Publications by authors named "Mai-Britt W Ørntoft"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A genetically inducible porcine model of intestinal cancer.

Mol Oncol 2017 11 10;11(11):1616-1629. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Transgenic porcine cancer models bring novel possibilities for research. Their physical similarities with humans enable the use of surgical procedures and treatment approaches used for patients, which facilitates clinical translation. Here, we aimed to develop an inducible oncopig model of intestinal cancer. Transgenic (TG) minipigs were generated using somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. The pigs encode two TG cassettes: (a) an Flp recombinase-inducible oncogene cassette containing KRAS-G12D, cMYC, SV40LT - which inhibits p53 - and pRB and (b) a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT)-inducible Flp recombinase activator cassette controlled by the intestinal epithelium-specific villin promoter. Thirteen viable transgenic minipigs were born. The ability of 4-OHT to activate the oncogene cassette was confirmed in vitro in TG colonic organoids and ex vivo in tissue biopsies obtained by colonoscopy. In order to provide proof of principle that the oncogene cassette could also successfully be activated in vivo, three pigs were perorally treated with 400 mg tamoxifen for 2 × 5 days. After two months, one pig developed a duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with a lymph node metastasis. Molecular analysis of the carcinoma and metastasis confirmed activation of the oncogene cassette. No tumor formation was observed in untreated TG pigs or in the remaining two treated pigs. The latter indicates that tamoxifen delivery can probably be improved. In summary, we have generated a novel inducible oncopig model of intestinal cancer, which has the ability to form metastatic disease already two months after induction. The model may be helpful in bridging the gap between basic research and clinical usage. It opens new venues for longitudinal studies of tumor development and evolution, for preclinical assessment of new anticancer regimens, for pharmacology and toxicology assessments, as well as for studies into biological mechanisms of tumor formation and metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2017

Clinical Implications of Monitoring Circulating Tumor DNA in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Sep 9;23(18):5437-5445. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

We investigated whether detection of ctDNA after resection of colorectal cancer identifies the patients with the highest risk of relapse and, furthermore, whether longitudinal ctDNA analysis allows early detection of relapse and informs about response to intervention. In this longitudinal cohort study, we used massively parallel sequencing to identify somatic mutations and used these as ctDNA markers to detect minimal residual disease and to monitor changes in tumor burden during a 3-year follow-up period. A total of 45 patients and 371 plasma samples were included. Longitudinal samples from 27 patients revealed ctDNA postoperatively in all relapsing patients ( = 14), but not in any of the nonrelapsing patients. ctDNA detected relapse with an average lead time of 9.4 months compared with CT imaging. Of 21 patients treated for localized disease, six had ctDNA detected within 3 months after surgery. All six later relapsed compared with four of the remaining patients [HR, 37.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.2-335.5; < 0.001]. The ability of a 3-month ctDNA analysis to predict relapse was confirmed in 23 liver metastasis patients (HR 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-15.7; = 0.007). Changes in ctDNA levels induced by relapse intervention ( = 19) showed good agreement with changes in tumor volume (κ = 0.41; Spearman = 0.4). Postoperative ctDNA detection provides evidence of residual disease and identifies patients at very high risk of relapse. Longitudinal surveillance enables early detection of relapse and informs about response to intervention. These observations have implications for the postoperative management of colorectal cancer patients. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2017

Performance of the colorectal cancer screening marker Sept9 is influenced by age, diabetes and arthritis: a nested case-control study.

BMC Cancer 2015 Oct 29;15:819. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine, MOMA, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, DK-8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is diagnosed in >1.4 million subjects worldwide and incidence is increasing. Much effort has therefore been focused on screening, which has proven to reduce cancer-related mortality. The Sept9 DNA-methylation assay is among the most well studied blood-based screening markers. However, earlier reported performances may be misleading: the Sept9 test was recently examined in two screening based cohorts and yielded performances lower than expected. We hypothesize that comorbidities and/or demographic characteristics affect the results of the Sept9 test.

Methods: Using a retrospective nested case-control study design, we studied plasma from 150 cancer and 150 controls selected from a well-characterized cohort of 4698 subjects referred for diagnostic colonoscopy due to CRC-related symptoms. The cases and controls were matched on age and gender, and moreover cases were stratified on tumor-site and tumor-stage. The selected cohort included a wide range of comorbidities. Plasma Sept9 levels were assessed using a commercially available PCR based assay (Epi-proColon).

Results: Clinical sensitivity for CRC stages I-IV was 37 %, 91 %, 77 %, and 89 %, and the overall sensitivity 73 % (95 % CI, 64-80 %) and specificity 82 % (95 % CI, 75-88 %), respectively. Age >65 was associated with both increased false positive and false negative results (p < 0.05). Arthritis was associated with a higher false negative rate (p = 0.005) whereas Arteriosclerosis was associated with a higher false positive rate (p = 0.007). Diabetes was associated with Sept9 positivity with an OR of 5.2 (95 % CI 1.4-19.1). When the performance of Sept9 was adjusted for these parameters in a final multivariate regression model, the OR for a positive Sept9 test to be associated with CRC increased from 8.25 (95 % CI 4.83-14.09) to 29.46 (95 % CI 12.58-69.02).

Conclusions: The results indicate that the performance of the Sept9 assay is negatively affected by several factors commonly associated with CRC screening populations: early-stage disease, age > 65 years, diabetes, arthritis, and arteriosclerosis. This should be taken into account if the Sept9 assay is used as a single marker for CRC screening, but may also have a wider impact, as it is likely that such factors may affect other blood based DNA markers as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2015