Publications by authors named "Mahn-Won Park"

58 Publications

Multivessel versus IRA-only PCI in patients with NSTEMI and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0258525. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: A substantial number of patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) have severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%). But data are lacking regarding optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of IRA (infarct-related artery)-only and multivessel PCI in patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated by severe LVSD.

Methods: Among 13,104 patients enrolled in the PCI registry from November 2011 to December 2015, patients with NSTEMI and MVD with severe LVSD who underwent successful PCI were screened. The primary outcome was 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, stroke, and any revascularization.

Results: Overall, 228 patients were treated with IRA-only PCI (n = 104) or MV-PCI (n = 124). The MACE risk was significantly lower in the MV-PCI group than in the IRA-only PCI group (35.5% vs. 54.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.561; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.378-0.832; p = 0.04). This result was mainly driven by a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (23.4% vs. 41.4%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.503; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.314-0.806; p = 0.004). The results were consistent after multivariate regression, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline differences.

Conclusions: Among patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated with severe LVSD, multivessel PCI was associated with a significantly lower MACE risk. The findings may provide valuable information to physicians who are involved in decision-making for these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513855PMC
October 2021

Unguided de-escalation from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in stabilised patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (TALOS-AMI): an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised trial.

Lancet 2021 Oct;398(10308):1305-1316

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: In patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving potent antiplatelet therapy, the bleeding risk remains high during the maintenance phase. We sought data on a uniform unguided de-escalation strategy of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) from ticagrelor to clopidogrel after acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: In this open-label, assessor-masked, multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised trial (TALOS-AMI), patients at 32 institutes in South Korea with acute myocardial infarction receiving aspirin and ticagrelor without major ischaemic or bleeding events during the first month after index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a de-escalation (clopidogrel plus aspirin) or active control (ticagrelor plus aspirin) group. Unguided de-escalation without a loading dose of clopidogrel was adopted when switching from ticagrelor to clopidogrel. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or bleeding type 2, 3, or 5 according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria from 1 to 12 months. A non-inferiority test was done to assess the safety and efficacy of de-escalation DAPT compared with standard treatment. The hazard ratio (HR) for de-escalation versus active control group in a stratified Cox proportional hazards model was assessed for non-inferiority by means of an HR margin of 1·34, which equates to an absolute difference of 3·0% in the intention-to-treat population and, if significant, a superiority test was done subsequently. To ensure statistical robustness, additional analyses were also done in the per-protocol population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02018055.

Findings: From Feb 26, 2014, to Dec 31, 2018, from 2901 patients screened, 2697 patients were randomly assigned: 1349 patients to de-escalation and 1348 to active control groups. At 12 months, the primary endpoints occurred in 59 (4·6%) in the de-escalation group and 104 (8·2%) patients in the active control group (p<0·001; HR 0·55 [95% CI 0·40-0·76], p=0·0001). There was no significant difference in composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between de-escalation (2·1%) and the active control group (3·1%; HR 0·69; 95% CI 0·42-1·14, p=0·15). Composite of BARC 2, 3, or 5 bleeding occurred less frequently in the de-escalation group (3·0% vs 5·6%, HR 0·52; 95% CI 0·35-0·77, p=0·0012).

Interpretation: In stabilised patients with acute myocardial infarction after index PCI, a uniform unguided de-escalation strategy significantly reduced the risk of net clinical events up to 12 months, mainly by reducing the bleeding events.

Funding: ChongKunDang Pharm, Medtronic, Abbott, and Boston Scientific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01445-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Our study assessed the prognostic implications of visit-to-visit BPV in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study enrolled 7,375 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI and at least five measurements of blood pressure after hospital discharge. Visit-to-visit BPV was estimated as variability independent of mean. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoints were major cardiovascular events (the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke) and hospitalization for heart failure. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, adjusted risks of all-cause mortality, major cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure continuously increased as systolic BPV and diastolic BPV increased. Patients in the highest quartile of systolic BPV (versus lowest) had increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.85]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.31 [95% CI 1.1-1.55]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.15 [95% CI 1.49-3.1]). Patients in the highest quartile of diastolic BPV was also associated with all-cause mortality (aHR 1.39 [95% CI 1.14-1.7]), major cardiovascular events (aHR 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.53]), and hospitalization for heart failure (aHR 2.01[95% CI 1.4-2.87]). Both systolic and diastolic BPV improved the predictive ability of the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score for both all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Higher visit-to-visit BPV was associated with increased risks of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00594-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Risks of Recurrent Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Acute Myocardial Infarction Implanted with Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 17;10(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Current treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have dramatically improved clinical outcomes during the first year after AMI. Less is known, however, about the subsequent risks of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients who survive 1 year after AMI. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes in 1-year AMI survivors who were implanted with newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs) since 2010. The COREA-AMI (CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in AMI) registry consecutively enrolled AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and patients who received newer-generation DESs since 2010 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), and secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Of 6242 AMI patients, 5397 were alive 1 year after the index procedure. The cumulative incidence of MACEs and all-cause death 1 to 7 years after AMI were 28.4% (annually 4-6%) and 20.2% (annually 3-4%), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration, as well as traditional risk factors, were associated with MACEs and all-cause death. Recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and bleeding events within 1 year were significantly associated with all-cause death. The risks of adverse cardiovascular events and death remain high in AMI patients more than 1 year after the index PCI with newer-generation DESs. Traditional risk factors, uncontrolled SBP and LDL-C, and non-fatal adverse events within 1 year after the index procedure strongly influence long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396866PMC
August 2021

Clinical Outcome of Rotational Atherectomy in Calcified Lesions in Korea-ROCK Registry.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 7;57(7). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

: Data is still limited regarding clinical outcomes of rotational atherectomy (RA) after percutaneous coronary intervention. We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of RA. This multi-center registry enrolled patients who underwent RA during PCI from nine tertiary centers in Korea between January 2010 and October 2019. The primary endpoint was target-vessel failure (TVF; the composite outcome of cardiac death, target-vessel spontaneous myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization). : Of 540 patients (583 lesions), the mean patient age was 71.4 ± 0.4 years, 323 patients (59.8%) were men, and 305 patients (56.5%) had diabetes mellitus. Technical success rate was 96.4%. In-hospital major adverse cerebral and cardiac events occurred in 63 cases (10.8%). At 1.5 years, 72 (16.0%) of TVFs were occurred. We evaluated independent predictors of TVF, which included current smoker (hazard ratio (HR), 1.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.16; = 0.01), chronic renal disease (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.14-3.08; = 0.013), history of cerebrovascular attack (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.24-3.68; = 0.006), left ventricle ejection fraction (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.999; = 0.037), and left main disease (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.11-3.37; = 0.019). From this registry, we demonstrated acceptable success rates, in-hospital and mid-term clinical outcomes of RA in the DES era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57070694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303478PMC
July 2021

3D Printed Personalized External Aortic Root Model in Marfan Syndrome with Isolated Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Caused by a Novel Pathogenic p.Gly1127Cys Variant.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

The major cause of death in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is cardiovascular complications, particularly progressive dilatation of the proximal aorta, rendering these patients at risk of aortic dissection or fatal rupture. We report a 3D printed personalized external aortic root model for MFS with an isolated sinus of Valsalva aneurysm caused by a novel pathogenic variant. A 67-year-old female with a history of lens dislocation and retinal detachment in the left eye was admitted for the evaluation of resting dyspnea several months prior. Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe aortic valve regurgitation and a large left coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm in the proband. Sanger sequencing identified a heterozygous p.Gly1127Cys variant in the gene; previously, a mutation at this amino acid position was described as pathogenic (p.Gly1127Ser; rs137854468). A 3D printed personalized external aortic root model based on a multidetector computed tomography scan was constructed to illustrate the location of the ostium of the left main coronary artery on the aneurysm of the left coronary artery cusp. Aortic root replacement with the Bentall procedure matched the exact shape of the 3D printed model. Creation of a 3D printed patient-specific model could be useful in facilitating the development of next-generation medical devices and resolving the risks of postoperative complications and aortic root disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11061057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227084PMC
June 2021

Effects of Smoking on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Lung Cancer in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):336-348

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the "smoker's paradox". This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization.

Results: Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594-0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443-0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009-1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026-1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensity-score matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416-5.338; p=0.003).

Conclusions: In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022024PMC
April 2021

Gender differences in clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2020 Nov;17(11):680-693

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: There are numerous but conflicting data regarding gender differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, gender differences in clinical outcomes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PCI in Asian population remain uncertain because of the under-representation of Asian in previous trials.

Methods: A total of 13, 104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into male ( = 8021, 75.9%) and female ( = 2547, 24.1%). We compared the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, 30-days and 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in women with those in men after AMI by using propensity score (PS) matching.

Results: Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities and more often presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Over the median follow-up of 363 days, gender differences in both 30-days and 1-year MACCE as well as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding risk were not observed in the PS matched population (30-days MACCE: 5.3% . 4.7%, log-rank = 0.494, HR = 1.126, 95% CI: 0.800-1.585; 1-year MACCE: 9.3% . 9.0%, log-rank = 0.803, HR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.802-1.328; TIMI minor bleeding: 4.9% . 3.9%, log-rank = 0.215, HR = 1.255, 95% CI: 0.869-1.814).

Conclusions: Among Korean AMI population undergoing contemporary PCI, women, as compared with men, had different clinical and angiographic characteristics but showed similar 30-days and 1-year clinical outcomes. The risk of bleeding after PCI was comparable between men and women during one-year follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729180PMC
November 2020

Ischemic and Bleeding Events Associated with Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 21;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

The early and late ischemic and bleeding clinical outcomes according to baseline platelet count after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. Overall, 10,667 patients from the Cardiovascular Risk and identification of potential high-risk population in AMI (COREA-AMI) I and II registries were classified according to the following universal criteria on baseline platelet counts: (1) moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (platelet < 100 K/μL, = 101), (2) mild thrombocytopenia (platelet = 100~149 K/μL, = 631), (3) normal reference (platelet = 150~450 K/μL, = 9832), and (4) thrombocytosis (platelet > 450 K/μL, = 103). The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The secondary outcome was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, and 5 bleeding. After adjusting for confounders, the moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.49-2.78); 0.001), mild thrombocytopenia (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34; = 0.045), and thrombocytosis groups (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.03; = 0.019) showed higher 5-year MACE rates than the normal reference. In BARC 2, 3, and 5 bleeding outcomes, the bleedings rates were higher than the normal range in the moderate to severe thrombocytopenia (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.36-3.49; = 0.001) and mild thrombocytopenia (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12-1.78; = 0.004) groups. Patients with AMI had higher 5-year MACE rates after PCI if they had lower- or higher-than-normal platelet counts. Thrombocytopenia revealed higher early and late bleeding rates whereas thrombocytosis showed long-term bleeding trends, although these trends were not statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589459PMC
October 2020

A prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label trial to compare the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor in stabilised patients with acute myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention: rationale and design of the TALOS-AMI trial.

EuroIntervention 2021 Feb;16(14):1170-1176

Department of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aims: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the risk of ischaemic complications is highest in the early phase (during the first 30 days), while most bleeding events occur predominantly during the maintenance phase of treatment (after the first 30 days). Data on the de-escalation of dual antiplatelet therapy by switching from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in stabilised AMI patients are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of switching from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in AMI patients with no adverse event during the first month after the index PCI with newer-generation DES.

Methods And Results: TALOS-AMI is a multicentre, randomised, open-label study enrolling 2,590 AMI patients with no adverse events during the first month after the index PCI. One month after the index PCI, eligible patients are randomly assigned either to 1) aspirin 100 mg plus clopidogrel 75 mg daily, or to 2) aspirin 100 mg plus ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily, in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, and bleeding type 2, 3 or 5 according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria from 1 to 12 months after the index PCI.

Conclusions: The TALOS-AMI trial is the first large-scale, multicentre, randomised study exploring the efficacy and safety of the de-escalation of antiplatelet therapy by switching from ticagrelor to clopidogrel in stabilised AMI patients undergoing PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00187DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2020 05 9;306:35-41. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Departments of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: The inhibitors for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have different mechanisms of action in coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) therapy in patients with CAD undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Based on the National Health Insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone PCI between July 2011 and June 2015 were enrolled. The study participants were classified either as patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 21,747) or angina (n = 28,708). And according to the post PCI discharge medications, patients were categorized into ACEI and ARB therapy groups. The primary endpoint was all-cause death, and the two groups were compared using a propensity-score matching analysis.

Results: The study population had a median follow-up of 2.2 years (interquartile range, 1.2-3.2). In the propensity-score matched AMI group (8341 pairs), the occurrence of all-cause death was significantly lower in the ACEI group than in the ARB group (hazard ratio [HR] of ACEI, 0.823; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.715-0.947; p = 0.006). In the propensity-score matched angina group (10,878 pairs), there was no difference in the incidence of the primary endpoint between the ACEI and ARB groups (HR of ACEI, 1.113; 95% CI: 0.986-1.257; p = 0.084).

Conclusions: In this nationwide Korean cohort study, ACEI therapy in patients with AMI and concomitant PCI showed a significant reduction in all-cause mortality rates when compared to that with ARB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.11.086DOI Listing
May 2020

Comparative effectiveness analysis of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with chronic kidney disease and unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

EuroIntervention 2020 May;16(1):27-35

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Aims: Outcomes according to the status of renal insufficiency have not been fully evaluated in left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). In the present study therefore, we sought to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with significant LMCAD stratified by the degree of renal insufficiency and the relative clinical outcomes after PCI and CABG stratified by the differential levels of renal function using data from the large multinational "all-comers" Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization (IRIS-MAIN) registry.

Methods And Results: Among 4,894 patients with LMCAD, renal insufficiency was graded according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or any revascularisation. The patients were stratified into three groups according to eGFR: 3,824 (78%) in group 1 (eGFR ≥60 ml·min-1·1.73 m2), 838 (17%) in group 2 (eGFR ≥30 and <60), and 232 (5%) in group 3 (eGFR <30). At two years, after adjustment, compared with group 1, the risk of MACCE was significantly higher in group 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.79) and in group 3 (HR 3.39, 95% CI: 2.61-4.40). The p interaction for MACCE across groups was 0.20. The adjusted risk of MACCE was similar between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in groups 1 and 2. However, PCI was associated with a significantly higher risk of MACCE compared to CABG (HR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.08-3.25) in group 3.

Conclusions: The degree of renal insufficiency was proportionately associated with unfavourable outcomes in patients with LMCAD. In group 3, PCI was associated with a higher risk of MACCE compared with CABG. Also, the effect of PCI versus CABG on MACCE was consistent, with PCI being associated with less bleeding and CABG being associated with less repeat revascularisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-18-01206DOI Listing
May 2020

Association between body mass index and 1-year outcome after acute myocardial infarction.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(6):e0217525. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Beneficial effects of overweight and obesity on mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been described as "Body Mass Index (BMI) paradox". However, the effects of BMI is still on debate. We analyzed the association between BMI and 1-year clinical outcomes after AMI.

Methods: Among 13,104 AMI patients registered in Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015, 10,568 patients who eligible for this study were classified into 3 groups according to BMI (Group 1; < 22 kg/m2, 22 ≤ Group 2 < 26 kg/m2, Group 3; ≥ 26 kg/m2). The primary end point was all cause death at 1 year.

Results: Over the median follow-up of 12 months, the event of primary end point occurred more frequently in the Group 1 patients than in the Group 3 patients (primary endpoint: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.537; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.177 to 2.007, p = 0.002). Especially, cardiac death played a major role in this effect (aHR, 1.548; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.128 to 2.124, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Higher BMI appeared to be good prognostic factor on 1-year all cause death after AMI. This result suggests that higher BMI or obesity might confer a protective advantage over the life-quality after AMI.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570024PMC
February 2020

The Predictive Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Major Adverse Cardiac Events According to Renal Function (from the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter [CONFIRM] Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2019 05 10;123(9):1435-1442. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

The prognostic performance of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with decreased renal function remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether CACS improves risk stratification by demonstrating incremental value beyond a traditional risk score according to renal function status. 9,563 individuals without known coronary artery disease were enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m) was ascertained using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, and was categorized as: ≥90, 60 to 89, and <60. CACS was categorized as 0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, and >400. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), comprising all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and late revascularization (>90 days). Mean age was 55.8 ± 11.5 years (52.8% male). In total, 261 (2.7%) patients experienced MACE over a median follow-up of 24.5 months (interquartile range: 16.9 to 41.1). Incident MACE increased with higher CACS across each eGFR category, with the highest rate observed among patients with CACS >400 and eGFR <60 (95.1 per 1,000 person-years). A CACS >400 increased MACE risk with HR 4.46 (95% CI 1.68 to 11.85), 6.63 (95% CI 4.03 to 10.92), and 6.14 (95% CI 2.85 to 13.21) for eGFR ≥90, 60 to 89, and <60, respectively, as compared with CACS 0. Further, CACS improved discrimination and reclassification beyond Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) (AUC: 0.70 vs 0.64; category free-NRI: 0.51, all p <0.001) for predicting MACE in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 90). In conclusion, CACS improved risk stratification and provided incremental value beyond FRS for predicting MACE, irrespective of eGFR status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.055DOI Listing
May 2019

Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity statin therapy in Korean patients with angina undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents: A propensity-score matching analysis.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0207889. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Cardiology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.

Objectives: It is unclear whether high-intensity statin therapy provides incremental clinical benefits over moderate-intensity statin therapy in Asian patients with angina. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for angina in Korean patients.

Methods: Based on the national health insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older without a known history of coronary artery disease, who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stents due to angina between 2011 and 2015, were enrolled. According to the intensity of statin therapy, patients were categorized into moderate-intensity statin therapy (n = 23,863) and high-intensity statin therapy (n = 9,073) groups. The primary endpoint, defined as a composite of all-cause death and myocardial infarction, was compared between the two groups using a propensity-score matching analysis.

Results: During the follow-up period (median, 2.0 years; interquartile range, 1.1-3.1), 1,572 patients had 1,367 deaths and 242 myocardial infarctions. After propensity-score matching, there were 8,939 matched pairs. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary endpoint between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio of high-intensity statin therapy, 1.093; 95% confidence interval: 0.950-1.259; p = 0.212).

Conclusions: In Korean patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents for angina, the high-intensity statin therapy did not provide additional clinical benefits over the moderate-intensity statin therapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207889PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286068PMC
May 2019

Impact of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from a Korean nationwide study.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208746. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cardiology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.

Objectives: Despite an obvious improvement in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and survival rate of patients with CAD during recent decades, diabetes mellitus (DM) is still considered a risk factor of adverse clinical outcomes in these patients. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the clinical implications of DM in patients with CAD who underwent contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Based on the National Health Insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone PCI for the diagnosis of CAD between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. Patients were classified into the DM (n = 26,872) and non-DM (n = 54,243) groups. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, and it was compared between the two groups via a propensity score matching analysis.

Results: The study population was categorized as patients with angina (n = 49,228) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 31,887). The study population had a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.2). After the propensity score matching analysis, 8,157 and 4,266 pairs of patients with angina and AMI were identified, respectively. In the matched angina group, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with DM (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.47; p<0.001) than in those without DM. Moreover, in the matched AMI group, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with DM (aHR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.19-1.53; p<0.001) than in those without DM.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing contemporary PCI in Korea, the presence of DM was associated with poorer clinical outcomes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208746PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287858PMC
May 2019

Quantitative measurement of lipid rich plaque by coronary computed tomography angiography: A correlation of histology in sudden cardiac death.

Atherosclerosis 2018 08 21;275:426-433. Epub 2018 May 21.

Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Recent advancements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have allowed for the quantitative measurement of high-risk lipid rich plaque. Determination of the optimal threshold for Hounsfield units (HU) by CCTA for identifying lipid rich plaque remains unknown. We aimed to validate reliable cut-points of HU for quantitative assessment of lipid rich plaque.

Methods: 8 post-mortem sudden coronary death hearts were evaluated with CCTA and histologic analysis. Quantitative plaque analysis was performed in histopathology images and lipid rich plaque area was defined as intra-plaque necrotic core area. CCTA images were analyzed for quantitative plaque measurement. Low attenuation plaque (LAP) was defined as any pixel < 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 HU cut-offs within a coronary plaque. The area of LAP was calculated in each cross-section.

Results: Among 105 cross-sections, 37 (35.2%) cross-sectional histology images contained lipid rich plaque. Although the highest specificity for identifying lipid rich plaque was shown with <30 HU cut-off (88.2%), sensitivity (e.g. 55.6% for <75 HU, 16.2% for <30 HU) and negative predictive value (e.g. 75.9% for <75 HU, 65.9% for <30 HU) tended to increase with higher HU cut-offs. For quantitative measurement, <75 HU showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.292, p = 0.003) and no significant differences were observed between lipid rich plaque area and LAP area between histology and CT analysis (Histology: 0.34 ± 0.73 mm, QCT: 0.37 ± 0.71 mm, p = 0.701).

Conclusions: LAP area by CCTA using a <75 HU cut-off value demonstrated high sensitivity and quantitative agreement with lipid rich plaque area by histology analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.05.024DOI Listing
August 2018

Trends, Characteristics, and Clinical Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Korea between 2011 and 2015.

Korean Circ J 2018 Apr;48(4):310-321

Department of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: We sought to evaluate nationwide trends, characteristics, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Korea.

Methods: From National Health Insurance claims data in Korea, 81,115 patients, who underwent PCI for the first episode of coronary artery disease between 2011 and 2015, were enrolled. Patients were categorized into angina (n=49,288) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n=31,887) groups and analyzed.

Results: The mean age of patients was 64.4±12.2 years and 56,576 (69.7%) were men. Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were observed in 27,086 (33.4%), 30,675 (37.8%), and 45,389 (56.0%) patients, respectively. There was a 10% increase in the number of patients undergoing PCI for angina between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015 (11,105 vs. 13,261; p=0.021). However, the number of patients undergoing PCI for AMI marginally decreased between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015 (8,068 vs. 7,823; p=0.052). In procedures, drug-eluting stent was the most frequently used device (93.2%), followed by balloon angioplasty (5.5%) and bare metal stents (1.3%). The mean number of stents per patient was 1.39±0.64. At discharge, dual-anti platelet therapy, statin, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker were provided to 76,292 (94.1%), 71,411 (88.0%), 57,429 (70.8%), and 54,418 (67.1%) patients, respectively. The mean in-hospital and 1-year total medical costs were 8,628,768±4,832,075 and 13,128,158±9,758,753 Korean Won, respectively. In-hospital mortality occurred in 2,094 patients (2.6%).

Conclusions: Appropriate healthcare strategies reflecting trends, characteristics, and clinical outcomes of PCI are needed in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2017.0359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889980PMC
April 2018

Influence of symptom typicality for predicting MACE in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease: From the CONFIRM Registry (Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry).

Clin Cardiol 2018 May 11;41(5):586-593. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of symptom typicality in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). We identified 4215 patients without prior history of CAD and without obstructive CAD (<50% CCTA stenosis). CAD severity was categorized as nonobstructive (1%-49%) and none (0%). Based upon the Diamond-Forrester criteria for angina pectoris, symptom typicality was classified as asymptomatic, nonanginal, atypical, and typical. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), comprising all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and late revascularization, according to symptom typicality. Mean patient age was 57.0 ±12.0 years (54.9% male). During a median follow-up of 5.3 years (interquartile range, 4.6-5.9 years), MACE were reported in 312 (7.4%) patients. Among patients with nonobstructive CAD, there was an association between symptom typicality and MACE (P for interaction = 0.05), driven by increased risk of MACE among those with typical angina and nonobstructive CAD (hazard ratio: 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.48, P = 0.03). No consistent relationship was found between symptom typicality and MACE among patients without any CAD (hazard ratio: 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-1.57, P = 0.08). In the CONFIRM registry, patients who presented with concomitant typical angina and nonobstructive CAD had a higher rate of MACE than did asymptomatic patients with nonobstructive CAD. However, the presence of typical angina did not appear to portend worse prognosis in patients with no CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489785PMC
May 2018

Clinical implications of combined glucose intolerance in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2018 2;40(8):762-771. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

d Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Paul's hospital, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea.

Background: This study is the first study to evaluate clinical significance of combined glucose intolerance (CGI) in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients.

Methods: We compared the results of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, laboratory examinations, echocardiography, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) between the groups according to fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial 2 hour blood glucose (PP2) and gender in treatment-naïve hypertensive patients. A total of 376 concecutively-eligible patients were categorized as follows: (1) normal glucose tolerance (NGT); FBS<100 mg/dL and PP2 < 140 (2) isolated glucose intolerance (IGI); 100≤FBS<126 or 140≤PP2 < 200, but not both 100≤FBS<126 and 140≤PP2 < 200 (3) CGI; both 100≤FBS<126 and 140≤PP2 < 200.

Results: Males were divided into NGT (n = 58, 33.1%), IGI (n = 88, 50.3%), CGI (n = 29, 16.6%) and females were divided into NGT (n = 59, 43.1%), IGI (n = 48, 35%), CGI (n = 30, 21.9%). In males multivariate analyses revealed that mitral average E/Ea (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.022), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity baPWV(Rt.) (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.026), baPWV(Lt.) (IGI vs CGI, p = 0.018), office systolic BP (SBP) (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.005; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.001), office diastolic BP (DBP) (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.034; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.019), night-time SBP (NGT vs. CGI, p = 0.049; IGI vs. CGI, p = 0.018) were significantly higher in the CGI group than in the NGT or IGI group. However, there were no significant differences between the female groups.

Conclusions: Treatment-naïve hypertensive males with CGI revealed subclinical diastolic dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and BPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2018.1431260DOI Listing
December 2018

Impact of Postprocedural TIMI Flow on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Int Heart J 2017 Oct 30;58(5):674-685. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Division of Cardiology, Seoul St. Paul's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical prognostic implications of postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow in acute myocardial infarction patients. A total of 2796 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 1720 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated in 8 hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea and Chonnam National University Hospital were analyzed. The study populations were divided according to the final TIMI flow. The primary outcome were the major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac deaths (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR). Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (minimum 2 to maximum 5 years), MACE and CD occurred more frequently in STEMI patients with TIMI ≤ 2 group than those with TIMI 3 (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.962; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.513 to 2.546, P < 0.001, CD: aHR, 3.154, CI 2.308 to 4.309, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two subgroups in NSTEMI (aHR, 0.932; 95% CI 0.586 to 1.484, P = 0.087). In STEMI patients, good postprocedural TIMI flow after PCI was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. And the effect of poor TIMI flow in STEMI was on death, not the components of MACE. Meanwhile, postprocedural TIMI flow had no effect on long-term outcomes in NSTEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.16-448DOI Listing
October 2017

Diagnostic Performance of Hybrid Cardiac Imaging Methods for Assessment of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease Compared With Stand-Alone Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Meta-Analysis.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 04 16;11(4):589-599. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Objectives: The current meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of hybrid cardiac imaging techniques compared with stand-alone coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for assessment of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

Background: The usefulness of coronary CTA for detecting obstructive CAD remains suboptimal at present. Myocardial perfusion imaging encompasses positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance, which permit the identification of myocardial perfusion defects to detect significant CAD. A hybrid approach comprising myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary CTA may improve diagnostic performance for detecting obstructive CAD.

Methods: PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015. Studies using coronary CTA and hybrid imaging for diagnosis of obstructive CAD (a luminal diameter reduction of >50% or >70% by invasive coronary angiography) were included. In total, 12 articles comprising 951 patients and 1,973 vessels were identified, and a meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver-operating characteristic curves.

Results: On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity of hybrid imaging was comparable to that of coronary CTA (91% vs. 90%; p = 0.28). However, specificity was higher for hybrid imaging versus coronary CTA (93% vs. 66%; p < 0.001). On a per-vessel basis, sensitivity for hybrid imaging against coronary CTA was comparable (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.29). Notably, hybrid imaging yielded a specificity of 95% versus 83% for coronary CTA (p < 0.001). Summary receiver-operating characteristic curves displayed improved discrimination for hybrid imaging beyond coronary CTA alone, on a per-vessel basis (area under the curve: 0.97 vs. 0.93; p = 0.047), although not on a per-patient level (area under the curve: 0.97 vs. 0.93; p = 0.132).

Conclusions: Hybrid cardiac imaging demonstrated improved diagnostic specificity for detection of obstructive CAD compared with stand-alone coronary CTA, yet improvement in overall diagnostic performance was relatively limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.05.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808913PMC
April 2018

CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles are not associated with clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients treated with newer-generation drug-eluting stents.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jun;95(26):e4049

aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul bIncheon St. Mary's Hospital cSeoul St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon dDaejeon St. Mary's Hospital, Daejeon eYeouido St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul fDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.

CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles adversely affect clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy. Recent introduction of a newer-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) has significantly reduced the occurrence of stent thrombosis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 LOF alleles on clinical outcome in patients treated with the newer-generation DES.The effects of CYP2C19 genotypes were evaluated on clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in 2062 patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention using either first-generation DES (sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stent, n = 1349) or newer-generation DES (everolimus- and zotarolimus-eluting stent, n = 713). The primary clinical outcome was major cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis during 1 year of follow-up.CYP2C19 LOF alleles were significantly associated with a higher risk of MACCE in patients treated with first-generation DES (hazard ratio [HR] 2.599, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.047-6.453; P = 0.034). In contrast, CYP2C19 LOF alleles were not associated with primary outcome in newer-generation DES (HR 0.716, 95% CI 0.316-1.622; P = 0.522). In the further multivariate analysis, CYP2C19 LOF alleles were not associated with MACCE in patients receiving newer-generation DES (adjusted HR 0.540, 95% CI 0.226-1.291; P = 0.166), whereas they were demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for MACCE in those implanted with first-generation DES (adjusted HR 3.501, 95% CI 1.194-10.262; P = 0.022).In contradiction to their clinical impact in first-generation DES era, CYP2C19 LOF alleles may not affect clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in patients treated with newer-generation DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937952PMC
June 2016

Association between the Red Cell Distribution Width and Vasospastic Angina in Korean Patients.

Yonsei Med J 2016 May;57(3):614-20

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The association between the red cell distribution width (RDW) and vasospastic angina (VSA) has not been elucidated. We investigated the association of the RDW with the incidence and angiographic subtypes of VSA in Korean patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 460 patients who underwent intracoronary ergonovine provocation tests were consecutively enrolled and classified into two groups: the VSA group (n=147, 32.0%) and non-VSA group (n=313, 68.0%). The subjects were classified into 3 subgroups (tertiles) according to the baseline level of RDW assessed before the angiographic provocation test.

Results: The VSA group had a higher RDW than the non-VSA group (12.9±0.8% vs. 12.5±0.7%, p=0.013). The high RDW level demonstrated an independent association with the high incidence of VSA [second tertile: hazard ratio (HR) 1.96 (1.13-2.83), third tertile: HR 2.33 (1.22-3.47), all p<0.001]. Moreover, the highest RDW tertile level had a significant association with the prevalence of the mixed-type coronary spasm [HR 1.29 (1.03-1.59), p=0.037].

Conclusion: The high level of RDW was significantly associated with the prevalence of VSA and the high-risk angiographic subtype of coronary spasm, suggesting that a proactive clinical investigation for VSA could be valuable in Korean patients with an elevated RDW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800349PMC
May 2016

Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Non-Infarct-Related Arteries in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the COREA-AMI Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2016 Apr 14;117(7):1039-46. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Cardiology Division, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated the impact of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO of a non-IRA on the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. A total of 4,748 patients with AMI were consecutively enrolled in the Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for AMI registry from January 2004 to December 2009. We enrolled 324 patients with CTO in a non-IRA. To adjust for baseline differences, propensity matching (96 matched pairs) was used to compare successful PCI and occluded CTO for the treatment of CTO in non-IRA. The primary clinical end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of the major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, MI, stroke, and any revascularization during the 5-year follow-up. Patients who received successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA had lower rates of all-cause mortality (16.7% vs 32.3%, hazard ratio 0.459, 95% CI 0.251 to 0.841, p = 0.012) and major adverse cardiac events (21.9% vs 55.2%, hazard ratio 0.311, 95% CI 0.187 to 0.516, p <0.001) compared with occluded CTO group. Subgroup analyses revealed that successful PCI resulted in a better mortality rate in patients with normal renal function compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (p = 0.010). In conclusion, successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.12.049DOI Listing
April 2016

Multiple Stent Fractures After Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Feb;95(6):e2704

From the Department of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Stent fracture is an uncommon complication of drug-eluting stent implantation, but it has a clinical significance because of its potential association with adverse cardiac events such as in-stent restenosis, target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. Multiple stent fractures account for a small proportion, but they may lead to more serious complications. Newer generation drug-eluting stents are designed for improved safety and efficacy compared with early generation drug-eluting stents. Multiple stent fractures after newer generation drug-eluting stent implantation are a rare case.We report a case of 25-year-old male who presented with acute myocardial infarction caused by multiple stent fractures after everolimus-eluting stents implantation and was treated by balloon angioplasty.Physicians should be aware of the possibility of multiple stent fractures even after newer generation drug-eluting stent implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4753902PMC
February 2016

Evaluation of the incremental prognostic value of the combination of CYP2C19 poor metabolizer status and ABCB1 3435 TT polymorphism over conventional risk factors for cardiovascular events after drug-eluting stent implantation in East Asians.

Genet Med 2016 08 23;18(8):833-41. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Department of Cardiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: We evaluated the incremental prognostic value of combining the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and ABCB1 3435 TT for adverse clinical outcomes over conventional risk factors in a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cohort.

Methods: We enrolled 2,188 patients. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke during 1-year follow-up. The population was stratified into the following four groups: CYP2C19 EM/IM+ABCB1 3435 CC/CT, CYP2C19 EM/IM+ABCB1 3435 TT, CYP2C19 PM+ABCB1 3435 CC/CT, and CYP2C19 PM+ABCB1 3435 TT.

Results: A total of 87 (3.97%) primary end-point events occurred (64 deaths, 8 non-fatal MIs and 15 strokes). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that CYP2C19 PM+ABCB1 3435 TT status was a significant predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 4.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92-10.58). However, addition of combined genetic status to the clinical risk model did not improve the model discrimination (C-statistic = 0.786 (95% CI = 0.734-0.837) to 0.785 (95% CI = 0.733-0.838)) or risk reclassification (categorical net reclassification improvement (0.040, P = 0.32), integrated discrimination improvement (0.021, P = 0.026)).

Conclusions: In a real-world East Asian PCI population taking clopidogrel, although the concurrent presence of CYP2C19 PM and ABCB1 TT is a strong independent predictor of adverse outcomes, the combined status of two at-risk variants does not have an incremental prognostic value beyond that of the conventional clinical risk factors.Genet Med 18 8, 833-841.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2015.171DOI Listing
August 2016

Comparison of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiographic Findings in Asymptomatic Subjects With Versus Without Diabetes Mellitus.

Am J Cardiol 2015 Aug 8;116(3):372-8. Epub 2015 May 8.

Department of Endocrinology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

There are limited data on the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to investigate the impact of DM on the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects. We analyzed 2,034 propensity score-matched asymptomatic subjects who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography (mean age 55.9 ± 8.2 years; men 1,725 [84.8%]). Coronary artery calcium score, degree and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), and clinical outcomes were assessed. High-risk CAD was defined as at least 2-vessel coronary disease with proximal left anterior descending artery involvement, 3-vessel disease, or left main disease. Compared with subjects without DM, those matched with DM had higher coronary artery calcium score (89.9 ± 240.4 vs 62.8 ± 179.5, p = 0.004) and more significant CAD (≥50% diameter stenosis, 15.2% vs 10.2%, p = 0.001), largely in the form of 1-vessel disease (10.8% vs 7.3%, p = 0.007). However, there were no significant differences between matched pairs in significant CAD in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery (5.3% vs 3.8%, p = 0.138), multivessel disease (4.4% vs 2.9%, p = 0.101), and high-risk CAD (4.3% vs 2.7%, p = 0.058). During the follow-up period (median 21.8, interquartile range 15.2 to 33.4 months), there was no significant difference in the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, and coronary revascularization between 2 groups (hazard ratio 1.438, 95% confidence interval 0.844 to 2.449, p = 0.181). In asymptomatic subjects, those matched with DM have more subclinical atherosclerosis, mainly confined to non-high-risk CAD, than those matched without DM, and there are no differences in high-risk CAD and clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.04.046DOI Listing
August 2015

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Watch-PAT 200 Is Independently Associated With an Increase in Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Never-Treated Hypertensive Patients.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015 Sep 1;17(9):675-81. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

This study aimed to examine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and morning blood pressure surge in never-treated patients with essential hypertension. This prospective study included a total of 58 patients (mean age, 51.7 years; 55.2% men) with never-treated essential hypertension. The patients were divided into non-OSA (n=23, 49.3±12.7 years) and OSA (n=35, 53.2±9.8 years) groups. The OSA group was defined as having an apnea-hypopnea index level >5 as measured by the Watch-PAT 200. The authors collected 24-hour ambulatory BP, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma renin activity data from all of the patients. The measured sleep-trough morning systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases were higher in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (28.7±11.8 mm Hg vs 19.6±12.8 mm Hg, P=.008). The sleep-trough morning SBP increase was inversely correlated with the lowest oxygen saturation (r=-0.272, P=.039). OSA known to be associated with increased daytime and nocturnal sympathetic activity was associated with significantly higher sleep-trough morning SBP levels in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12581DOI Listing
September 2015

Myocardial mechanics in a rat model with banding and debanding of the ascending aorta.

J Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2014 Dec 26;22(4):189-95. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Aortic banding and debanding models have provided useful information on the development and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In this animal study, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular (LV) deformation related to the development and regression of LVH.

Methods: Minimally invasive ascending aorta banding was performed in rats (10 Sprague Dawley rats, 7 weeks). Ten rats underwent a sham operation. Thirty-five days later, the band was removed. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis was assessed at pre-banding, 35 days of banding and 14 days of debanding.

Results: Banding of the ascending aorta created an expected increase in the aortic velocity and gradient, which normalized with the debanding procedure. Pressure overload resulted in a robust hypertrophic response as assessed by gross and microscopic histology, transthoracic echocardiography [heart weight/tibia length (g/m); 21.0 ± 0.8 vs. 33.2 ± 2.0 vs. 26.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001]. The circumferential (CS) and radial strains were not different between the groups. However, there were significant differences in the degree of fibrosis according to the banding status (fibrosis; 0.10 ± 0.20% vs. 5.26 ± 3.12% vs. 4.03 ± 3.93%, p = 0.003), and global CS showed a significant correlation with the degree of myocardial fibrosis in this animal model (r = 0.688, p = 0.028).

Conclusion: In this animal study, simulating a severe LV pressure overload state, a significant increase in the LV mass index did not result in a significant reduction in the LV mechanical parameters. The degree of LV fibrosis, which developed with pressure overload, was significantly related to the magnitude of left ventricular mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4250/jcu.2014.22.4.189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286640PMC
December 2014
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