Publications by authors named "Mahrokh Jalili"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of land use changes on non-carcinogenic health risks due to nitrate exposure to drinking groundwater.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to determine the effect of land-use changes on the non-carcinogenic health risk of nitrate ion exposure of underground drinking water resources in Shiraz (Iran). To this end, 175 chemical samples for the nitrate analysis were regularly taken from 35 drinking water wells of Shiraz from 2013 to 2017, and their results were zoned using GIS. Hazard quotient (HQ) induced by nitrate ion exposure was determined in four age groups: infants, children, adolescents, and adults. Area changes of four types of land-use, including residential, agricultural and green space, industrial, and bare land within a radius of 400 m of drinking water wells, were determined using the GIS and Google Earth software. Then, all data was imported to Matlab 2018 for statistical analysis. The results showed that mean nitrate concentration increased by 2.5 mg L from 2013 to 2017. According to the zoning map, 5 and 11.4% of the area in 2013 and 2017, respectively, exceeded the drinking water standard set by nitrate (i.e., 50 mg/L). Air temperature and precipitation variations also influenced nitrate concentrations and HQ changes (R = 0.67). Children's age group was the most vulnerable, and during the study period, this vulnerability was an increasing trend, so that the HQ from 0.93 in 2013 to 0.97 in 2017 has increased. The rate of land-use changes in agricultural, industrial, bare, and urban was -1.8%, 1.3%, -4.6%, and 2.1%, respectively, and the highest correlation was observed between HQ and Diff.l residential land use (R = 0.55). According to the results, the most influential factor in HQ was air temperature (R = 0.66), and urban land-use change (R > 0.44). To sum up, this study's results showed that land-use changes, especially urban and residential development, significantly affect groundwater nitrate concentration and its degree of HQ. Moreover, increasing temperature and decreasing annual precipitation can also increase the severity of this risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13753-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of land use on cultivable bioaerosols in the indoor air of hospital in southeast Iran and its determination of the affected radius around of hospital.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 22;28(10):12707-12713. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of land use on hospital bioaerosols and determine the effective radius. The concentration of fungi and bacteria in indoor and outdoor air was determined by the 0800NIOSH. Then land uses were determined by Google earth within a range of 0.5-5 km around three hospitals. Data were analyzed by using Spearman correlation, and a t test was used to determine differences between groups. Data were recorded in Excel and entered into Matlab for analysis. The results of the study showed that the concentration of fungi and bacteria was higher in the indoor and outdoor hospital B (bacteria = 343-43, fungi = 106-291 CFU/m) (P = 0.04). Maximum land use was also found in hospitals A and B related to urban and bare, while in hospital C, they were urban and bare. Mathematical modeling has shown that the trend of land-use variation over different radii consisted of the Gaussian model (in hospital B) and Fourier series (in hospitals A and C). Besides, there was a positive correlation between the bare and fungal and bacterial concentrations. Finally, the most effective bare radius of application on the indoor and outdoor fungi was 4 and 5 km, respectively (R = 0.99). The effective radius for reducing fungi and bacteria by creating green space was 0.5 and 3 km from the hospital center (R = - 0.99, R = - 0.8). Based on these results, land use is an effective factor in airborne fungi and bacteria in hospitals. Therefore, their control and management of land use during 5 km is necessary to reduce pollution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10357-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Is there a relationship between homes' radon gas of MS and non-MS individuals, and the patients' paraclinical magnetic resonance imaging and visually evoked potentials in Yazd-Iran?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 19;28(7):8907-8914. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Long-term inhalation of radon gas can cause harm to humans and lead to many diseases. One of these diseases is multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common chronic disease of the central nervous system, which alters the brain structure and impedes the rapid transmission of nerve signals throughout the neuron system. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of the radon gas concentration in residential homes of MS and non-MS individuals with their results of paraclinical MRI and VEP in Yazd City, Iran. The radon gas concentration was measured in residential homes of 44 people with MS and 100 healthy people. To this end, the questionnaire of radon gas monitoring in residential buildings was administered, and the radon gas concentration was measured by CR-39 detectors. The mean radon concentrations in the homes of MS and non-MS people were 69.51 and 70.83, respectively. A significant positive relationship was found between radon concentration and building's age (P = 0.038). Furthermore, radon concentration had a significant inverse relationship with the building's ventilation (P = 0.053) and cooling systems (P = 0.021). No significant relationship was observed between total radon concentration and MS incidence (P = 0.88). Moreover, no significant correlation was found between radon concentration and location of the plaque in MRI test results of the patients. However, it showed an inverse non-significant correlation with the plaque's number (r = - 0.12, P = 0.42). Further studies in this area are recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10580-yDOI Listing
February 2021

The role of environmental factors to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

AMB Express 2020 May 15;10(1):92. Epub 2020 May 15.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Pardis Campus, Gomnam Blv, Alem Squre, Yazd, Iran.

The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in more than 250 countries has become a serious threat to the health of people around the world. Human-to-human transmission of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs most often when people are in the incubation stage of the disease or are carriers and have no symptoms. Therefore, in this study, was discussed the role of environmental factors and conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind speed as well as food, water and sewage, air, insects, inanimate surfaces, and hands in COVID-19 transmission. The results of studies on the stability of the SARS-CoV-2 on different levels showed that the resistance of this virus on smooth surfaces was higher than others. Temperature increase and sunlight can facilitate the destruction of SARS-COV-2 and the stability of it on surfaces. When the minimum ambient air temperature increases by 1 °C, the cumulative number of cases decreases by 0.86%. According to the latest evidence, the presence of coronavirus in the sewer has been confirmed, but there is no evidence that it is transmitted through sewage or contaminated drinking water. Also, SARS-COV-2 transmission through food, food packages, and food handlers has not been identified as a risk factor for the disease. According to the latest studies, the possibility of transmitting SARS-COV-2 bioaerosol through the air has been reported in the internal environment of ophthalmology. The results additionally show that infectious bio-aerosols can move up to 6 feet. There have been no reports of SARS-COV-2 transmission by blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-01028-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226715PMC
May 2020

The impact of agricultural and green waste treatments on compost quality of dewatered sludge.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Dec 7;26(35):35757-35766. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Composting is one of the environmentally desirable methods for the management of sewage sludge. In this process, the organic matters were decomposed by microorganisms. However, different treatments can improve their qualities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of two agricultural waste wheat straw (WS) and green waste eucalyptus tree leaves (ETL) treatments on the quality of the compost produced from dewatered sewage sludge. So that, the variation trend of heavy metals, temperature, moisture, PH, and C/N ratio was considered during the composting process. The results showed that the variation of some parameters in WS and ETL such as temperature (24.68 ± 0.26 and 23.41 ± 1.35), moisture (4.5 ± 2.64 and 7.66 ± 2.51), pH (5.66 ± 0.35 and 5.97 ± 0.41), and C/N ratio (250 ± 4.08 and 60 ± 3.21) was suitable in both windrows, respectively. Likewise, trend of mineralization was suitable in both masses, because TVS (43 to 78 mg/g DW for WS and 45 to 69 mg/g DW for ETL) and TDS (21 to 55 mg/g DW for WS and 2.6 to 38 mg/g DW for ETL) decreased and increased, respectively, in the composting process. While fecal coliform (2.72 MPN/g DW) and EC (2.4mmho/cm) at WS was more than Iran's agricultural standard. As a consequence, although the quality of both masses was suitable and similar, there are some limitations for using treated compost by WS in agricultural lands due to higher levels of EC, fecal coliforms, and manganese. Therefore, quality of dewatered sludge treated compared with ETL is higher than WS. Furthermore, improvement process and application of some pretreatments are necessary for decreasing the heavy metals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06618-5DOI Listing
December 2019

Removing Disperse red 60 and Reactive blue 19 dyes removal by using Alcea rosea root mucilage as a natural coagulant.

AMB Express 2019 Jul 22;9(1):113. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science, Abarkouh Paramedical School, Yazd, Iran.

In terms of health, dyes have carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties and can have adverse effects on health and the environment. Therefore, sewage containing to dyes must be purified before being discharged into the environment. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Alcea rosea root extract in Disperse red 60 and Reactive blue 19 dyes removal from synthetic sewage. In this study, the effect of different indices including pH (5-11), Alcea rosea concentration (50-300 mg/L) and initial dye concentration (10-80 mg/L) was investigated. During the tests, the coagulant was stirred with rapid mixing at a speed of 250 rpm for 2 min. In the following, the speed (30-60 rpm) and the time (10-25 min) were used for slow mixing and after mixing the effect of settling time (10-60 min) and temperature (20-70) on removal efficiency of Disperse and Reactive dyes was investigated. The results showed that the maximum of removal efficiency of Disperse and Reactive dyes in optimum conditions including (pH = 11, coagulant concentration = 200 and 250 mg/L, dye concentration 40 and 20 mg/L, speed 60 rpm, during 15 min with settling time 60 min and temperature 60 °C obtained 86% and 68%, respectively. According to the result, the Alcea rosea coagulant has the best ability in removing dyes from aqueous solutions and sewage, especially Disperse dyes. Disperse dye is much eliminated in the coagulation process due to its lower solubility, higher suspending materials and less required solved chemical oxygen demand to the total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0839-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646624PMC
July 2019

Toxicity evaluation and management of co-composting pistachio wastes combined with cattle manure and municipal sewage sludge.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 17;171:798-804. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:

To manage the pistachio de-hulling waste (PW), investigated the co-composting process using a mixture of PW and cattle manure (CM) (5.5:10 dry weight) as well as PW and municipal dewatering sewage sludge (DSS) (1:10 dry weight) at the laboratory scale for 60 days. Compost toxicity was evaluated using the seed germination index (GI). The maximum temperatures in co-composting processes of PW+CM (51.9 °C) and PW+DSS (49.9 °C) were reported on the seventh day. The increase of temperature was higher in PW+CM and remained in the thermophilic phase for five days. In both reactors, the pH rates decreased, increased, and finally remained neutral. The C/N ratio decreased in both reactors, but the reduction rate was faster in the PW+DSS reactor. Sodium (Na%) and potassium (K%) contents were increased, while the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were decreased during the processes. The numbers of parasite eggs in the final composts of the reactors containing PW+CM and PW+DSS were zero and 8 Number/4gDW, respectively. The amounts of Salmonella were zero in the final products of reactors containing PW+CM and PW+DSS. The results of GI showed that the final compost of PW+CM process was not toxic for the plants, whereas the PW+DDS final compost was toxic. In conclusion, the co-compost product of the PW+CM reactor had higher quality than the PW+DSS reactor. So, it is suitable for PW management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.01.056DOI Listing
April 2019