Publications by authors named "Mahmudur Rahman"

181 Publications

Umbilical cord serum elementomics of 52 trace elements and early childhood neurodevelopment: Evidence from a prospective birth cohort in rural Bangladesh.

Environ Int 2022 Jun 24;166:107370. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; China International Cooperation Center for Environment and Human Health, Center of Global Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:

Background: Prenatal exposures to neurotoxic metals and trace elements are associated with early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, consequences of simultaneous exposure to mixtures of elements remain unclear.

Objective: To examine individual and joint effects of prenatal trace element exposure on early childhood neurodevelopment.

Methods: Using a well-established Bangladesh prospective birth cohort (2008-2011), we measured concentrations of 52 trace elements in umbilical cord serum of 569 mother-infant pairs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 20-40 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Stability elastic net (ENET) was used to screen elements individually associated with the outcome; candidate exposures were combined by weighted linear combination to form a risk score representing their mixture effect on early childhood neurodevelopment.

Results: Stability ENET identified 15 trace elements associated with cognitive composite score and 14 associated with motor composite score, which were linearly combined to form the element risk score (ERS). Children with higher ERS had lower probability of cognitive developmental delay (OR: 0.21; 95 %CI: 0.10, 0.40; P < 0.001; P < 0.001). Children with ERS in the top quintile had a significantly lower risk of motor developmental delay (OR: 0.16; 95 %CI: 0.09, 0.31; P < 0.001; P < 0.001) versus the lowest quintile. In Bayesian kernel machine regression analyses, lithium [conditional posterior inclusion probability (cPIP) = 0.68], aluminum (cPIP = 0.83) and iron (cPIP = 1.00) contributed most to the lower cognitive composite score; zinc (cPIP = 1.00), silver (cPIP = 0.81), and antimony (cPIP = 0.65) mainly contributed to the change of motor composite score.

Conclusion: Co-exposure to lithium/aluminum/iron or zinc/silver/antimony appears to impact children's neurodevelopment. ERS score reflecting maternal exposure could indicate children's risk of neurodevelopmental delay, warranting further studies to explore the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107370DOI Listing
June 2022

Knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination practices and its barriers among university female students in Bangladesh: Findings from a cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2022 28;17(6):e0270417. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Centre for Research on Health Policy, Torrens University Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Early diagnosis of breast cancer is the best approach towards its control that may result in alleviating related mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge about breast cancer and both practices and perceived barriers to breast self-examination among female university students in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 female students of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. Participants were sampled from female dormitories at the university from January to April 2020. Proportionate stratified random sampling was conducted to calculate the study sample from each dormitory. A validated semi-structured self-reported questionnaire was employed to collect data from participants during the survey periods. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, items about knowledge about breast cancer, breast self-examination practices and its barriers. We applied descriptive and inferential statistics and data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Participants were aged between 18-26 years and comprised university students of first year (20%), second year (24%), third year (22%), fourth year (21%) and Master's (14%). 18% of them reported positive family history (mother, aunt, sister/cousin, grandmother) of breast cancer. The overall mean score of total knowledge items was 15 (SD = 3) out of 43, with an overall correct rate of 34%. The mean score of total knowledge items was significantly higher (p<0.001) among Master's students and students with family members who have had breast cancer. Only one in five students (21%) ever practiced breast self-examination. The mean score of practice of breast self-examination was significantly higher (p<0.001) among participants who reported having family member of breast cancer. Total knowledge score about breast cancer and practice of breast self-examination were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54; p<0.001). About 33% participants reported 'lack of knowledge' as the main barrier to practicing breast self-examination followed by 'I do not have the symptoms' (22%), and 'shyness/ uncomfortable feelings' (17%). The study revealed low levels of knowledge about breast cancer and low breast self-examination practices. Our findings highlight the need to develop, implement and promote socially, culturally and demographically appropriate educational interventions programs aimed at breast cancer and breast self-examination awareness and practice in Bangladesh.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0270417PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239455PMC
June 2022

A Critical Review on the Sensing, Control, and Manipulation of Single Molecules on Optofluidic Devices.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jun 18;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur 1707, Bangladesh.

Single-molecule techniques have shifted the paradigm of biological measurements from ensemble measurements to probing individual molecules and propelled a rapid revolution in related fields. Compared to ensemble measurements of biomolecules, single-molecule techniques provide a breadth of information with a high spatial and temporal resolution at the molecular level. Usually, optical and electrical methods are two commonly employed methods for probing single molecules, and some platforms even offer the integration of these two methods such as optofluidics. The recent spark in technological advancement and the tremendous leap in fabrication techniques, microfluidics, and integrated optofluidics are paving the way toward low cost, chip-scale, portable, and point-of-care diagnostic and single-molecule analysis tools. This review provides the fundamentals and overview of commonly employed single-molecule methods including optical methods, electrical methods, force-based methods, combinatorial integrated methods, etc. In most single-molecule experiments, the ability to manipulate and exercise precise control over individual molecules plays a vital role, which sometimes defines the capabilities and limits of the operation. This review discusses different manipulation techniques including sorting and trapping individual particles. An insight into the control of single molecules is provided that mainly discusses the recent development of electrical control over single molecules. Overall, this review is designed to provide the fundamentals and recent advancements in different single-molecule techniques and their applications, with a special focus on the detection, manipulation, and control of single molecules on chip-scale devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13060968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229244PMC
June 2022

Pattern of Antibiotic Use among Hospitalized Patients according to WHO Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) Classification: Findings from a Point Prevalence Survey in Bangladesh.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Programme for Emerging Infections, Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

For supporting antibiotic stewardship interventions, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified antibiotics through the AWaRe (Access, Watch, and Reserve) classification. Inappropriate use of antimicrobials among hospital-admitted patients exposes them to the vulnerability of developing resistant organisms which are difficult to treat. We aimed to describe the proportion of antibiotic use based on the WHO AWaRe classification in tertiary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh. A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted adapting the WHO PPS design in inpatients departments in 2021. Among the 1417 enrolled patients, 52% were female and 63% were from the 15-64 years age group. Nearly 78% of patients received at least one antibiotic during the survey period. Third-generation cephalosporins (44.6%), penicillins (12.3%), imidazoles (11.8%), aminoglycosides (7.2%), and macrolides (5.8%) were documented as highly used antibiotics. Overall, 64.0% of Watch, 35.6% of Access, and 0.1% of Reserve group antibiotics were used for treatment. The use of Watch group antibiotics was high in medicine wards (78.7%) and overall high use of Watch antibiotics was observed at secondary hospitals (71.5%) compared to tertiary hospitals (60.2%) (-value of 0.000). Our PPS findings underscore the need for an urgent nationwide antibiotic stewardship program for physicians including the development and implementation of local guidelines and in-service training on antibiotic use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9220119PMC
June 2022

Nipah Virus Detection at Bat Roosts after Spillover Events, Bangladesh, 2012-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 07;28(7):1384-1392

Knowledge of the dynamics and genetic diversity of Nipah virus circulating in bats and at the human-animal interface is limited by current sampling efforts, which produce few detections of viral RNA. We report a series of investigations at Pteropus medius bat roosts identified near the locations of human Nipah cases in Bangladesh during 2012-2019. Pooled bat urine was collected from 23 roosts; 7 roosts (30%) had >1 sample in which Nipah RNA was detected from the first visit. In subsequent visits to these 7 roosts, RNA was detected in bat urine up to 52 days after the presumed exposure of the human case-patient, although the probability of detection declined rapidly with time. These results suggest that rapidly deployed investigations of Nipah virus shedding from bat roosts near human cases could increase the success of viral sequencing compared with background surveillance and could enhance understanding of Nipah virus ecology and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2807.212614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239894PMC
July 2022

Prevalence of COVID-19 in Bangladesh, April to October 2020-a cross-sectional study.

IJID Reg 2021 Dec 14;1:92-99. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of symptomatic and asymptomatic laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases among the population of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dhaka City and other districts of Bangladesh between April 18 and October 12, 2020. A total of 32 districts outside Dhaka were randomly selected, and one village and one mahalla was selected from each district; 25 mahallas were selected from Dhaka City. From each village or mahalla, 120 households were enrolled through systematic random sampling. A total of 44 865 individuals were interviewed from 10 907 households. The majority (70%,  = 31 488) of the individuals were <40 years of age. Almost half of the individuals (49%,  = 21 888) reported more than four members in their household. It was estimated that 12.6% ( = 160) of the households had one or more severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals, among whom 0.9% ( = 404) of individuals had at least one COVID-19-like symptom, at the national level. The prevalence of COVID-19 in the general population was 6.4%. Among the SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals, 87% were asymptomatic. The substantial high number of asymptomatic cases all over Bangladesh suggests that community-level containment and mitigation measures are required to combat COVID-19. Future studies to understand the transmission capability could help to define mitigation and control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2021.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516147PMC
December 2021

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Bangladesh related to novel coronavirus infection.

IJID Reg 2022 Mar 2;2:198-203. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst household members in 32 districts of Bangladesh to build knowledge about disease epidemiology and seroepidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were assessed in people between April and October 2020.

Results: The national seroprevalence rates of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were estimated to be 30.4% and 39.7%, respectively. In Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 35.4% in non-slum areas and 63.5% in slum areas. In areas outside of Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 37.5% in urban areas and 28.7% in rural areas. Between April and October 2020, the highest seroprevalence rate (57% for IgG and 64% for IgM) was observed in August. IgM antibody was more prevalent in younger participants, while older participants had more frequent IgG seropositivity. Follow-up specimens from patients with COVID-19 and their household members suggested that both IgG and IgM seropositivity increased significantly at day 14 and day 28 compared with day 1 after enrolment. : SARS-CoV-2 had spread extensively in Bangladesh by October 2020. This highlights the importance of monitoring seroprevalence data, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8809641PMC
March 2022

Standardization of Personal Health Records in the Portable Health Clinic System.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2022 Jun;290:163-167

Medical Information Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

A personal health record (PHR) is not only a collection of personal health data but also a personal healthcare and disease management tool for individual patients. Recently, PHRs have been considered indispensable tools for patient engagement in the area of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and have gained a special importance. Unfortunately, similar to several other developing countries, Bangladesh remains far behind in establishing a standard PHR system for the country despite the fact that the growth of NCDs is extremely high and accounts for approximately 70% of the total diseases experienced in the country. The Portable Health Clinic system, which has a PHR feature, was established in Bangladesh in 2010. This PHR system requires standardization for each country. The objective of this research is to standardize this PHR system with reference to the PHR system proposed by the Japanese Clinical Societies, which is a pioneer of work in this field in Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI220053DOI Listing
June 2022

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Population Living in High- and Low-Density Gradient Areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 Mar 25;7(4). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Programme for Emerging Infections, Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in densely populated countries has been a topic of concern from the beginning of the pandemic. Evidence of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 according to population density gradient and socio-economic status (SES) is limited. In June-September 2020, we conducted a descriptive longitudinal study to determine the community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in high- and low-density areas in Dhaka city. The Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) was 10% in high-density areas compared to 20% in low-density areas. People with high SES had a significantly higher level of SARS-CoV-2-specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on study days 1 ( = 0.01) and 28 ( = 0.03) compared to those with low SES in high-density areas. In contrast, the levels of seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2-specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were comparable ( > 0.05) in people with high and low SES on both study days 1 and 28 in both high- and low-density areas. Due to the similar household size, no differences in the seropositivity rates depending on the population gradient were observed. However, people with high SES showed higher seroconversion rates compared to people with low SES. As no difference was observed based on population density, the SES might play a role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, an issue that calls for further in-depth studies to better understand the community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7040053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030026PMC
March 2022

Pattern of Antibiotic Dispensing at Pharmacies According to the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) Classification in Bangladesh.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

The WHO Essential Medicines List Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification could facilitate antibiotic stewardship and optimal use. In Bangladesh, data on antibiotic dispensing in pharmacies according to the AWaRe classification are scarce. We aimed to explore antibiotic dispensing pattern in pharmacies according to the WHO AWaRe classification to aid pharmacy-targeted national antibiotic stewardship program (ASP). From January to July 2021, we interviewed drug-sellers from randomly selected pharmacies and randomly selected customers attending the pharmacies. We collected data on demographics and medicines purchased. We classified the purchased antibiotics into the Access, Watch, and Reserve groups among 128 pharmacies surveyed, 98 (76.6%) were licensed; 61 (47.7%) drug-sellers had pharmacy training. Of 2686 customers interviewed; 580 (21.6%) purchased antibiotics. Among the 580 customers, 523 purchased one, 52 purchased two, and 5 purchased three courses of antibiotics (total 642 courses). Of the antibiotic courses, the Watch group accounted for the majority (344, 53.6%), followed by the Access (234, 36.4%) and Reserve (64, 10.0%) groups. Approximately half of the antibiotics (327/642, 50.9%) were purchased without a registered physician's prescription. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics was higher in the Access group (139/234, 59.4%), followed by Watch (160/344, 46.5%) and Reserve (28/64, 43.8%) groups. These findings highlight the need to implement strict policies and enforce existing laws, and pharmacy-targeted ASP focusing on proper dispensing practices to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8868217PMC
February 2022

Effectiveness of educational intervention on breast cancer knowledge and breast self-examination among female university students in Bangladesh: a pre-post quasi-experimental study.

BMC Cancer 2022 Feb 22;22(1):199. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Centre for Health Policy Research, Torrens University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Background: Breast cancer is a global health issue and a leading cause of death among women. Early detection through increased awareness and knowledge on breast cancer and breast cancer screening is thus crucial. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an educational intervention program on breast cancer knowledge and the practice of breast self-examination among young female students of a university in Bangladesh.

Methods: A quasi-experimental (pre-post) study design was conducted at Jahangirnagar University in Bangladesh. Educational information on breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE), demonstration of BSE procedure and leaflets were distributed among 400 female students after obtaining written informed consent. The stepwise procedures of BSE performance were demonstrated with images. Pre-intervention and 15 days post-intervention assessments were conducted to assess the changes in knowledge on breast cancer and practices of BSE. Mc-Nemar's tests and paired sampled t-tests were performed to investigate the differences between pre- and post-test stages.

Results: A total of 400 female university students aged 18-26 years were included in the sample. Significant changes were found in knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and BSE practices after the educational intervention. The significant differences were measured in the mean scores of pre-test vs. post-test: breast cancer symptoms (2.99 ± 1.05 vs. 6.35 ± 1.15; p < 0.001), risk factors (3.35 ± 1.19 vs. 7.56 ± 1.04; p < 0.001), treatment (1.79 ± 0.90 vs. 4.63 ± 0.84; p < 0.001), prevention (3.82 ± 1.32 vs. 7.14 ± 1.03; p < 0.001), screening of breast cancer (1.82 ± 0.55 vs. 3.98 ± 0.71; p < 0.001) and process of BSE (1.57 ± 1.86 vs. 3.94 ± 0.93; p < 0.001). Likewise, a significant percentage of change in BSE practices was obtained between pre-test and post-test (21.3% vs. 33.8%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Study findings confirm that the study population had inadequate awareness and knowledge at baseline which was improved significantly after educational intervention. A nationwide roll-out with community-based interventions is recommended for the female population in both rural and urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09311-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8862195PMC
February 2022

Establishing a sentinel surveillance system for the novel COVID-19 in a resource-limited country: methods, system attributes and early findings.

BMJ Open 2021 12 2;11(12):e055169. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: To establish a hospital-based platform to explore the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients screened for COVID-19.

Design: Hospital-based surveillance.

Setting: This study was conducted in four selected hospitals in Bangladesh during 10 June-31 August 2020.

Participants: In total, 2345 patients of all age (68% male) attending the outpatient and inpatient departments of surveillance hospitals with any one or more of the following symptoms within last 7 days: fever, cough, sore throat and respiratory distress.

Outcome Measures: The outcome measures were COVID-19 positivity and mortality rate among enrolled patients. Pearson's χ test was used to compare the categorical variables (sign/symptoms, comorbidities, admission status and COVID-19 test results). Regression analysis was performed to determine the association between potential risk factors and death.

Results: COVID-19 was detected among 922 (39%) enrolled patients. It was more common in outpatients with a peak positivity in second week of July (112, 54%). The median age of the confirmed COVID-19 cases was 38 years (IQR: 30-50), 654 (71%) were male and 83 (9%) were healthcare workers. Cough (615, 67%) was the most common symptom, followed by fever (493, 53%). Patients with diabetes were more likely to get COVID-19 than patients without diabetes (48% vs 38%; OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.9). The death rate among COVID-19 positive was 2.3%, n=21. Death was associated with age ≥60 years (adjusted OR (AOR): 13.9; 95% CI: 5.5 to 34), shortness of breath (AOR: 9.7; 95% CI: 3.0 to 30), comorbidity (AOR: 4.8; 95% CI: 1.1 to 21.7), smoking history (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 0.7 to 7.1), attending the hospital in <2 days of symptom onset due to critical illness (AOR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.2 to 17.8) and hospital admission (AOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.2 to 9.8).

Conclusions: COVID-19 positivity was observed in more than one-third of patients with suspected COVID-19 attending selected hospitals. While managing such patients, the risk factors identified for higher death rates should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8640197PMC
December 2021

SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus coinfection among patients with severe acute respiratory infection during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: a hospital-based descriptive study.

BMJ Open 2021 11 29;11(11):e053768. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To estimate the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus coinfection among severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases-patients during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.

Design: Descriptive study.

Setting: Nine tertiary level hospitals across Bangladesh.

Participants: Patients admitted as SARI (defined as cases with subjective or measured fever of ≥38 C° and cough with onset within the last 10 days and requiring hospital admission) case-patients.

Primary And Secondary Outcomes: Proportion of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus coinfection and proportion of mortality among SARI case-patients.

Results: We enrolled 1986 SARI case-patients with a median age: 28 years (IQR: 1.2-53 years), and 67.6% were male. Among them, 285 (14.3%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2; 175 (8.8%) were infected with the influenza virus, and five (0.3%) were coinfected with both viruses. There was a non-appearance of influenza during the usual peak season (May to July) in Bangladesh. SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly more associated with diabetes (14.0% vs 5.9%, p<0.001) and hypertension (26.7% vs 11.5%, p<0.001). But influenza among SARI case-patients was significantly less associated with diabetes (4.0% vs 7.4%, p=0.047) and hypertension (5.7% vs 14.4%, p=0.001). The proportion of in-hospital deaths among SARS-CoV-2 infected SARI case-patients were higher (10.9% (n=31) vs 4.4% (n=75), p<0.001) than those without SARS-CoV-2 infection; the proportion of postdischarge deaths within 30 days was also higher (9.1% (n=25) vs 4.6% (n=74), p=0.001) among SARS-CoV-2 infected SARI case-patients than those without infection. No in-hospital mortality or postdischarge mortality was registered among the five coinfected SARI case-patients.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus was not very common and had less disease severity considering mortality in Bangladesh. There was no circulating influenza virus during the influenza peak season during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Future studies are warranted for further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8634662PMC
November 2021

Infrastructure alone cannot ensure resilience to weather events in drinking water supplies.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 23;813:151876. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Climate resilient water supplies are those that provide access to drinking water that is sustained through seasons and through extreme events, and where good water quality is also sustained. While surface and groundwater quality are widely understood to vary with rainfall, there is a gap in the evidence on the impact of weather and extremes in rainfall and temperature on drinking water quality, and the role of changes in water system management. A three-country (Bangladesh, Nepal and Tanzania) observational field study tracked 2353 households clustered around 685 water sources across seven different geographies over 14 months. Water quality (E. coli) data was modelled using GEE to account for clustering effects and repeated measures at households. All types of infrastructure were vulnerable to changes in weather, with differences varying between geographies; protected boreholes provided the greatest protection at the point of collection (PoC). Water quality at the point of use (PoU) was vulnerable to changes in weather, through changes in PoC water quality as well as changes in management behaviours, such as safe storage, treatment and cleaning. This is the first study to demonstrate the impact of rainfall and temperature extremes on water quality at the PoC, and the role that weather has on PoU water quality via management behaviours. Climate resilience for water supplies needs to consider the infrastructure as well as the management decisions that are taking place at a community and household level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151876DOI Listing
March 2022

Environmental Change and Zoonotic Disease Risk at Human-Macaque Interfaces in Bangladesh.

Ecohealth 2021 12 8;18(4):487-499. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

EcoHealth Alliance, New York, NY, 10001, USA.

Anthropogenic land-use changes increase the frequency of interactions and habitat overlap between humans and macaques which play an important role in zoonotic disease transmission. This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine connections between land-use change and macaque-human interactions and assess the chance of zoonotic disease transmission. We conducted ethnographic interviews and focus group discussions in Old Dhaka, Madaripur, and Chandpur, Bangladesh. Participants reported significant anthropogenic landscape transformations leading to increased human-macaque contact in the study areas. Participants also reported that all three sites underwent substantial landscape alteration from natural or agricultural land to a human-altered environment with roads, commercial, and residential buildings. Participants noted that the disappearance of forestland appeared to increase the macaque dependence on backyard fruit trees. Where rivers and ponds were filled to support local construction, macaques were also observed as becoming more dependent upon human water sources. These changed may help expanding the macaques' foraging areas, and they appear to be invading new areas where people are not culturally habituated to living with them. In response, many residents reported reacting aggressively toward the macaques, which they believed led to more bites and scratches. However, other respondents accepted the presence of macaques around their homes. Few participants considered macaques to be a source of disease transmission. This study revealed that local environmental changes, deforestation, urban expansion, construction, and water bodies' disappearance are linked to increasing human-macaque interactions. Understanding these interactions is critical to develop successful mitigation interventions at interfaces with a high risk for viral disease spillover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-021-01565-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573309PMC
December 2021

Avian influenza transmission risk along live poultry trading networks in Bangladesh.

Sci Rep 2021 10 7;11(1):19962. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

Live animal markets are known hotspots of zoonotic disease emergence. To mitigate those risks, we need to understand how networks shaped by trading practices influence disease spread. Yet, those practices are rarely recorded in high-risk settings. Through a large cross-sectional study, we assessed the potential impact of live poultry trading networks' structures on avian influenza transmission dynamics in Bangladesh. Networks promoted mixing between chickens sourced from different farming systems and geographical locations, fostering co-circulation of viral strains of diverse origins in markets. Viral transmission models suggested that the observed rise in viral prevalence from farms to markets was unlikely explained by intra-market transmission alone, but substantially influenced by transmission occurring in upstream network nodes. Disease control interventions should therefore alter the entire network structures. However, as networks differed between chicken types and city supplied, standardised interventions are unlikely to be effective, and should be tailored to local structural characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98989-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497497PMC
October 2021

Antibiotics Use and Its Knowledge in the Community: A Mobile Phone Survey during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Bangladesh.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Aug 29;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

The general population has been excessively using antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the use of antibiotics for any reported illnesses in the preceding four weeks and knowledge of antibiotics among the general population in the community were assessed for possible interventions. A mobile phone survey among a general population across eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh was conducted during January-March 2021. Reported illness episodes irrespective of COVID-19 in the preceding four weeks of the interview, use of antibiotics for the illnesses, and knowledge on antibiotics among the general population were recorded. Descriptive analyses were performed. We randomly interviewed 1854 participants, with a mean age of 28.5 years (range: 18-75 years); 60.6% were male. Among all participants, 86.3% (95% CI: 84.7-87.8) heard names of antibiotics, but only 12.1% reported unspecified harmful effects, and 3.5% reported antimicrobial resistance when antibiotics were taken without a physician's prescription. Among 257 (13.9%) participants, who consumed medicines for their recent illness episode, 32.7% (95% CI: 27.2-38.6) reported using antibiotics. Of those who could recall the names of antibiotics prescribed (n = 36), the most frequently used was azithromycin (22.2%) followed by cefixime (11.1%) and ciprofloxacin (5.6%). Our findings show an increased antibiotic use for illnesses reported in the preceding four weeks and an elevated knowledge at the community level during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the pre-pandemic period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469517PMC
August 2021

Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intention and willingness to pay: findings from a population-based survey in Bangladesh.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 31;21(1):892. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.

Background: Several coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines have already been authorized and distributed in different countries all over the world, including Bangladesh. Understanding public acceptance of such a novel vaccine is vital, but little is known about the topic.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the determinants of intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) among people in Bangladesh.

Methods: An anonymous and online-based survey of Bangladeshi people (mean age = 29.96 ± 9.15 years; age range = 18-60 years) was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire consisting of socio-demographics, COVID-19 experience, and vaccination-related information as well as the health belief model (HBM). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine the factors influencing COVID-19 vaccination intent and WTP.

Results: Of the 894 participants, 38.5% reported a definite intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, whereas 27% had a probable intention, and among this intent group, 42.8% wanted to get vaccinated as soon as possible. Older age, feeling optimistic about the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination, believing that vaccination decreases worries and risk of COVID-19 infection, and being less concerned about side effects and safety of COVID-19 vaccination under the HBM construct were found to be significant factors in COVID-19 vaccination intention. Most of the participants (72.9%) were willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) amount of BDT 400/US$ 4.72 (IQR; BDT 200-600/US$ 2.36-7.07) per dose. Factors associated with higher WTP were younger age, being male, having higher education, residing in an urban area, having good self-rated health status, positivity towards COVID-19 vaccination's effectiveness, and being worried about the likelihood of getting infected with COVID-19. Participants who were COVID-19 vaccination intent preferred an imported vaccine over a domestically-made vaccine (22.9% vs. 14.8%), while 28.2% preferred a routine immunization schedule.

Conclusion: The findings indicate a considerable proportion of Bangladeshi people intended to get vaccinated and had WTP for the COVID-19 vaccine. However, urgent education and awareness programs are warranted to alleviate public skepticism regarding the COVID-19 vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06406-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406014PMC
August 2021

Assessing the feasibility of Nipah vaccine efficacy trials based on previous outbreaks in Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2021 09 20;39(39):5600-5606. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UMR2000, CNRS, 75015 Paris, France.

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging, bat-borne pathogen that can be transmitted from person-to-person. Vaccines are currently being developed for NiV, and studies have been funded to evaluate their safety and immunogenicity. An important unanswered question is whether it will be possible to evaluate the efficacy of vaccine candidates in phase III clinical trials in a context where spillovers from the zoonotic reservoir are infrequent and associated with small outbreaks. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of conducting a phase III vaccine trial in Bangladesh, the only country regularly reporting NiV cases.

Methods: We used simulations based on previously observed NiV cases from Bangladesh, an assumed vaccine efficacy of 90% and other NiV vaccine target characteristics, to compare three vaccination study designs: (i) cluster randomized ring vaccination, (ii) cluster randomized mass vaccination, and (iii) an observational case-control study design.

Results: The simulations showed that, assuming a ramp-up period of 10 days and a mean hospitalization delay of 4 days,a cluster-randomized ring vaccination trial would require 516 years and over 163,000 vaccine doses to run a ring vaccination trial under current epidemic conditions. A cluster-randomized mass vaccination trial in the two most affected districts would take 43 years and 1.83 million vaccine doses. An observational case-control design in these two districts would require seven years and 2.5 million vaccine doses.

Discussion: Without a change in the epidemiology of NiV, ring vaccination or mass vaccination trials are unlikely to be completed within a reasonable time window. In this light, the remaining options are: (i) not conducting a phase III trial until the epidemiology of NiV changes, (ii) identifying alternative ways to licensure such as observational studies or controlled studies in animals such as in the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Animal Rule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.08.027DOI Listing
September 2021

Seasonal influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0255646. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Regional Influenza Program, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: During the 2019 novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, limited data from several countries suggested reduced seasonal influenza viruses' circulation. This was due to community mitigation measures implemented to control the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used sentinel surveillance data to identify changes in the 2020 influenza season compared with previous seasons in Bangladesh.

Methods: We used hospital-based influenza surveillance (HBIS) data of Bangladesh that are generated year-round and are population-representative severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) data for all age groups from seven public and two private tertiary care level hospitals data from 2016 to 2019. We applied the moving epidemic method (MEM) by using R language (v4.0.3), and MEM web applications (v2.14) on influenza-positive rates of SARI cases collected weekly to estimate an average seasonal influenza curve and establish epidemic thresholds.

Results: The 2016-2019 average season started on epi week 18 (95% CI: 15-25) and lasted 12.5 weeks (95% CI: 12-14 weeks) until week 30.5. The 2020 influenza season started on epi week 36 and ended at epi week 41, lasting for only five weeks. Therefore, influenza epidemic started 18 weeks later, was 7.5 weeks shorter, and was less intense than the average epidemic of the four previous years. The 2020 influenza season started on the same week when COVID-19 control measures were halted, and 13 weeks after the measures were relaxed.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that seasonal influenza circulation in Bangladesh was delayed and less intense in 2020 than in previous years. Community mitigation measures may have contributed to this reduction of seasonal influenza transmission. These findings contribute to a limited but growing body of evidence that influenza seasons were altered globally in 2020.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255646PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330950PMC
August 2021

Murine bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells have reduced hematopoietic maintenance ability in sickle cell disease.

Blood 2021 12;138(24):2570-2582

Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology & Engineering.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, which can trigger oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue injury that contribute to disease complications. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) tightly regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis in health and disease, but their functionality in SCD remains unclear. We identified for the first time that murine SCD MSCs have altered gene signatures, reduced stem cell properties, and increased oxidative stress, due in part to hemolysis. Murine SCD MSCs had lower HSC maintenance ability in vitro and in vivo, as manifested by increased HSC mobilization and decreased HSC engraftment after transplant. Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 through p65 in MSCs further contributed to MSC dysfunction. Transfusions led to an improved MSC and HSC oxidative state in SCD mice. Improving the regulation between MSCs and HSCs has vital implications for enhancing clinical HSC transplantation and gene therapy outcomes and for identification of new molecular targets for alleviating SCD complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8678997PMC
December 2021

Shotgun proteomics of Brassica rapa seed proteins identifies vicilin as a major seed storage protein in the mature seed.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0253384. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Southern Cross Plant Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.

Proteins make up a large percentage of the Brassica seed and are second only to the oil in economic importance with uses for both animal and human nutrition. The most abundant proteins reported in the seeds of Brassica are the seed storage proteins cruciferin and napin, belonging to the 12S globulin and 2S albumin families of proteins, respectively. To gain insight into the Brassica rapa seed proteome and to confirm the presence and relative quantity of proteins encoded by candidate seed storage genes in the mature seed, shotgun proteomics was carried out on protein extracts from seeds of B. rapa inbred line R-o-18. Following liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, a total of 34016 spectra were mapped to 323 proteins, where 233 proteins were identified in 3 out of 4 biological replicates by at least 2 unique peptides. 2S albumin like napin seed storage proteins (SSPs), 11/12S globulin like cruciferin SSPs and 7S globulin like vicilin SSPs were identified in the samples, along with other notable proteins including oil body proteins, namely ten oleosins and two oil body-associated proteins. The identification of vicilin like proteins in the mature B. rapa seed represents the first account of these proteins in the Brassicaceae and analysis indicates high conservation of sequence motifs to other 7S vicilin-like allergenic proteins as well as conservation of major allergenic epitopes in the proteins. This study enriches our existing knowledge on rapeseed seed proteins and provides a robust foundation and rational basis for plant bioengineering of seed storage proteins.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253384PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270179PMC
October 2021

Cord serum elementomics profiling of 56 elements depicts risk of preterm birth: Evidence from a prospective birth cohort in rural Bangladesh.

Environ Int 2021 11 28;156:106731. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; China International Cooperation Center for Environment and Human Health, Center of Global Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Maternal exposure to some individual rare earth elements and trace elements is associated with preterm birth, but few elements have been studied and little is known about the potential effect of simultaneous exposure to multiple elements. We examined individual and mixture effects of elements on preterm birth among 745 pregnant women in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh (2008-2011). We measured 56 elements in umbilical cord blood collected during delivery using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Using elastic net (ENET) regularization and multivariate logistic regression, we examined independent associations between element concentrations and preterm birth. Bayesian kernel machine regression identified mixture effects of elements most critical to preterm birth, accounting for correlated exposure and interaction. ENET identified titanium (Ti), arsenic (As), and barium (Ba) as the most important predictors of shortened gestational age and preterm birth. In adjusted models, cord blood Ti (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.08-5.93; P = 0.033), As (odds ratio (OR) = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04-1.73; P = 0.023), and Ba (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with preterm birth. Bayesian kernel machine regression suggested an interaction effect between As and Ba. Further, we constructed an element risk score (ERS) using estimated weights from a multivariate regression model for Ti, As, and Ba and regressed preterm birth by this score (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.57-4.69; P = 3.35 × 10). Additionally, we observed a significant modification effect of child marriage on ERS, which means marriage before the age of 18 (P = 0.0438). This study identified element exposures profiles in cord blood and constructed metal risk score that are jointly associated with the risk of preterm birth. Ti, As, and Ba exposure may adversely affect birth outcomes as well as child marriage may be a modifiable factor potentially affecting environmental element exposure and preterm birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106731DOI Listing
November 2021

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: An emerging public health concern for the poorest in Bangladesh.

Public Health Pract (Oxf) 2020 Nov 22;1:100024. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Child Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is now a global crisis and the poorest in Bangladesh are the most vulnerable. With the whole country being subjected to lockdown measures, millions of poor people are unable to go to work and have lost their incomes, leaving them in profound poverty without access to food and basic health services. Furthermore, living in cramped conditions, lack of health awareness, basic hygiene practices, and failing to maintain social distance measures which are inherently present among the poor, put them at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As the pandemic threatens to expand its devastating grip on Bangladesh, the government and the aid organizations must take urgent and comprehensive initiatives to assist those most in need in this unprecedented health crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305720PMC
November 2020

Recent advances in integrated solid-state nanopore sensors.

Lab Chip 2021 08 17;21(16):3030-3052. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 USA.

The advent of single-molecule probing techniques has revolutionized the biomedical and life science fields and has spurred the development of a new class of labs-on-chip based on powerful biosensors. Nanopores represent one of the most recent and most promising single molecule sensing paradigms that is seeing increased chip-scale integration for improved convenience and performance. Due to their physical structure, nanopores are highly sensitive, require low sample volume, and offer label-free, amplification-free, high-throughput real-time detection and identification of biomolecules. Over the last 25 years, nanopores have been extensively employed to detect a variety of biomolecules with a growing range of applicatons ranging from nucleic acid sequencing to ultrasensitive diagnostics to single-molecule biophysics. Nanopores, in particular those in solid-state membranes, also have the potential for integration with other technologies such as optics, plasmonics, microfluidics, and optofluidics to perform more complex tasks for an ever-expanding demand. A number of breakthrough results using integrated nanopore platforms have already been reported, and more can be expected as nanopores remain the focus of innovative research and are finding their way into commercial instruments. This review provides an overview of different aspects and challenges of nanopore technology with a focus on chip-scale integration of solid-state nanopores for biosensing and bioanalytical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1lc00294eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372664PMC
August 2021

Child marriage, maternal serum metal exposure, and risk of preterm birth in rural Bangladesh: evidence from mediation analysis.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 05 6;31(3):571-580. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: The prevalence of preterm birth in Bangladesh is estimated to be 19.1%, the highest in the world. Although prenatal exposure to several metals has been linked with preterm birth, fewer prospective studies have investigated the socioeconomic factors that affect metal exposure, leading to preterm birth risk.

Objective: We aim to identify novel metal biomarkers and their critical exposure windows, as well as the upstream socioeconomic risk factors for preterm birth in rural Bangladeshi, to shed light for future interventional strategies.

Methods: This study included data from 780 mother-offspring pairs, who were recruited to participate in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh (2008-2011). Serum concentrations of 19 metals were measured in the first and second trimesters using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mediation analysis was performed to explore the upstream socioeconomic factors that affect the risk of preterm birth mediated via metal exposure concentrations.

Results: Early pregnancy exposure to serum zinc, arsenic, and strontium and mid-pregnancy exposure to barium were significantly associated with risk of preterm birth. Furthermore, younger marriage age was associated with an exponential increase in the risk of preterm birth, and women who married after 18 years old had a considerably lower risk of preterm birth. Mediation analysis indicated that these four elements mediated 30.2% of the effect of marriage age on preterm birth.

Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal serum metal exposure mediates the impact of child marriage on the increased risk of preterm birth via metal exposures. The findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying such association and provide insights into future interventional strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00319-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134042PMC
May 2021

Undiagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcome in patients with acute MI and no COVID-19 symptoms.

Open Heart 2021 04;8(1)

Department of Cardiology, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.

Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of occult infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) without COVID-19 symptoms.

Methods: We conducted an observational study from 28 June to 11 August 2020, enrolling patients admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation MI who did not meet WHO criteria for suspected COVID-19. Samples were collected by nasopharyngeal swab to test for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. We followed up patients at 3 months (13 weeks) postadmission to record adverse cardiovascular outcomes: all-cause death, new MI, heart failure and new percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: We enrolled 280 patients with MI, 79% male, mean age 54.5±11.8 years, 140 of whom were diagnosed with STEMI. We found 36 (13%) to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 1 with influenza. There was no significant difference between mortality rate observed among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients compared with non-infected (5 (14%) vs 26 (11%); p=0.564). A numerically shorter median time to a recurrent cardiovascular event was recorded among SARS-CoV-2 infected compared with non-infected patients (21 days, IQR: 8-46 vs 27 days, IQR: 7-44; p=0.378).

Conclusion: We found a substantial rate of occult SARS-CoV-2 infection in the studied cohort, suggesting SARS-CoV-2 may precipitate MI. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted with MI may contribute to disease transmission and warrants widespread testing of hospital admissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023755PMC
April 2021

A Case Series Describing the Recurrence of COVID-19 in Patients Who Recovered from Initial Illness in Bangladesh.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Mar 31;6(2). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

To date, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 80 million people globally. We report a case series of five clinically and laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh who suffered a second episode of COVID-19 illness after 70 symptom-free days. The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), is a leading public health research institution in South Asia. icddr, b staff were actively tested, treated and followed-up for COVID-19 by an experienced team of clinicians, epidemiologists, and virologists. From 21 March to 30 September 2020, 1370 icddr,b employees working at either the Dhaka (urban) or Matlab (rural) clinical sites were tested for COVID-19. In total, 522 (38%) were positive; 38% from urban Dhaka (483/1261) and 36% from the rural clinical site Matlab (39/109). Five patients (60% male with a mean age of 41 years) had real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) diagnosed recurrence (reinfection) of SARS-CoV-2. All had mild symptoms except for one who was hospitalized. Though all cases reported fair risk perceptions towards COVID-19, all had potential exposure sources for reinfection. After a second course of treatment and home isolation, all patients fully recovered. Our findings suggest the need for COVID-19 vaccination and continuing other preventive measures to further mitigate the pandemic. An optimal post-recovery follow-up strategy to allow the safe return of COVID-19 patients to the workforce may be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103235PMC
March 2021

The Summer 2019-2020 Wildfires in East Coast Australia and Their Impacts on Air Quality and Health in New South Wales, Australia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 29;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.

The 2019-2020 summer wildfire event on the east coast of Australia was a series of major wildfires occurring from November 2019 to end of January 2020 across the states of Queensland, New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and South Australia. The wildfires were unprecedent in scope and the extensive character of the wildfires caused smoke pollutants to be transported not only to New Zealand, but also across the Pacific Ocean to South America. At the peak of the wildfires, smoke plumes were injected into the stratosphere at a height of up to 25 km and hence transported across the globe. The meteorological and air quality Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used together with the air quality monitoring data collected during the bushfire period and remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites to determine the extent of the wildfires, the pollutant transport and their impacts on air quality and health of the exposed population in NSW. The results showed that the WRF-Chem model using Fire Emission Inventory (FINN) from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to simulate the dispersion and transport of pollutants from wildfires predicted the daily concentration of PM having the correlation (R) and index of agreement (IOA) from 0.6 to 0.75 and 0.61 to 0.86, respectively, when compared with the ground-based data. The impact on health endpoints such as mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations across the modelling domain was then estimated. The estimated health impact on each of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) census districts (SA4) of New South Wales was calculated based on epidemiological assumptions of the impact function and incidence rate data from the 2016 ABS and NSW Department of Health statistical health records. Summing up all SA4 census district results over NSW, we estimated that there were 247 (CI: 89, 409) premature deaths, 437 (CI: 81, 984) cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations and 1535 (CI: 493, 2087) respiratory diseases hospitalizations in NSW over the period from 1 November 2019 to 8 January 2020. The results are comparable with a previous study based only on observation data, but the results in this study provide much more spatially and temporally detailed data with regard to the health impact from the summer 2019-2020 wildfires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038035PMC
March 2021

Correction to: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi youth: a web-based cross-sectional analysis.

Z Gesundh Wiss 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342 Bangladesh.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s10389-020-01432-7.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-021-01488-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910788PMC
February 2021
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