Publications by authors named "Mahnaz Ghaebi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Humoral immune mechanisms involved in protective and pathological immunity during COVID-19.

Hum Immunol 2021 Oct 1;82(10):733-745. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 is associated with excessive inflammation, as a main reason for severe condition and death. Increased inflammatory cytokines and humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 correlate with COVID-19 immunity and pathogenesis. Importantly, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines that increase profoundly in systemic circulation appear as part of the clinical pictures of two overlapping conditions, sepsis and the hemophagocytic syndromes. Both conditions can develop lethal inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage, however, in many patients hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can be differentiated from sepsis. This is a key issue because the life-saving aggressive immunosuppressive treatment, required in the HLH therapy, is absent in sepsis guidelines. This paper aims to describe the pathophysiology and clinical relevance of these distinct entities in the course of COVID-19 that resemble sepsis and further highlights two effector arms of the humoral immune response (inflammatory cytokine and immunoglobulin production) during COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2021.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245343PMC
October 2021

Risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 patients: Possible basis for diverse responses to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 15;277:119503. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by an unpredictable disease course, with variable presentations of different organ systems. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are highly variable ranging from mild presentations to severe, life-threatening symptoms and the wide individual variability may be due to the broad heterogeneity in the underlying pathologies. There is no doubt that early management may have a major influence on the outcome. This led the scientists to search for ways to monitor disease progression or to predict outcomes in COVID-19. Although it is not yet possible to predict who will progress to the severe forms or in what time, numerous prospective and longitudinal studies represent the evidence for determining the potential immunological risk factors of COVID-19 critical disease and death. The kinetics and breadth of immune responses during COVID-19 appear to follow a trend which is consistent to the predominant pathological alterations. Recent publications have used these biomarkers to help identify patients who will develop the severe acute COVID-19. Of particular interest is the relationship between the kinetics of peripheral leukocytes and clinical progress of the disease in COVID-19. Although research is ongoing in this area, we present details about the current status of the evaluation. Understanding of the COVID-19 related alterations of the innate and adaptive immune responses may help to promote the vaccine development and immunological interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046708PMC
July 2021

The effects of oxygen-ozone therapy on regulatory T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis patients.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jul 26;45(7):1498-1509. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The decreased frequency and dysfunction of Treg cells cause inflammation and disease progression. Ozone autohemotherapy can be used as a potential therapeutic approach to regulate the immune system responses and inflammation in MS. For this purpose, 20 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients were under treatment with ozone twice weekly for 6 months. The frequency of Treg cell, the expression levels of the Treg cell-related factors (FoxP3, IL-10, TGF-β, miR-17, miR-27, and miR-146A), and the secretion levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were assessed. We found a significant increase in the number of Treg cells, expression levels of FoxP3, miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-27), IL-10, and TGF-β factors in patients after oxygen-ozone (O -O ) therapy compared to before treatment. In contrast, oxygen-ozone therapy notably decreased the expression level of miR-146a in treated patients. Interestingly, the secretion levels of both IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines were considerably increased in both serum and supernatant of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells in posttreatment condition compared to pretreatment condition. According to results, oxygen-ozone therapy raised the frequency of Treg cell and its relevant factors in treated MS patients. Oxygen-ozone therapy would contribute to improving the MS patients by elevating the Treg cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11589DOI Listing
July 2021

Nano-curcumin therapy, a promising method in modulating inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Dec 20;89(Pt B):107088. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: As an ongoing worldwide health issue, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been causing serious complications, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure. However, there is no decisive treatment approach available for this disorder, which is primarily attributed to the large amount of inflammatory cytokine production. We aimed to identify the effects of Nano-curcumin on the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients.

Method: Forty COVID-19 patients and 40 healthy controls were recruited and evaluated for inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. Subsequently, COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients receiving Nano-curcumin and 20 patients as the placebo group. The mRNA expression and cytokine secretion levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 were assessed by Real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively.

Result: Our primary results indicated that the mRNA expression and cytokine secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-18 were increased significantly in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control group. After treatment with Nano-curcumin, a significant decrease in IL-6 expression and secretion in serum and in supernatant (P = 0.0003, 0.0038, and 0.0001, respectively) and IL-1β gene expression and secretion level in serum and supernatant (P = 0.0017, 0.0082, and 0.0041, respectively) was observed. However, IL-18 mRNA expression and TNF-α concentration were not influenced by Nano-curcumin.

Conclusion: Nano-curcumin, as an anti-inflammatory herbal based agent, may be able to modulate the increased rate of inflammatory cytokines especially IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in COVID-19 patients, which may cause an improvement in clinical manifestation and overall recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574843PMC
December 2020

Multidirectional Strategies for Targeted Delivery of Oncolytic Viruses by Tumor Infiltrating Immune Cells.

Pharmacol Res 2020 11 12;161:105094. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Immunotherapy Research and Technology Group, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Oncolytic virus (OV) immunotherapy has demonstrated to be a promising approach in cancer treatment due to tumor-specific oncolysis. However, their clinical use so far has been largely limited due to the lack of suitable delivery strategies with high efficacy. Direct 'intratumoral' injection is the way to cross the hurdles of systemic toxicity, while providing local effects. Progress in this field has enabled the development of alternative way using 'systemic' oncolytic virotherapy for producing better results. One major potential roadblock to systemic OV delivery is the low virus persistence in the face of hostile immune system. The delivery challenge is even greater when attempting to target the oncolytic viruses into the entire tumor mass, where not all tumor cells are equally exposed to exactly the same microenvironment. The microenvironment of many tumors is known to be massively infiltrated with various types of leucocytes in both primary and metastatic sites. Interestingly, this intratumoral immune cell heterogeneity exhibits a degree of organized distribution inside the tumor bed as evidenced, for example, by the hypoxic tumor microenviroment where predominantly recruits tumor-associated macrophages. Although in vivo OV delivery seems complicated and challenging, recent results are encouraging for decreasing the limitations of systemically administered oncolytic viruses and an improved efficiency of oncolytic viral therapy in targeting cancerous tissues in vitro. Here, we review the latest developments of carrier cell-based oncolytic virus delivery using tumor-infiltrating immune cells with a focus on the main features of each cellular vehicle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105094DOI Listing
November 2020

Vaccine development and therapeutic design for 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2: Challenges and chances.

J Cell Physiol 2020 12 18;235(12):9098-9109. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged 2019 novel coronavirus (nCoV), which has seriously threatened global health security, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with high morbidity and mortality. Despite the burden of the disease worldwide, still, no licensed vaccine or any specific drug against 2019-nCoV is available. Data from several countries show that few repurposed drugs using existing antiviral drugs have not (so far) been satisfactory and more recently were proven to be even highly toxic. These findings underline an urgent need for preventative and therapeutic interventions designed to target specific aspects of 2019-nCoV. Again the major factor in this urgency is that the process of data acquisition by physical experiment is time-consuming and expensive to obtain. Scientific simulations and more in-depth data analysis permit to validate or refute drug repurposing opportunities predicted via target similarity profiling to speed up the development of a new more effective anti-2019-nCoV therapy especially where in vitro and/or in vivo data are not yet available. In addition, several research programs are being developed, aiming at the exploration of vaccines to prevent and treat the 2019-nCoV. Computational-based technology has given us the tools to explore and identify potentially effective drug and/or vaccine candidates which can effectively shorten the time and reduce the operating cost. The aim of the present review is to address the available information on molecular determinants in disease pathobiology modules and define the computational approaches employed in systematic drug repositioning and vaccine development settings for SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323389PMC
December 2020

Sirolimus as a new drug to treat RIF patients with elevated Th17/Treg ratio: A double-blind, phase II randomized clinical trial.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Sep 9;74:105730. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Stem Cell Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: RIF is clinically defined as the failure of good quality embryos to implant into the uterus following at least three cycles of In Vitro Fertilization/Embryo Transfer (IVF/ET). During human pregnancy, a genetically different fetus is allowed to survive within the uterus despite the maternal recognition of fetal alloantigens. Compared with normal pregnant women, early loss of embryo is associated with systemic lower levels of Treg cells in IVF. Moreover, several lines of evidence have indicated that differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 is deleterious for normal pregnancy and may cause implantation failure. Sirolimus as the most common mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin) inhibitor is able to effectively prevent allograft rejection. Here we aimed to evaluate Sirolimus effects on Th17/Treg axis and subsequently on pregnancy outcome.

Methods And Materials: 121 patients with a history of at least 3 implatation failures were selected and enrolled in this clinical trial. Blood was drawn between days 5 and 10 of the cycle prior to the index IVF/ET cycle to assess baseline value of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells ratios using flowcytometry. A Th17/Treg cell ratio equal or >0.74 was considered to be the elevated Th17/Treg cell ratio. In 76 patients with elevated Th17/Treg ratios, 43 individuals were treated with Sirolimus and 33 remained untreated.

Results: Our results demonstrated that Sirolimus treatment led to an increase in Treg cells number and function in treated group and reduced the frequency and function of Th17 cells. Moreover Th17/Treg cell ratio, significantly reduced from 1.18 ± 0.46% to 0.9 ± 0.45% following Sirolimus intervention (P = 0.024). In contrast, no significant difference in Th17 and Treg cell frequencies and Th17/Treg cell ratio was observed in untreated control subjects before and after ET. Finally our data showed a significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (55.81%) in Sirolimus-treated patients compared with control group (24.24%) (P < 0.0005). We also found a significantly increased live birth rate (48.83%) in RIF women who received Sirolimus compared with control group (21.21%) (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed the fact that Sirolimus exhibit potent immunosuppressive effects by blocking intracellular immune responses downstream of co-stimulatory signals, also is able to improve reproductive outcome in RIF women with imbalanced Th17/Treg ratio by modulate of Th17 /Treg axis, thus representing a new approach for the potential treatment of patients with embryo implantation failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105730DOI Listing
September 2019

The effects of nanocurcumin on Treg cell responses and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

J Cell Biochem 2020 01 9;121(1):103-110. Epub 2019 May 9.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Aim: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease with increased bone mass in the main sites of inflammation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been reported to involve in pathology of AS. This study designed at investigating the effects of nanocurcumin on Treg cell responses in peripheral blood (PB) of AS patients.

Methods: Test group including 12 AS patients received nanocurcumin daily for 4 months and control group including 12 patients received placebo. The frequency of Treg was measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of FoxP3 and several associated microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-27, miR-17, and miR-146a) and cytokines including Interleukin-10 (IL-10), TGF-β, and IL-6 were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done to determine the secretion levels of cytokines.

Results: After treatment with nanocurcumin the frequency of Treg cells in AS patients increased significantly. The RT-PCR data indicated that the expression of miR-17 and miR-27 were significantly decreased following nanocurcumin treatment while miR-146a and FoxP3 were significantly increased. Moreover, nanocurcumin-treated group had high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β and low levels of IL-6 production than control group.

Conclusion: The findings suggested that dysregulation of Treg cells in PB influences the AS development and nanocurcumin therapy could regulate the Treg cells, and so could be useful in the treatment of AS and may be other autoimmune diseases. This study is registered with IRCT.ir, number IRCT2017052927520N7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28901DOI Listing
January 2020

Epigenetic mechanisms are behind the regulation of the key genes associated with the osteoblastic differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells: The role of zoledronic acid on tuning the epigenetic changes.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells and show distinct features such as capability for self-renewal and differentiation into several lineages of cells including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In this study, the methylation status of the promoter region of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16), twist-related protein 1(Twist1), de novo DNA methyltransferases 3A (DNMT3A), SRY-box 9 (Sox9), osteocalcin (OCN), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) genes and their messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs (ODMSCs). We planned two experimental groups including zoledronic acid (ZA)-treated and nontreated cells (negative control) which both were differentiated into the osteoblasts. Methylation level of DNA in the promoter regions was assayed by methylation-specific-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR), and mRNA levels of the target inhibitory/stimulatory genes during osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs were measured using real-time PCR. During the experimental induction of ODMSCs, the mRNA expression of the OCN gene was upregulated and methylation level of its promoter region was decreased. Moreover, Sox9 and PPARγ2 mRNA levels were attenuated and their promoter regions methylation levels were significantly augmented. However, the mRNA expression of the DNMT3A was not affected during the ODMSCs though its methylation rate was increased. In addition, ZA could enhance the expression of the ZBTB16 and decrease its promoter regions methylation and on the opposite side, it diminished mRNA expression of Sox9, Twist1, and PPARγ2 genes and increased their methylation rates. Intriguingly, ZA did not show a significant impact on gene expression and methylation levels the OCN and DNMT3A. We found that methylation of the promoter regions of Sox9, OCN, and PPARγ2 genes might be one of the main mechanisms adjusting the genes expression during the ODMSCs. Furthermore, we noticed that ZA can accelerate the MSCs differentiation to the osteoblast cells via two regulatory processes; suppression of osteoblastic differentiation inhibitor genes including Sox9, Twist1, and PPARγ2, and through promotion of the ZBTB16 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28152DOI Listing
January 2019

Leukemia therapy by flavonoids: Future and involved mechanisms.

J Cell Physiol 2019 06 30;234(6):8203-8220. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Immunology, Division of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Flavonoids are a varied family of phytonutrients (plant chemicals) usually are detected in fruits and vegetables. In this big family, there exist more than 10,000 members that is separated into six chief subtypes: isoflavonols, flavonoenes, flavones, flavonols, anthocyanins, and chalcones. The natural compounds, such as fruits, have visible positive effects in regulating of survival involved signaling pathways that performance as the regulator of cell survival, growth, and proliferation. Researchers have established that commonly consumption up flavonoids decreases incidence and development risk of certain cancers, especially leukemia. Flavonoids have been able to induce apoptosis and stimulate cell cycle arrest in cancer cells via different pathways. Similarly, they have antiangiogenesis and antimetastasis capability, which were shown in wide ranges of cancer cells, particularly, leukemia. It seems that flavonoid because of their widespread approval, evident safety and low rate of side effects, have hopeful anticarcinogenic potential for leukemia therapy. Based on the last decade reports, the most important acting mechanisms of these natural compounds in leukemia cells are stimulating of apoptosis pathways by upregulation of caspase 3, 8, 9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and proapoptotic proteins, particularly Bax activation. As well, they can induce cell cycle arrest in target cells not only via increasing of activated levels of p21 and p53 but also by inhibition of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Furthermore, attenuation of neclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation, suppression of signaling pathway and downregulation of intracellular antiapoptotic proteins are other significant antileukemic function mechanism of flavonoids. Overall, it appears that flavonoids are promising and effective compounds in the field of leukemia therapy. In this review, we tried to accumulate and revise most promising flavonoids and finally declared their major working mechanisms in leukemia cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27628DOI Listing
June 2019

T cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood of Women with Recurrent Implantation Failure.

J Reprod Immunol 2019 02 8;131:21-29. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in the T cell composition and the expression of specific factors (i.e., IRF4, TBX21, GATA3, and GITR) of T cells between women with Repeated Implantation Failure (RIF) and fertile women. We observed a decrease in circulating Tregs and exhausted CD8 + T cells in RIF patients when compared to the controls whereas exhausted Treg and Th17 cells were more frequent. Using real-time PCR, we determined that the expression of IRF-4 and TBX21 was significantly elevated in the cases. In contrast, mRNAs encoding GATA3 and GITR were reduced. Furthermore, the expression of some miRNAs involved in T cell differentiation and their target gene candidates were examined in T cells from women with RIF and fertile control women. The patients showed significant up-regulation of miR-25, miR-93, and miR-326. miR-155 and miR-146a demonstrated significant down-regulation in RIF patients. The results revealed that the expression pattern of target genes was in line with data for miRNAs expression from purified Treg and Th17 cells. The findings of real-time PCR analysis provided insights into the genetic pathways underlying this aberration in the proportions of T cell subsets. Our data suggest that a combination of higher pro-inflammatory Th17 and exhausted Treg cells, and lower Treg and exhausted CD8 + T cells may co-exist in the peripheral blood of women with RIF. Moreover, the expression level of transcription factors and miRNAs controlling T cell differentiation may differ in women with RIF influencing pregnancy outcomes in these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2018.11.002DOI Listing
February 2019

NK cell frequency and cytotoxicity in correlation to pregnancy outcome and response to IVIG therapy among women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

J Cell Physiol 2019 06 14;234(6):9428-9437. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) has a multifactorial etiology mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities and immunological factors. Treating RM has remained to be a challenging issue and the role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating RM is still controversial.

Materials And Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in natural killer (NK) cells' frequency and cytotoxicity in patients with RM who received the IVIG therapy. A total of 78 women with a history of three or more recurrent miscarriages were included and their peripheral blood was drawn in case of positive pregnancy test. On the same date, 400 mg/kg of IVIG was administrated intravenously in 38 women and it continued every four weeks through weeks 30-32 of gestation. The remaining 40 patients with RM were included to be the untreated control group. Then, the effects of IVIG on NK cell frequency, cytotoxic activity, and the expression of inhibitory and activating receptors in the patients with RM, pre and posttreatment were assessed.

Results: NK cells percentage and cytotoxicity were significantly reduced in the IVIG-treated patients after 32 weeks of gestation (p < 0.0001). Expression levels of inhibitory receptors was increased, however, the expression levels of activating receptors were significantly decreased after the IVIG therapy. Pregnancy outcome after the treatment was significantly higher (86.8%) in the IVIG-treated patients than controls (45%; p = 0.0006).

Conclusion: Our results suggested that women with RM may benefit from IVIG as a therapeutic approach and the frequency and functional status of peripheral NK cells may serve as a valuable predictive factor of therapy response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27627DOI Listing
June 2019

Altered T-cell subpopulations in recurrent pregnancy loss patients with cellular immune abnormalities.

J Cell Physiol 2019 04 6;234(4):4924-4933. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder of women in reproductive age, which in some cases is caused by immunologic abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate cellular and molecular components of the immune system like different T-cell subsets and their regulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in RPL women and control group. Fifty RPL and 50 healthy subjects were recruited. Subsets of T cells, including regulatory T (Treg) cells, helper T (Th) 17 cells, exhausted T cells, exhausted Treg cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Transcription factors of T cells and related miRNA profile were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Assessment showed that Treg and exhausted T cells, were decreased in RPL patients (p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively), while an increase was observed in Th17 and exhausted Treg frequency ( p = 0.013 and 0.0037, respectively). Messenger RNA expression level of T-bet and IRF4 was upregulated in RPL patients ( p = 0.011 and 0.0001, respectively), while Th2- and Treg-related transcription factors, GATA3 and GITR, were downregulated in these patients compared with the healthy subjects ( p = 0.0008 and <0.000, respectively). Treg-associated miRNAs, the miR-106b-25-93 cluster, showed a higher rate in RPL patients ( P = 0.007, 0.001, and 0.029, respectively), however, we observed no significant difference in the expression level of Th17-associated miRNA, mir-326. According to the results, we concluded that unbalanced immune responses and deregulated function of T-cell subsets may lead to reproduction-related failure like a miscarriage. Therefore, evaluation of immune cells and related miRNA profile may serve as prognostic biomarker for the treatment of RPL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27290DOI Listing
April 2019

Regulatory T cells improve pregnancy rate in RIF patients after additional IVIG treatment.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2017 Dec 3;63(6):350-359. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

b Drug Applied Research Center , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

RIF (repeated implantation failure) women with immunologic basis and cellular abnormalities may benefit from intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) as an immunomodulator based on different studies. In this study, we evaluated the effect of IVIG on the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells, as two important subgroups of CD T cells in implantation and pregnancy rates. Seventy-two RIF patients with preconception Th1⁄Th2 ratio and natural killer (NK) cells frequency and activity elevation were selected and divided into two groups; 40 out of 72 received IVIG, aspirin, and heparin (anoxaparin) and constituted the treatment group and 32 patients received aspirin and heparin (anoxaparin) and no IVIG and were the control group. Th17, Treg frequency, transcription factors, cytokine gene expression, and cytokine secretion were evaluated by flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and ELISA, respectively. Post-treatment evaluation of the IVIG grouprevealed a significant increase in Treg associated parameters such as Treg frequency (p = 0.0186), Foxp3 (p = 0.0004), and cytokine mRNA levels (IL-10, p = 0.0058 and TGF- β, p = 0.0038), however, in the case of Th17, a significant difference was only observed in a reduction in the RORγt mRNA level (p = 0.0218). In conclusion, IVIG therapy may be a good choice in the treatment of implantation failure in RIF women especially with an immunologic basis, and may improve the implantation and pregnancy rate by affecting immunoregulatory mechanisms such as Tregs.

Abbreviations: RIF: repeated implantation failure; IVIG: intravenous immunoglobulin; Th17: T helper 17; Treg: T regulatory; NK cells: natural killer cells; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; RORγt: RAR-related orphan receptor gamma; Foxp3: forkhead box protein P3; IL-17: interleukin-17; LMWH: low-molecular weight heparin; dNK: decidual NK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19396368.2017.1390007DOI Listing
December 2017

Effect of Intravenous immunoglobulin on Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and improvement of pregnancy outcome in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Aug 12;92:1095-1102. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Women with elevated natural killer (NK) cell frequency and function during pregnancy, suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In the present study, the possible effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration on Th1 and Th2 cell frequency, cytokine secretion, and expression of transcription factors is compared between RPL patients and control group.

Materials And Methods: Totally, 44 women with a history of RPL (32 women as treated group and 12 as control group) were enrolled in the study. The frequency of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes, the expression of transcription factors related to these cells and the serum levels of associated cytokines were assessed by flowcytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. All, assessments were performed both before and after treatment with IVIG.

Results: A significant reduction in Th1 lymphocyte frequency, transcription factor expression and cytokine levels were observed in IVIG-treated group, while all the above parameters indicated a significant increase for Th2 lymphocytes. Th1/Th2 ratio decreased significantly (p value<0.0001) at the end of treatment and 28 out of 32 (87.5%) women in IVIG-treated group had live birth in comparison with 5 out of 12 (41.6%) in untreated group.

Conclusion: IVIG administration proves to be an efficient therapeutic strategy which is able to enhance the success rate of pregnancy through a shift in Th2 responses. Furthermore, IVIG presents efficacy for the treatment of reproduction failures especially in subjects with immune cell abnormalities and increased NK cell level and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.001DOI Listing
August 2017

Immune regulatory network in successful pregnancy and reproductive failures.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 14;88:61-73. Epub 2017 Jan 14.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Maternal immune system must tolerate semiallogenic fetus to establish and maintain a successful pregnancy. Despite the existence of several strategies of trophoblast to avoid recognition by maternal leukocytes, maternal immune system may react against paternal alloantigenes. Leukocytes are important components in decidua. Not only T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance, but also regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in pregnancy. Although the frequency of Tregs is elevated during normal pregnancies, their frequency and function are reduced in reproductive defects such as recurrent miscarriage and preeclampsia. Tregs are not the sole population of suppressive cells in the decidua. It has recently been shown that regulatory B10 (Breg) cells participate in pregnancy through secretion of IL-10 cytokine. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature developing precursors of innate myeloid cells that are increased in pregnant women, implying their possible function in pregnancy. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are also detected in mouse and human decidua. They can also affect the fetomaternal tolerance. In this review, we will discuss on the role of different immune regulatory cells including Treg, γd T cell, Breg, MDSC, and NKT cells in pregnancy outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.016DOI Listing
April 2017
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