Publications by authors named "Mainak Bardhan"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of The Carrier Frequency of Pathogenic Variants of DMD Gene in an Indian Cohort.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India.

Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder caused due to large deletions, duplications,and small pathogenic variants. This article compares the carrier frequency of different pathogenic variants in the DMD gene for the first time in an Indian cohort.

Methods: Ninety-one mothers of genetically confirmed DMD probands are included in this study. Pathogenic variants in the DMD gene in probands were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) or next-generation sequencing (NGS). Maternal blood samples were evaluated either by MLPA or Sanger sequencing. The demographic and clinical details for screening of muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy were collected from the confirmed carriers.

Results: Out of 91 probands, large deletions and duplications were identified in 46 and 6 respectively, while 39 had small variants. Among the small variants, substitutions predicted to cause nonsense mutations were the most common (61.5%), followed by frameshift causing small insertion/deletions (25.6%) and splice affecting intronic variants (12.8%). Notably, 19 novel small variants predicted to be disease-causing were identified. Of the 91 mothers, 53 (58.7%) were confirmed to be carriers. Exonic deletions had a significantly lower carrier frequency of 47.8% as compared to small variants (64.1%). The mean age of the carriers at evaluation was 30 years. Among the carriers, two were symptomatic with onset in the 4th decade, manifesting with progressive proximal muscle weakness and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion: Carrier frequency of small pathogenic variants differs significantly from large deletions. Small pathogenic variants are more commonly inherited, whereas large deletions arise de novo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-210658DOI Listing
April 2021

Megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to novel CHKB mutations resemble atypical Rett syndrome.

J Hum Genet 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India.

Megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD)(OMIM #602541), related to CHKB mutation, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. To date, only 35 confirmed patients are recorded. We present a detailed description of the clinical, histopathological, imaging, and genetic findings of five children from four Indian families. The children had moderate-to-severe autistic behavior, hand stereotypies, and global developmental delay mimicking atypical Rett syndrome. In addition, generalized hypotonia was a common initial finding. The progression of muscle weakness was variable, with two patients having a milder phenotype and three having a severe form. Interestingly, the majority did not attain sphincter control. Only patient 1 had classical ichthyotic skin changes. Muscle biopsy in two patients showed a myopathic pattern with characteristic peripherally placed enlarged mitochondria on modified Gomori trichrome stain and electron microscopy. Genetic analysis in these patients identified three novel null mutations in CHKB [c.1027dupA (p.Ser343LysfsTer86);c.224 + 1G > T (5' splice site); c.1123C > T (p.Gln375Ter)] and one reported missense mutation, c.581G > A (p.Arg194Gln), all in the homozygous state. Megaconial CMD, although rare, forms an important group with a complex phenotypic presentation and accounted for 5.5% of our genetically confirmed CMD patients. Atypical Rett syndrome-like presentation may be a clue towards CHKB-related disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-021-00913-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Recessive VAMP1 mutations associated with severe congenital myasthenic syndromes - A recognizable clinical phenotype.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Mar 16;31:54-60. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India. Electronic address:

Three unrelated girls, all born to consanguineous parents had respiratory distress, severe hypotonia at birth along with prominent fatigable muscle weakness and characteristic myopathic facies. In addition, patient 1 had fatigable ptosis, ophthalmoparesis and profound bulbar weakness and required nasogastric feeding from birth. A feeding gastrostomy was inserted at 9 months of age. She continued to have severe bulbar and limb weakness with dropped head at 5 years of age. Patient 2 and 3 did not have ocular signs at the time of initial presentation during infancy and at 2 years of age respectively. None of the patients attained independent walking. Patient 3, currently aged 16 years continues to be wheelchair bound and has only mild non-progressive bulbar weakness with normal cognitive development. Muscle biopsy in patient 1 and 3 showed predominant myopathic features admixed with small sized (atrophic/hypoplastic) fibres. Next generation sequencing confirmed the presence of a homozygous loss of function VAMP1 mutations in all three patients: A single nucleotide deletion resulting in frameshift: c.66delT (p.Gly23AlafsTer6) in patient 1 and nonsense mutations c.202C>T (pArg68Ter) and c.97C>T (p.Arg33Ter) in patient 2 and 3 respectively. Minimal but definite improvement in muscle power with pyridostigmine was reported in patients 1 and 2. This is the first report of VAMP1 mutations causing CMS from the Indian subcontinent, describing a clinically recognizable severe form of VAMP1-related CMS and highlighting the need for a strong index of suspicion for early genetic diagnosis of potentially treatable CMS phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.02.005DOI Listing
March 2021

Whole-exome analyses of congenital muscular dystrophy and congenital myopathy patients from India reveal a wide spectrum of known and novel mutations.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Mar 26;28(3):992-1003. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, India.

Background And Purpose: Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) and congenital myopathies (CMs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous degenerative primary muscle disorders with onset at birth or during infancy. Due to vast heterogeneity, clinical examination and protein-based analyses often fail to identify the genetic causes of these diseases. The aim of this study was to genetically diagnose a cohort of 36 difficult-to-diagnose CMD and CM cases of Indian origin using next-generation sequencing methods.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed to identify pathogenic mutations in previously reported CMD and CM-related genes using variant calling and stringent variant filtration process. Subsequently, in silico homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) studies were undertaken for a number of novel and missense variants.

Results: A total of 33 and 21 rare and deleterious mutations were identified in 28 genes previously reported in CMD and CM based on OMIM, ClinVar and Orphanet, respectively. We could accurately diagnose 54% patients (n = 12/22) in the CMD group and 35% patients (n = 5/14) in the CM group. Furthermore, MDS studies for mutations located in LMNA, LAMA2 and RYR1 suggest that the wild-type proteins are more stable than their mutant counterparts, implying a potential mechanism of pathogenesis.

Conclusion: The WES findings led us to identify reported as well as novel variants for the first time in Indian patients with CMD and CM. This allowed us to achieve an accurate genetic diagnosis, which was difficult using conventional diagnostic tools. Transferring these WES findings to clinical practice will help guide clinical care of the affected patients and inform genetic counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14616DOI Listing
March 2021