Publications by authors named "Maigun Edhborg"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Young witnesses of intimate partner violence: screening and intervention.

Glob Health Action 2019 ;12(1):1638054

a Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS) , Karolinska Institutet , Huddinge , Sweden.

Intimate partner violence is a public health problem worldwide. Many children witness intimate partner violence at home and are affected by it. Regardless of the degree of exposure, children growing up in violent homes experience negative effects in the form of externalising behaviour and internalising symptoms which call for targeted interventions for children. The aim of the study is to map i) the available methods of detecting child and adolescent witnesses of intimate partner violence and ii) the interventions to support them. Three databases, PubMed, PsychInfo and Social Services Abstracts, were searched for scientific publications spanning over 20 years (1997-2017). This resulted in 2,406 publications of which 15 were finally selected after screening. Analysis of the articles resulted in three categories. The process of detecting children and adolescents who witnessed IPV in their homes varied in the included studies. The children were most commonly identified through their mother or other caregivers. Very few studies were based on children's own reporting of their experiences, but were rather based on the mothers' proxy reports. Studies distinguishing between the different forms of violence witnessed by children were few. It was uncommon that children were directly identified or screened for witnessing IPV in the family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1638054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703150PMC
December 2019

Impact of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on birth outcomes and mode of delivery: a prospective cohort study in east and west coasts of Malaysia.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Jun 14;19(1):201. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-141 83 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) are prevalent in Malaysia. Prior evidence linking maternal ADS and AAS with adverse birth outcomes and caesarean section (CS) or instrumental delivery is conflicting. There is no research in Malaysia on the association between maternal mental disorders and adverse birth outcomes and mode of delivery. This study aims to investigate the independent effect of maternal ADS and AAS on low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and CS or instrumental delivery among women in east and west coasts of Malaysia.

Methods: We used data from a prospective cohort study of 799 pregnant women from health clinics of two states in east and west coasts of Malaysia. Baseline data were measured at the third trimester of pregnancy on ADS, AAS, socioeconomic condition, anthropometric status, reproductive history and intimate partner violence. Birth outcomes and mode of delivery were determined at the time of delivery. Univariate and multiple Cox's regressions were applied to assess the association between ADS and AAS and LBW, PTB and CS or instrumental delivery.

Results: ADS was significantly associated with an increased risk of giving birth to LBW babies in both east coast (RR = 3.64; 95% CI 1.79-7.40) and west coast (RR = 3.82; 95% CI 1.86-7.84), but not with PTB. AAS was associated with increased risk of both LBW (RR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.39-4.38) and PTB (RR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.16-5.36) in the east coast, but not in west coast. The risk of CS or instrumental delivery was evident among women with ADS (RR = 2.44; 95% CI 1.48-4.03) in west coast only.

Conclusion: ADS predicts LBW in both coasts, AAS predicts LBW and PTB in east coast, and ADS predicts CS or instrumental delivery in west coast. Policies aimed at detection and management of ADS and AAS during antenatal check-up in health clinics may help improve birth outcomes and reduce obstetric interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2349-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567652PMC
June 2019

Prevalence and determinants of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers: results from a perinatal psychiatric morbidity cohort study in the east and west coasts of Malaysia.

BMC Psychiatry 2018 06 15;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-141 83 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Research on antepartum psychiatric morbidities investigating depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers is lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antepartum depressive, anxiety and co-occurring significant symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of Malaysian expectant mothers and fathers.

Methods: We used cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study of 911 expectant mothers and 587 expectant fathers during their third trimester of pregnancy, from health clinics of two states in the east and west coasts of Malaysia. The validated Malay version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the anxiety sub-scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to measure the depressive and anxiety symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS).

Results: Prevalence of ADS was 12.2% in expectant mothers and 8.4% in expectant fathers, while AAS was 28.8% in expectant mothers and 13.3% in expectant fathers, and co-occurring significant symptoms was 8.0% in expectant mothers and 4.0% in expectant fathers. Expectant mothers and fathers having perceived social/family support were less likely to suffer from ADS. Intimate partner violence, poor relationship with husbands, depression in earlier pregnancy and husband's depression in current pregnancy in expectant mothers, and living in rented house, sex preference for the unborn child, stressful life events and wife's depression in current pregnancy in expectant fathers were associated with a greater likelihood of ADS. The determinants for AAS were living in rented house and with parents/in-laws, poor relationship with husbands, restrictions during pregnancy and stressful life events for expectant mothers, and stressful life events and being unsupportive towards wives in household chores for expectant fathers.

Conclusion: Both ADS and AAS are prevalent in expectant mothers and fathers, and largely an undetected problem in Malaysia. Administration of couple-based screening and referral program during antenatal check-up should be universal practices to identify and treat the psychiatric morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1781-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002988PMC
June 2018

Paternal Perinatal Depression Assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Gotland Male Depression Scale: Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors.

Am J Mens Health 2018 07 19;12(4):720-729. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

3 Center for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.

Several studies have used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), developed to screen new mothers, also for new fathers. This study aimed to further contribute to this knowledge by comparing assessment of possible depression in fathers and associated demographic factors by the EPDS and the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS), developed for "male" depression screening. The study compared EPDS score ≥10 and ≥12, corresponding to minor and major depression, respectively, in relation to GMDS score ≥13. At 3-6 months after child birth, a questionnaire was sent to 8,011 fathers of whom 3,656 (46%) responded. The detection of possibly depressed fathers by EPDS was 8.1% at score ≥12, comparable to the 8.6% detected by the GMDS. At score ≥10, the proportion detected by EPDS increased to 13.3%. Associations with possible risk factors were analyzed for fathers detected by one or both scales. A low income was associated with depression in all groups. Fathers detected by EPDS alone were at higher risk if they had three or more children, or lower education. Fathers detected by EPDS alone at score ≥10, or by both scales at EPDS score ≥12, more often were born in a foreign country. Seemingly, the EPDS and the GMDS are associated with different demographic risk factors. The EPDS score appears critical since 5% of possibly depressed fathers are excluded at EPDS cutoff 12. These results suggest that neither scale alone is sufficient for depression screening in new fathers, and that the decision of EPDS cutoff is crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988317749071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131440PMC
July 2018

Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Infant Temperament.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Nov 29;35(21-22):4779-4795. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) during the first year postpartum is common in Bangladesh, and many infants are exposed to hostile and aggressive environment. The aim of the current study was to investigate how IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) impacts on the mother's perception of her infant's temperament 6 to 8 months postpartum, and whether maternal depressive symptom at 6 to 8 months postpartum is a mediator in this association. A total of 656 rural Bangladeshi women and their children 6 to 8 months postpartum were included in this study. Data were collected by structured interviews. The women were asked about physical, sexual, and emotional IPV; depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Symptoms [EPDS]); and their perception of infant temperament assessed by the Infant Characteristic Questionnaire (ICQ). Descriptive analyses were conducted for prevalence of IPV and maternal depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis was conducted with a series of linear regressions with types of IPV as independent variables, ICQ including its subscales as dependent variables and maternal depressive symptoms as potential mediator. All the analyses were adjusted for the woman's and her husband's ages and number of children of the couple. Nearly 90% of the mothers reported some kind of IPV at 6 to 8 months postpartum. All types of IPV were directly associated with the mother's perception of her infant as unadaptable. Maternal depressive symptom was a mediating factor between physical IPV and the ICQ subscales fussy-difficult and unpredictable. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated between sexual and emotional IPV, and the mother's perception of the infant as unpredictable. The results showed that IPV influenced how mothers perceived their infant's temperament. It is important that health care professionals at maternal and child health services enquire about IPV with possibilities to refer the family or the mother and infant for appropriate support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517717489DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms Among Disadvantaged Adolescents: Results from a Population-Based Study in Bangladesh.

J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2016 08 23;29(3):135-44. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Senior Lecturer, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Problem: Few studies have examined the adolescents' depression in low-income countries and no research has yet been carried out in Bangladesh. This study estimated the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explored the associated factors and help seeking behavior among adolescents in Bangladesh.

Methods: Data originated from a cross section of 2,440 randomly selected boys and girls aged 13-19 years in a rural district and urban slums of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, during October-November 2012. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a 21-item scale, measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms using a cut-off 16 or higher.

Findings: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents was 14%, with predominance in urban slums and among girls. Older age (15-19 years), poverty, and poor parental relation were found to be associated with depressive symptoms of both sexes; family history of depressive symptoms for boys; and reproductive illness and sexual abuse for girls. More than 80% of depressed adolescents sought no help.

Conclusions: Adolescent depressive symptoms are common and largely undetected public health problem in Bangladesh. Policies aimed at concerted efforts for implementing a school-based counseling program with components of cognitive behavioral therapy and developing referral systems for those who scored at least 30 at BDI may ameliorate the potential harmful consequences of depressive symptoms in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12150DOI Listing
August 2016

"Waiting for Better Times": Experiences in the First Postpartum Year by Swedish Fathers With Depressive Symptoms.

Am J Mens Health 2016 09 4;10(5):428-39. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.

Swedish fathers are largely involved in their infant's care, and Sweden has a generous parental leave, with 2 months especially assigned for fathers. The prevalence of depressive symptoms postpartum for fathers appears to be similar as for mothers in Sweden. This study aimed to describe fathers' experiences of the first year postpartum, when they showed depressive symptoms 3 to 6 months postpartum. Semistructured interviews with 19 fathers were conducted and analyzed with content analysis. The fathers experienced loss of control and powerlessness due to discrepancies between their expectations and the reality they met after birth. They found the everyday-life turbulent, with much stress and worries for the infant, conflicts between family and work, and lack of support in everyday life. In addition, the fathers struggled with impaired partner-relationship, losses, and contradictory messages from both the society and their partners. These findings indicate that the fathers had difficulties to balance the competing demands of family, work, and their own needs. Thus, it is important to identify fathers with depressive symptoms at the Child Health Care Centers and attend to fathers' needs of support and acknowledge them as parents equal to mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988315574740DOI Listing
September 2016

"I can't stop worrying about everything"—experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2015 14;10:26226. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers' experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2-3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers' mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297274PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v10.26226DOI Listing
September 2015

Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6-8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh.

Glob Health Action 2014 12;7:24725. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Formerly Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), a gross violation of human rights, ranges widely across the world with higher prevalence reported in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence related mainly to physical health shows that IPV has both direct and indirect impacts on women's health. Little is known about the impact of IPV on the mental health of women, particularly after childbirth.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of IPV experienced by women 6-8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh and the factors associated with physical IPV. The study also aims to investigate the association between IPV and maternal depressive symptoms after childbirth.

Design: The study used cross-sectional data at 6-8 months postpartum. The sample included 660 mothers of newborn children. IPV was assessed by physical, emotional, and sexual violence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed maternal depressive symptoms.

Results: Prevalence of physical IPV was 52%, sexual 65%, and emotional 84%. The husband's education (OR: 0.41, CI: 0.23-0.73), a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 2.64, CI: 1.07-6.54), and emotional violence by spouse (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.35-1.83) were significantly associated with physical IPV experienced by women. The perception of a fussy and difficult child (OR: 1.05, CI: 1.02-1.08), a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 4.95, CI: 2.55-9.62), and the experience of physical IPV (OR: 2.83, CI: 1.72-4.64) were found to be significant predictors of maternal depressive symptoms among women 6-8 months after childbirth. Neither forced sex nor emotional violence by an intimate partner was found to be significantly associated with maternal depressive symptoms 6-8 months postpartum.

Conclusions: It is important to screen for both IPV and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum. Since IPV and spousal relationships are the most important predictors of maternal depressive symptoms in this study, couple-focused interventions at the community level are suggested.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165043PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.24725DOI Listing
May 2015

Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

J Affect Disord 2013 Apr 11;146(2):254-61. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC, and School of Public Health, Brac University, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

Background: Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh.

Methods: A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development.

Results: Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development.

Limitations: Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.09.013DOI Listing
April 2013

Depressive mood in women at childbirth predicts their mood and relationship with infant and partner during the first year postpartum.

Scand J Caring Sci 2012 Jun 23;26(2):245-53. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockhom, Sweden.

Background: Although many studies have reported negative impact of maternal depressive symptoms on family relations, few studies have explored whether or not early depressive symptoms influence interfamily relationships. The aim was to describe first-time mothers' feelings for their infant and partner during the first postpartum year in relation to maternal depressive symptoms. Research questions were addressed about: What is the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms 10 days postpartum? How does maternal depressive symptoms on day 10 relate to her mood and feelings for the infant and partner at days 3 and 10, and at 6 and 12 months postpartum?

Methods: A longitudinal study with first-time mothers, normal pregnancies, giving birth to healthy babies participated in the study; altogether, n = 419. Depressive symptoms were measured by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3 and 10 days. Additional questionnaires assessing the woman's mood and relationship with her infant and partner were filled out at days 3 and 10, and at 6 and 12 months postpartum.

Results: Twenty-two per cent of the women scored high on EPDS on day 10 postpartum. In addition, low mood seemed to remain prevalent over the baby's first year, as confirmed by the mood scale at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Women with depressive symptoms showed less closeness, warmth and confidence as measured by the infant and partner relationship scales over the first year. Mothers with a high EPDS score on day 3 scored less optimal on the relationship scale to the infant at days 3 and 10, but not 6 or 12 months postpartum.

Conclusions: To screen women for depressive symptoms, 10 days postpartum seems to be predictive of maternal assessment of maternal-infant relationship throughout the first year and enables early intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2011.00925.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh.

BMC Womens Health 2011 Jun 2;11:22. Epub 2011 Jun 2.

Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

Background: Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women.

Methods: The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes.

Results: Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95), poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62), forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75), physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80), and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85) were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship.

Conclusion: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate the potentially harmful consequences of antepartum depression and anxiety for the women and their family, particularly children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-11-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3117808PMC
June 2011

Impact of postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on mothers' emotional tie to their infants 2-3 months postpartum: a population-based study from rural Bangladesh.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2011 Aug 28;14(4):307-16. Epub 2011 May 28.

Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels allé 23, 23 300, 141 83 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on maternal bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum and the influence of the mother's bonding to the infant during pregnancy and to her own caregiver during her childhood on maternal bonding 2-3 months postpartum. This study originated from a community-based cohort study carried out in rural Bangladesh. Trained staff collected data and administrated the questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, at childbirth and 2-3 months postpartum. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the State Anxiety Inventory and the mother's emotional bonding to the infant with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. The results showed that 11% of the women reported depressive symptoms, 35% anxiety symptoms, 3.4% both depressive and anxiety symptoms and 51% neither depressive nor anxiety symptoms. Mothers with depressive symptoms were older, were poorer, fewer were literate, reported more intimate partner violence and showed lower emotional bonding to their infants 2-3 months postpartum compared to mentally well and anxious mothers. Approximately 11% of the mothers reported mild bonding disturbances and nearly one third of them showed depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and giving birth to a girl were negatively associated to a mother's emotional bonding to her infant, while maternal anxiety symptoms and high bonding to the foetus during pregnancy were positively associated to the mother's emotional bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-011-0221-7DOI Listing
August 2011

Low birth weight in offspring of women with depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

BMC Public Health 2010 Aug 26;10:515. Epub 2010 Aug 26.

Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

Background: There is a high prevalence of antepartum depression and low birth weight (LBW) in Bangladesh. In high- and low-income countries, prior evidence linking maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms with infant LBW is conflicting. There is no research on the association between maternal mental disorders and LBW in Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the independent effect of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on infant LBW among women in a rural district of Bangladesh.

Methods: A population-based sample of 720 pregnant women from two rural subdistricts was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression, using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and antepartum anxiety, using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and followed for 6-8 months postpartum. Infant birth weight of 583 (81%) singleton live babies born at term (≥ 37 weeks of pregnancy) was measured within 48 hours of delivery. Baseline data provided socioeconomic, anthropometric, reproductive, obstetric, and social support information. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-sample t tests were done as descriptive statistics, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of LBW.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, depressive (OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.37-3.68) and anxiety (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.30-3.25) symptoms were significantly associated with LBW (≤ 2.5 kg). Poverty, maternal malnutrition, and support during pregnancy were also associated with LBW.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy predict the LBW of newborns and replicates results found in other South Asian countries. Policies aimed at the detection and effective management of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy may reduce the burden on mothers and also act as an important measure in the prevention of LBW among offspring in Bangladesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2939645PMC
August 2010

Examining the public refusal to consent to DNA biobanking: empirical data from a Swedish population-based study.

J Med Ethics 2010 Feb;36(2):93-8

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Neurogenetics Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate empirically the motivations for not consenting to DNA biobanking in a Swedish population-based study and to discuss the implications.

Design: Structured questionnaires and semistructured interviews.

Setting: A longitudinal epidemiological project (PART) ongoing since 1998 in Stockholm, Sweden. The DNA-collection wave took place during 2006-7.

Participants: 903 individuals completed the questionnaire (participation rate 36%) and 23 were interviewed. All individuals had participated in both non-genetic waves of the project, but refused to contribute saliva samples during the DNA-collection wave.

Main Outcome Measures: Motivations behind refusing to consent to DNA biobanking, with subsequent focus on participants' explanations regarding this unwillingness.

Results: Public refusal to consent to DNA biobanking, as revealed by the questionnaire, was mainly explained by a lack of personal relevance of DNA contribution and feelings of discomfort related to the DNA being used for purposes other than the respective study. Interviews of individuals representing the second motivation, revealed a significant mistrust of DNA biobank studies. The underlying beliefs and attitudes were associated with concerns about integrity, privacy, suspiciousness and insecurity. However, most interviewees were supportive of genetic research per se and interpreted their mistrust in the light of distressing environmental influences.

Conclusion: The results suggest a need for guidelines on benefit sharing, as well as trustworthy and stable measures to maintain privacy, as a means for increasing personal relevance and trust among potential participants in genetic research. Measures taken from biobanks seem insufficient in maintaining and increasing trust, suggesting that broader societal measures should be taken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.2009.032367DOI Listing
February 2010

Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later.

Birth 2009 Jun;36(2):97-109

Associate Professor, Department of Hospital Pediatrics, St. Petersburg Pediatric Academy, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Background: A tradition of separation of the mother and baby after birth still persists in many parts of the world, including some parts of Russia, and often is combined with swaddling of the baby. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare possible long-term effects on mother-infant interaction of practices used in the delivery and maternity wards, including practices relating to mother-infant closeness versus separation.

Methods: A total of 176 mother-infant pairs were randomized into four experimental groups: Group I infants were placed skin-to-skin with their mothers after birth, and had rooming-in while in the maternity ward. Group II infants were dressed and placed in their mothers' arms after birth, and roomed-in with their mothers in the maternity ward. Group III infants were kept in the nursery both after birth and while their mothers were in the maternity ward. Group IV infants were kept in the nursery after birth, but roomed-in with their mothers in the maternity ward. Equal numbers of infants were either swaddled or dressed in baby clothes. Episodes of early suckling in the delivery ward were noted. The mother-infant interaction was videotaped according to the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) 1 year after birth.

Results: The practice of skin-to-skin contact, early suckling, or both during the first 2 hours after birth when compared with separation between the mothers and their infants positively affected the PCERA variables maternal sensitivity, infant's self-regulation, and dyadic mutuality and reciprocity at 1 year after birth. The negative effect of a 2-hour separation after birth was not compensated for by the practice of rooming-in. These findings support the presence of a period after birth (the early "sensitive period") during which close contact between mother and infant may induce long-term positive effect on mother-infant interaction. In addition, swaddling of the infant was found to decrease the mother's responsiveness to the infant, her ability for positive affective involvement with the infant, and the mutuality and reciprocity in the dyad.

Conclusions: Skin-to-skin contact, for 25 to 120 minutes after birth, early suckling, or both positively influenced mother-infant interaction 1 year later when compared with routines involving separation of mother and infant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00307.xDOI Listing
June 2009

Comparisons of different instruments to measure blues and to predict depressive symptoms 2 months postpartum: a study of new mothers and fathers.

Authors:
Maigun Edhborg

Scand J Caring Sci 2008 Jun;22(2):186-95

Department of Neurobiology, Health Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

The aim of the study was to investigate 'blues' during the first week postpartum in new mothers and fathers and to compare different instruments for measuring blues, as well as their ability to predict depressive symptoms at 2 months. Parents were informed while at the maternity clinic about the study and asked to independently answer questions for 5 days during the first week on the Blues Questionnaire, a VAS questionnaire and on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 1 week and 2 months. Of the parents who initially agreed to participate in the study 171 (38%) of the mothers and 133 (31%) of the fathers returned all questionnaires completely filled-out after the first week, and of these, 155 mothers and 113 fathers also completed the EPDS at 2 months. The results showed that mothers experienced more blues than fathers, and that mothers' blues peaked on day 3, while fathers' peaked on day 1 after the delivery-day. The Blues Questionnaire and the VAS subscale 'depressed mood' identified more women as having blues (64% and 52%, respectively) during the first week over the EPDS (24%), but the EPDS identified women with the highest scores on the Blues Questionnaire. At 2 months, 19 (12%) of the mothers, and one father scored 10 or more on the EPDS. All these women, except for one, had experienced severe blues according to the Blues Questionnaire, the first week. Regression analyses showed that the Blues Questionnaire subscale 'depression' was the best predictor for a high EPDS score at 2 months in mothers, while the subscales 'primary blues', 'hypersensitivity' and 'despondency' best predicted depressive symptoms in fathers. Our results indicate that the EPDS could be a valuable instrument to measure 'blues', as EPDS seemed to indicate women with the highest risk for depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00512.xDOI Listing
June 2008

"Struggling with life": narratives from women with signs of postpartum depression.

Scand J Public Health 2005 ;33(4):261-7

Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore and describe how Swedish women with signs of postpartum depression two months postpartum experience the first months with their child.

Method: A grounded theory approach was chosen. Twenty-two women who showed signs of depression, i.e. scored 10 or more on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), were interviewed at an average of 80 days after the delivery.

Results: The new mothers were struggling with life related to the self, the child, and the partner. They expressed feelings of loss of who they are, felt overwhelmed by the responsibility for the child, and were struggling with feelings of abandonment, worries, and breastfeeding problems. They often felt like "bad mothers" but they never blamed the child. Most mothers were reluctant to speak about their feelings and they assigned their depressed mood to personal weakness rather than illness. In relationship to the partner the mothers were struggling to keep their equality in the new situation and to get him involved in childcare.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that depressed feelings postpartum may be explained in terms of losses and changes. However, postpartum depressive symptoms remain hidden and it is important to understand the complexity of postpartum depressive mood, described here as struggling with life related to three different dimensions: the self, the child, and the partner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14034940510005725DOI Listing
September 2005