimulation was performed under general anesthetic without complication. His dyskinetic movements stopped with initiation of stimulation. He was discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit after 4 days. We present prospectively evaluated changes in dystonia symptoms and quality of life for a patient with GNAO1 mutation treated with deep brain stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073818756134DOI Listing
May 2018

The role of the clinician in the multi-omics era: are you ready?

J Inherit Metab Dis 2018 05 23;41(3):571-582. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Since Garrod's first description of alkaptonuria in 1902, and newborn screening for phenylketonuria introduced in the 1960s, P4 medicine (preventive, predictive, personalized, and participatory) has been a reality for the clinician serving patients with inherited metabolic diseases. The era of high-throughput technologies promises to accelerate its scale dramatically. Genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, glycomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics offer an amazing opportunity for holistic investigation and contextual pathophysiologic understanding of inherited metabolic diseases for precise diagnosis and tailored treatment. While each of the -omics technologies is important to systems biology, some are more mature than others. Exome sequencing is emerging as a reimbursed test in clinics around the world, and untargeted metabolomics has the potential to serve as a single biochemical testing platform. The challenge lies in the integration and cautious interpretation of these big data, with translation into clinically meaningful information and/or action for our patients. A daunting but exciting task for the clinician; we provide clinical cases to illustrate the importance of his/her role as the connector between physicians, laboratory experts and researchers in the basic, computer, and clinical sciences. Open collaborations, data sharing, functional assays, and model organisms play a key role in the validation of -omics discoveries. Having all the right expertise at the table when discussing the diagnostic approach and individualized management plan according to the information yielded by -omics investigations (e.g., actionable mutations, novel therapeutic interventions), is the stepping stone of P4 medicine. Patient participation and the adjustment of the medical team's plan to his/her and the family's wishes most certainly is the capstone. Are you ready?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-017-0128-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959952PMC
May 2018

The genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of MTO1 deficiency.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 01 15;123(1):28-42. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, BC, Canada; BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Mitochondrial diseases, a group of multi-systemic disorders often characterized by tissue-specific phenotypes, are usually progressive and fatal disorders resulting from defects in oxidative phosphorylation. MTO1 (Mitochondrial tRNA Translation Optimization 1), an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in high-energy demand tissues has been linked to human early-onset combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, often referred to as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-10 (COXPD10).

Material And Methods: Thirty five cases of MTO1 deficiency were identified and reviewed through international collaboration. The cases of two female siblings, who presented at 1 and 2years of life with seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, elevated lactate and complex I and IV deficiency on muscle biopsy but without cardiomyopathy, are presented in detail.

Results: For the description of phenotypic features, the denominator varies as the literature was insufficient to allow for complete ascertainment of all data for the 35 cases. An extensive review of all known MTO1 deficiency cases revealed the most common features at presentation to be lactic acidosis (LA) (21/34; 62% cases) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (15/34; 44% cases). Eventually lactic acidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are described in 35/35 (100%) and 27/34 (79%) of patients with MTO1 deficiency, respectively; with global developmental delay/intellectual disability present in 28/29 (97%), feeding difficulties in 17/35 (49%), failure to thrive in 12/35 (34%), seizures in 12/35 (34%), optic atrophy in 11/21 (52%) and ataxia in 7/34 (21%). There are 19 different pathogenic MTO1 variants identified in these 35 cases: one splice-site, 3 frameshift and 15 missense variants. None have bi-allelic variants that completely inactivate MTO1; however, patients where one variant is truncating (i.e. frameshift) while the second one is a missense appear to have a more severe, even fatal, phenotype. These data suggest that complete loss of MTO1 is not viable. A ketogenic diet may have exerted a favourable effect on seizures in 2/5 patients.

Conclusion: MTO1 deficiency is lethal in some but not all cases, and a genotype-phenotype relation is suggested. Aside from lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy, developmental delay and other phenotypic features affecting multiple organ systems are often present in these patients, suggesting a broader spectrum than hitherto reported. The diagnosis should be suspected on clinical features and the presence of markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in body fluids, especially low residual complex I, III and IV activity in muscle. Molecular confirmation is required and targeted genomic testing may be the most efficient approach. Although subjective clinical improvement was observed in a small number of patients on therapies such as ketogenic diet and dichloroacetate, no evidence-based effective therapy exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780301PMC
January 2018

Improvement of Self-Injury With Dopamine and Serotonin Replacement Therapy in a Patient With a Hemizygous PAK3 Mutation: A New Therapeutic Strategy for Neuropsychiatric Features of an Intellectual Disability Syndrome.

J Child Neurol 2018 Jan;33(1):106-113

2 BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

PAK3-related intellectual disability is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the p21-activated kinase (PAK) protein. It is characterized by mild to moderate cognitive impairment, micro/normocephaly, and a neurobehavioral phenotype characterized by short attention span, anxiety, restlessness, aggression, and self-abusive behaviors. The authors report a patient with a novel PAK3 mutation, who presented with intellectual disability, severe automutilation, and epilepsy. His magnetic resonance imaging changes were most likely secondary to lacerations from parenchymal contusions. His behavior was difficult to manage with behavior interventions or multiple medications. After finding low levels of dopamine and borderline low serotonin metabolites in the spinal fluid, treatment with low dose L-dopa/carbidopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan significantly improved his self-injurious behavior. This is the first case of PAK3-related intellectual disability presenting with severe self-injury with improvement following treatment. The patient's response to neurotransmitter replacement therapy raises the question if this treatment intervention might help other individuals suffering genetic syndromes and self-injurious behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073817740443DOI Listing
January 2018

Correction to: FLAGS, frequently mutated genes in public exomes.

BMC Med Genomics 2017 11 29;10(1):69. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Child and Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Correction: Unfortunately, the original article [1] contained an error. The additional files were included incorrectly. The correct additional files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are published in this correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-017-0309-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706417PMC
November 2017

Further Validation of the c.151+1G>T Mutation as Cause of Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy.

Child Neurol Open 2016 Jan-Dec;3:2329048X16669912. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies represent a group of rare genetic disorders characterized by progressive distal motor weakness without sensory loss. Their genetic heterogeneity is high and thus eligible for diagnostic whole exome sequencing. The authors report successful application of whole exome sequencing in diagnosing a second consanguineous family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy due to a homozygous c.151+1G>T variant in . This variant was recently proposed as causal for the same condition in a consanguineous Chinese family. Compared to this family, the Afghan ethnic origin of our patient is distinct, yet the features are identical, validating the SIGMAR1 deficiency phenotype: progressive muscle wasting/weakness in lower and upper limbs without sensory loss. Rapid disease progression during adolescent growth is similar and may be due to SIGMAR1's role in regulating axon elongation and tau phosphorylation. Finally, the authors conclude that SIGMAR1 deficiency should be added to the differential diagnosis of distal hereditary motor neuropathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X16669912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417346PMC
September 2016

Assessment of the ExAC data set for the presence of individuals with pathogenic genotypes implicated in severe Mendelian pediatric disorders.

Genet Med 2017 12 4;19(12):1300-1308. Epub 2017 May 4.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

PurposeWe analyzed the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) data set for the presence of individuals with pathogenic genotypes implicated in Mendelian pediatric disorders.MethodsClinVar likely/pathogenic variants supported by at least one peer-reviewed publication were assessed within the ExAC database to identify individuals expected to exhibit a childhood disorder based on concordance with disease inheritance modes: heterozygous (for dominant), homozygous (for recessive) or hemizygous (for X-linked recessive conditions). Variants from 924 genes reported to cause Mendelian childhood disorders were considered.ResultsWe identified ExAC individuals with candidate pathogenic genotypes for 190 previously published likely/pathogenic variants in 128 genes. After curation, we determined that 113 of the variants have sufficient support for pathogenicity and identified 1,717 ExAC individuals (~2.8% of the ExAC population) with corresponding possible/disease-associated genotypes implicated in rare Mendelian disorders, ranging from mild (e.g., due to SCN2A deficiency) to severe pediatric conditions (e.g., due to FGFR1 deficiency).ConclusionLarge-scale sequencing projects and data aggregation consortia provide unprecedented opportunities to determine the prevalence of pathogenic genotypes in unselected populations. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the penetrance of disease-associated variants, phenotypic variability, somatic mosaicism, as well as published literature curation for variant classification procedures and predicted clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2017.50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5729344PMC
December 2017

A case of splenomegaly in CBL syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2017 Jul 13;60(7):374-379. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; Centre for Molecular Medicine & Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Treatable Intellectual Disability Endeavour in British Columbia (TIDE-BC), Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: We present a child with unexplained splenomegaly to highlight this feature as a presenting sign of the RASopathy CBL syndrome and to draw attention to the power and utility of next generation genomic sequencing for providing rapid diagnosis and critical information to guide care in the pediatric clinical setting.

Clinical Report: A 7-year-old boy presented with unexplained splenomegaly, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mild learning difficulties, easy bruising, mild thrombocytopenia, and subtle dysmorphic features. Extensive haematological testing including a bone marrow biopsy showed mild megaloblastoid erythropoiesis and borderline fibrosis. There were no haematological cytogenetic anomalies or other haematological pathology to explain the splenomegaly. Metabolic testing and chromosomal microarray were unremarkable. Trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified a pathogenic de novo heterozygous germline CBL variant (c.1111T > C, p.Y371H), previously reported to cause CBL syndrome and implicated in development of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).

Discussion: CBL syndrome (more formally known as "Noonan-syndrome-like disorder with or without juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia") has overlapping features to Noonan syndrome with significant variability. CBL syndrome and other RASopathy disorders-including Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis 1, and Costello syndrome-are important to recognize as these are associated with a cancer-predisposition. CBL syndrome carries a very high risk for JMML, thus accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance. The diagnosis of CBL syndrome in this patient would not have been possible based on clinical features alone. Through WES, a specific genetic diagnosis was made, allowing for an optimized management and surveillance plan, illustrating the power of genomics in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.04.009DOI Listing
July 2017

Impact of next-generation sequencing on diagnosis and management of neurometabolic disorders: current advances and future perspectives.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2017 04 20;17(4):307-309. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

c BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Pediatrics , University of British Columbia , Vancouver , Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737159.2017.1293527DOI Listing
April 2017

A girl with developmental delay, ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, severe respiratory problems in infancy-Expanding NDST1 syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Mar;173(3):712-715

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

NDST1 encodes an enzyme involved in the first steps in the synthesis of heparan sulfate chains, proteoglycans that are regulators found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Eight individuals homozygous for one of four family-specific missense mutations in the sulfotransferase domain of the enzyme have been described. They have intellectual disability. Some additionally had hypotonia, ataxia. seizures, and/or short stature, but none had history of respiratory problems. No humans with homozygous null mutations are known. ndst1b (orthologous to NDST1) morpholino knockdown in zebrafish (Danio rerio) causes delayed development, craniofacial cartilage abnormalities, shortened body and pectoral fin length. Ndst1 homozygous null mice have craniofacial abnormalities and die within the first 10 h of life of respiratory failure. We report a girl upon whom deep phenotyping, extensive genetic and biochemical investigations, and exome sequencing were performed. She had cranial nerves dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, history of a seizure, ataxia, developmental delays, head sparing failure to thrive, and minor malformations including distinctive facial features and a bifid uvula. Compound heterozygous mutations in NDST1 were identified, in the heparan sulfate N deacetylatase domain of one allele and the sulfotransferase domain of the other allele. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of Ndst1 deficiency in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37621DOI Listing
March 2017

Identification of a large intronic transposal insertion in SLC17A5 causing sialic acid storage disease.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 02 10;12(1):28. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Sialic acid storage diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in the lysosome. These disorders are caused by mutations in SLC17A5, the gene encoding sialin, a sialic acid transporter located in the lysosomal membrane. The most common form of sialic acid storage disease is the slowly progressive Salla disease, presenting with hypotonia, ataxia, epilepsy, nystagmus and findings of cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Hypomyelination and corpus callosum hypoplasia are typical as well. We report a 16 year-old boy with an atypically mild clinical phenotype of sialic acid storage disease characterized by psychomotor retardation and a mixture of spasticity and rigidity but no ataxia, and only weak features of hypomyelination and thinning of corpus callosum on MRI of the brain.

Results: The thiobarbituric acid method showed elevated levels of free sialic acid in urine and fibroblasts, indicating sialic acid storage disease. Initial Sanger sequencing of SLC17A5 coding regions did not show any pathogenic variants, although exon 9 could not be sequenced. Whole exome sequencing followed by RNA and genomic DNA analysis identified a homozygous 6040 bp insertion in intron 9 of SLC17A5 corresponding to a long interspersed element-1 retrotransposon (KF425758.1). This insertion adds two splice sites, both resulting in a frameshift which in turn creates a premature stop codon 4 bp into intron 9.

Conclusions: This study describes a novel pathogenic variant in SLC17A5, namely an intronic transposal insertion, in a patient with mild biochemical and clinical phenotypes. The presence of a small fraction of normal transcript may explain the mild phenotype. This case illustrates the importance of including lysosomal sialic acid storage disease in the differential diagnosis of developmental delay with postnatal onset and hypomyelination, as well as intronic regions in the genetic investigation of inborn errors of metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0584-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5303239PMC
February 2017

The importance of considering monogenic causes of autoimmunity: A somatic mutation in KRAS causing pediatric Rosai-Dorfman syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Immunol 2017 Feb 31;175:143-146. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

Department of Pediatrics, British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Clinicians need to be aware of the growing list of defined monogenic etiologies of autoimmune diseases. This is particularly relevant when evaluating children, as these rare monogenic forms of autoimmunity tend to present very early in life.

Methods And Results: By harnessing the transformative power of next generation sequencing, we made the unifying diagnosis of RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disease (RALD), caused by the somatic gain-of-function p.G13C KRAS mutation, in a boy with the seemingly unrelated immune dysregulatory conditions of Rosai-Dorfman and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Conclusions: This case expands our understanding of the clinical phenotypes associated with the extremely rare condition of RALD, and emphasizes the importance of always considering the possibility of a monogenic cause for autoimmunity, particularly when the disease manifestations begin early in life and do not follow a typical clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2016.12.006DOI Listing
February 2017