Publications by authors named "Maija Koljonen"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transport evaluation of salicylic acid and structurally related compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers and artificial PAMPA membranes.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008 Oct 6;70(2):531-8. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate passive vs. proton-dependent active transport mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) and four structurally related anions. Transport was studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers and artificial lipid membranes (PAMPA) under pH-gradient and iso-pH conditions. Kinetic permeability parameters were provided by bidirectional Caco-2 experiments and concentration-dependency measurements. The transport route and putative transporters involved in SA transport were studied using EDTA and several inhibitors. SA and lipophilic 5-chlorosalicylic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid reached saturation with increasing compound concentration indicating active transport. Permeation of 5-hydroxysalicylic acid and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid was not saturated indicating passive transport. PAMPA with pure passive diffusion underestimated the transport of SA compared to Caco-2. Opening up the paracellular tight junctions by EDTA did not increase the transport of SA under the pH-gradient conditions confirming the hypothesis of pure transcellular transport of SA. Active transport of SA remained concentration-dependent even without the pH-gradient, and was reduced by the known MCT1 and OATP-B inhibitors and structurally related anions. Overall, several permeability test protocols are needed to obtain a more complete picture of transport properties of salicylic acid and structurally related compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.05.017DOI Listing
October 2008

Effect of cell differentiation and passage number on the expression of efflux proteins in wild type and vinblastine-induced Caco-2 cell lines.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2007 Sep 28;67(2):548-54. Epub 2007 Mar 28.

Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The mRNA level expression of MDR1, MRP1-6, BCRP and CYP3A4 was determined by quantitative PCR in wild type (Caco-2WT) and vinblastine-treated (Caco-2VBL) Caco-2 cells at different passage levels (32-53). Differentiation increased the mRNA levels of MDR1, BCRP and all the MRPs except MRP4. Corresponding mRNA levels were observed in Caco-2WT and Caco-2VBL, except that the expression of MRD1 was higher in Caco-2VBL than in Caco-2WT cells. CYP3A4 was barely detected in either cell line. MDR1 functionality was studied using rhodamine123 and verapamil as a substrate-inhibitor pair. Corresponding to the observed differences in mRNA levels, MDR1 activity was higher in the Caco-2VBL cells. In Caco-2WT, MDR1 functionality was elevated at low passage numbers (32-35) compared to higher ones (49-53). Verapamil inhibited MDR1 efflux except at higher passage Caco-2WT cells, where no MDR1 activity could be observed. The results support the use of Caco-2VBL cells in MDR1 screening. The functional expression is higher than in Caco-2WT and remains consistent across the studied passages without major differences in mRNA levels of other efflux proteins. As both the passage number and the level of cell differentiation affect the expression profile of efflux proteins, short-term cell growth protocols should be evaluated accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.03.017DOI Listing
September 2007

Evaluation of cocktail approach to standardise Caco-2 permeability experiments.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2006 Nov 30;64(3):379-87. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Drug Discovery and Development Technology Center (DDTC), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability and reliability of n-in-one approach using FDA suggested compounds for standardising Caco-2 permeability experiments. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of rank order correlation and mechanistic insights of compound permeability. Transport studies with antipyrine, metoprolol, ketoprofen, verapamil, hydrochlorothiazide, ranitidine, mannitol and fluorescein were performed in 12- and 24-well formats, as single compounds and in cocktails under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (pH 5.5 vs. 7.4) conditions. Compounds were quantified using n-in-one LC/MS/MS analysis. The cocktail-dosing proved to be a feasible method to determine the permeability of the Caco-2 cell line and to introduce external standards for permeability tests. Even though sink conditions were lost in cocktail experiments for highly permeable compounds, the rank order of compound permeability and the classification to low and high permeability compounds remained unchanged between single and cocktail studies and permeability values of 12- and 24-well formats were directly comparable. Under pH-gradient conditions the margin between high and low permeability compounds was narrower due to the lower permeability (higher fraction of ionisation) of basic molecules. Of the compounds studied, antipyrine, metoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide and mannitol are suitable for evaluation and standardisation purposes of passive permeability, while fluorescein would function as paracellular marker under iso-pH 7.4. As efflux activity may vary between cell batches, verapamil is a useful marker for P-glycoprotein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2006.06.006DOI Listing
November 2006

Delivery and stability of LHRH and Nafarelin in human skin: the effect of constant/pulsed iontophoresis.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2004 Feb;21(2-3):371-7

Divisions of Pharmaceutical Technology and Viikki Drug Discovery Technology Center, Department of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Poor absorption and stability of peptides are the major obstacles concerning the development of therapeutically relevant iontophoretic devices for the transdermal delivery of peptides. The present study examined the impact of constant and pulsed (direct/alternating) current profiles on the transport and stability of two decapeptides LHRH and Nafarelin. The stability of these peptides was studied in a physiological buffer solution, with electrical current, and when the peptide solution was exposed to the stratum corneum or to the epidermal/dermal side of human skin. Pulsed direct current profile was shown to be the most efficient in transporting both LHRH and Nafarelin across the human epidermis. Furthermore, the percentage of intact LHRH in the receiver phase was slightly higher when a pulsed current profile was used. Both the peptides were stable in a physiological buffer and under the influence of current, but LHRH was degraded especially in contact with the dermal side of the skin. Altogether five hydrolytic degradation products of LHRH were observed, and they were identified by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS. No degradation products of Nafarelin were observed. It is concluded that the pulsed direct current profile may provide at least a partial solution for the transdermal delivery of peptides in terms of improved transport efficacy and peptide stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2003.11.003DOI Listing
February 2004