Publications by authors named "Mahmoud Yousefifard"

95 Publications

Age, Period and Cohort Analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iranian Population over a 25-Year Period.

Arch Iran Med 2021 01 1;24(1):7-14. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Current and daily smoking prevalence rates have been have investigated in several cross-sectional studies. However, analyses in terms of age-period-cohort (APC) have not been carried out. We assessed daily smoking dynamics over a 25-year period using the APC model.

Methods: In our analyses, we used data from 214,652 people aged 15 to 64 years, collected by national health surveys conducted in 1990-1991, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2016. The Intrinsic Estimator model was used to analyze the impact of APC on daily smoking prevalence.

Results: Males were found to exhibit a higher prevalence of smoking compared to females (26.0% against 2.7%). Prevalence of smoking increased by age, peaking at the age groups of 40-44 in men and 45-49 in women, followed by a decreasing trend. The 1990 period had the highest prevalence in both genders, and the 2016 period had the lowest. The coefficients of birth cohort effects showed different patter19s of fluctuations in the two genders with the maximum and minimum coefficients for men calculated in the 1966-1970 and 1991-95 birth cohorts, and for females the 1931-1935 and 1971-1975 birth cohorts, respectively.

Conclusion: We showed the impact of APC on daily tobacco smoking prevalence, and these factors should be considered when dealing with smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.02DOI Listing
January 2021

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived Conditioned Medium in Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Arch Iran Med 2020 12 1;23(12):870-879. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A definitive conclusion on the efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells-derived conditioned medium (MSCs-CM) in pulmonary fibrosis has not yet been reached. Therefore, the present meta-analysis intends to investigate the efficacy of MSCs-CM administration on improvement of pulmonary fibrosis.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of August 2019. Outcomes in the present study included pulmonary fibrosis score, lung collagen deposition, lung collagen expression, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression and interleukin-6 expression. Finally, the data were pooled and an overall standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported.

Results: Data from seven studies were included. Analyses showed that administration of MSCs-CM significantly improved pulmonary fibrosis (SMD = -2.36; 95% CI: -3.21, -1.51). MSCs-CM administration also attenuated lung collagen deposition (SMD = -1.70; 95% CI: -2.18, -1.23) and decreased expression of type I collagen (SMD = -6.27; 95% CI: -11.00, -1.55), type III collagen (SMD = -5.16; 95% CI: -9.86, -0.47), TGF- β1 (SMD = -3.36; 95% CI: - 5.62, -1.09) and interleukin-6 (SMD = -1.69; 95% CI: - 3.14, -0.24).

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis showed that administration of MSCs-CM improves pulmonary fibrosis. It seems that the effect of MSCs-CM was mediated by reducing collagen deposition as well as inhibiting the production of inflammatory chemokines such as TGF-β1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Since there is no evidence on the efficacy of MSCs-CM in large animals, further studies are needed to translate the finding to clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.116DOI Listing
December 2020

Early General Hypothermia Improves Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 6;8(1):e80. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is still controversy about the effect of early hypothermia on the outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this review article is to investigate the effect of local or general hypothermia on improving the locomotion after traumatic SCI.

Methods: Electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched from inception until May 7, 2018. Two independent reviewers screened and summarized the relevant experimental studies on hypothermia efficacy in traumatic SCI. The data were analyzed and the findings were presented as pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: 20 papers containing 30 separate experiments were included in meta-analysis. The onset of hypothermia varied between 0 and 240 minutes after SCI. Administration of hypothermia has a positive effect on locomotion following SCI (SMD=0.56 95% CI: 0.18-0.95, p=0.004). Subgroup analysis showed that general hypothermia improves locomotion recovery (SMD =0.89, 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.36; p <0.0001), while local hypothermia does not have a significant effect on motor recovery (SMD=0.20, 95 % CI: -0.36-0.76, p=0.478). In addition, general hypothermia was found to affect motor recovery only if its duration was between 2 and 8 hours (SMD=0.89; p<0.0001) and the target temperature for induction of hypothermia was between 32 and 35° C (SMD=0.83; p<0.0001).

Conclusion: We found that general hypothermia improves locomotion after SCI in rats. Duration of induction and the target temperature are two essential considerations for general therapeutic hypothermia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682943PMC
October 2020

Central Nervous System Complications in COVID-19 Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis based on Current Evidence.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 7;8(1):e62. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Several studies have confirmed neurological involvements, such as acute cerebrovascular disease and impaired consciousness in COVID-19. In the present study, our aim is to investigate the current evidence regarding central nervous system (CNS) complications in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Methods: An extensive search was conducted in electronic databases including Medline (using PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, in addition to the manual search in Google and Google scholar search engines, for articles published from 2019 until April 21st, 2020. Inclusion criteria was articles that were reviewed and reported the incidence of neurological outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease.

Results: The initial search yielded 638 records, from which 7 articles were included. Overall, the incidence of CNS complications was calculated to be 6.27% (95% CI: 3.32 to 9.98). The incidence of the most common CNS complications, encephalopathy and acute cerebrovascular disease, were 9.14% (95%CI: 2.20 to 19.81) and 2.59% (95% CI: 1.31 to 4.25), respectively.

Conclusion: CNS complications do exist in COVID-19 patients, encephalopathy being the most concerning one. The heterogeneity in the existing literature causes an uncertainty in reporting the definite prevalence rate for each complication. Thus, further studies are needed for scientists to reach a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of these complications in COVID-19 patients. However, healthcare providers should consider the possibility of CNS involvements in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587989PMC
June 2020

Corticosteroids on the Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Aug;49(8):1411-1421

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to examine the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids on the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).

Method: An extensive search was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Central databases until the end of March 2020, using keywords related to corticosteroids, COVID-19, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The main outcome was considered to be the mortality rate, length of stay, virus clearance time, symptom improvement, and lung function improvement. The findings are presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Fifteen paper compromising 5 studies on COVID-19, 8 studies on SARS-CoV and 2 studies on MERS-CoV were included. One study was clinical trial and the rest were cohort. The analyses showed that corticosteroids were not reduce the mortality rate of COVID-19 (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 0.34 to 3.50) and SARS-CoV (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.3) patients, while they were associated with higher mortality rate of patients with MERS-CoV (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.41 to 4.50). Moreover, it appears that corticosteroids administration would not be effective in shortening viral clearance time, length of hospitalization, and duration of relief symptoms following viral severe acute respiratory infections.

Conclusion: There is no evidences that corticosteroids are safe and effective on the treatment of severe acute respiratory infection when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Therefore, corticosteroids prescription in COVID-19 patients should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i8.3863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554375PMC
August 2020

Value of chest computed tomography scan in diagnosis of COVID-19; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Transl Imaging 2020 Oct 12:1-13. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat highway, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computed tomography (CT) scan are main diagnostic modalities of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still no consensus on which of these methods is superior to the other. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was designed to answer to the question whether CT scan can be used in diagnosis of COVID-19 or not.

Methods: Searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until the end of April 2020. Two researchers gathered the data of diagnostic accuracy studies that had attempted to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19.

Results: Data of 9 studies were included. Area under the curve of ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, pleural effusion, other CT features, and simultaneous observation of GGO with other CT features was 0.64 (95% CI 0.60-0.69), 0.30 (95% CI 0.26-0.34), 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.64), 0.61 (95% CI 0.56-0.65), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.92), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of simultaneous observation of GGO with other CT scan features was higher than all of the other signs. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of this sign was calculated to be 0.90, 0.89, and 20, respectively.

Conclusion: Simultaneous observation of GGO and other features of viral pneumonia in CT scan had optimum performance in detection of COVID-19. However, it is suggested to make the final diagnosis based on both CT scan and RT-PCR, as none of the two diagnostic modalities are reliable alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40336-020-00387-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549426PMC
October 2020

Value of Canadian C-spine rule versus the NEXUS criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries: derivation of modified Canadian C-spine rule.

Radiol Med 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Although, Canadian C-spine rule and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries have been validated using large prospective studies, no consensus exist as to which rule should be endorsed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of the Canadian C-spine and NEXUS criteria in ruling out clinically important cervical spine injuries in trauma patients. Finally, we introduced the modified Canadian C-spine rule.

Methods: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on trauma patients referred to four emergency departments of Iran in 2018. Emergency physicians evaluated the patients based on the Canadian C-spine rule and NEXUS criteria in two groups of low risk and high risk for clinically important cervical spine injury. Afterward, all patients underwent cervical imaging. In addition, modified Canadian C-spine rule was derived by removing dangerous mechanism and simple rear-end motor vehicle collision from the model.

Results: Data from 673 patients were included. The area under the curve of the NEXUS criteria, Canadian C-spine, and modified Canadian C-spine rule were 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.81)], 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.83), and 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.83), respectively. The sensitivities of NEXUS criteria, Canadian C-spine, and modified Canadian C-spine rule were 93.4%, 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: The modified Canadian C-spine rule has fewer variables than the original Canadian C-spine rule and is entirely based on physical examination, which seems easier to use in emergency departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01288-7DOI Listing
September 2020

Efficacy of adipose derived stem cells on functional and neurological improvement following ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Neurol 2020 Aug 10;20(1):294. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Colorectal Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The evidence on the efficacy of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in the treatment of stroke is controversial. Therefore, the aim of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of ADSCs administration in the treatment of animal models of ischemic stroke.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Scopus, CENTRAL and Web of Science until December 31, 2018. Animal studies that used ADSCs in treatment of ischemic stroke were included. The data were recorded as mean and standard deviation and then a pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was reported.

Results: Twenty articles were included in the present meta-analysis. It was observed that administration of ADSCs improves motor function (SMD = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.67 to 3.37, p < 0.0001) and neurological status (SMD = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.78, p < 0.0001) in animals following an ischemic stroke. Multivariate meta-regression showed the model of stroke induction (p = 0.017) and the number of transplanted cells (p = 0.007) affect the efficacy of ADSCs administration on motor function improvement following the stroke.

Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of evidence indicate a strong efficacy of ADSCs transplantation on motor function and neurological improvement following ischemic stroke in animal models. However, no reports regarding the dose-response effect of ADSCs administration on stroke exist in the literature. As a result, further pre-clinical studies are recommended to be conducted on the matter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01865-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418438PMC
August 2020

Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Patients with COVID-19; Report of Three Cases.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 16;8(1):e58. Epub 2020 May 16.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease, which has challenged people all around the world. As of today, healthcare practitioners and researchers have made great effort to understand the characteristics and clinical presentations of the disease; however, the existing literature is still incomplete in this regard. A growing body of evidence indicates that coagulopathies and thromboembolic events are of utmost importance in COVID-19 patients and are related to poor prognosis. Here, we report three ICU admitted cases of COVID-19, in which massive pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurred a few days after disease onset. Unfortunately, one of the patients did not survive and two were treated; one with thrombectomy and other with antithrombotic agents. It seems that severe cases of COVID-19 are at risk for developing PTE and in-charge physicians should be prepared and plan for anticoagulant prophylaxis using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305637PMC
May 2020

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in management of COVID-19; A systematic review on current evidence.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Sep 14;74(9):e13557. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since there is still no definitive conclusion regarding which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most effective and safe in viral respiratory infections, we decided to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections so that we can reach a conclusion on which NSAID is best choice for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: A search was performed in Medline (via PubMed), Embase and CENTRAL databases until 23 March 2020. Clinical trials on application of NSAIDs in viral respiratory infections were included.

Results: Six clinical trials were included. No clinical trial has been performed on COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome infections. Studies show that ibuprofen and naproxen not only have positive effects in controlling cold symptoms, but also do not cause serious side effects in rhinovirus infections. In addition, it was found that clarithromycin, naproxen and oseltamivir combination leads to decrease in mortality rate and duration of hospitalisation in patients with pneumonia caused by influenza.

Conclusion: Although based on existing evidence, NSAIDs have been effective in treating respiratory infections caused by influenza and rhinovirus, since there is no clinical trial on COVID-19 and case-reports and clinical experiences are indicative of elongation of treatment duration and exacerbation of the clinical course of patients with COVID-19, it is recommended to use substitutes such as acetaminophen for controlling fever and inflammation and be cautious about using NSAIDs in management of COVID-19 patients until there are enough evidence. Naproxen may be a good choice for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267090PMC
September 2020

Discriminatory Precision of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Detection of Urinary Tract Infection in Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 25;8(1):e56. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is a significant discrepancy between studies on diagnostic precision of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to assess the diagnostic value of NGAL in diagnosis of UTI in children and adolescents.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of 2019. Two independent researchers screened and summarized the data. Discriminatory precision of urinary and serum NGAL was assessed by reporting area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Data from 12 studies were included. The area under the curve of urinary and serum NGAL for diagnosis of UTI in children and adolescents at the best cut-off point (between 30-39.9 ng/ml) was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93 to 0.97) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.86), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio on urinary NGAL at these cut-off points were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.97), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71 to 0.97) and 67 (95% CI: 5 to 891), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio of serum NGAL in UTI detection were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.90), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.88) and 9.53 (95% CI: 1.52 to 59.65), respectively.

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis showed that urinary NGAL had a high diagnostic value in detection of UTI in children and adolescents with an optimum cut-off point in the range of 30-39.9 ng/ml.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212073PMC
April 2020

Pulmonary Thromboembolism as a Potential Cause of Clinical Deterioration in COVID-19 Patients; a Commentary.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 19;8(1):e52. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although the findings of some studies have been indicative of the direct relationship between the severity of clinical findings and imaging, reports have been published regarding inconsistency of clinical findings with imaging and laboratory evidence. Physicians treating these patients frequently report cases in which patients, sometimes in the recovery phase and despite improvements in imaging indices, suddenly deteriorate and in some instances suddenly expire. This letter aimed to draw attention to the role of pulmonary thromboembolism as a potential and possible cause of clinical deterioration in covid-19 patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212069PMC
April 2020

Intranasal versus Intramuscular/Intravenous Naloxone for Pre-hospital Opioid Overdose: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Adv J Emerg Med 2020 16;4(2):e27. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Prehospital and Hospital Emergency Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to perform an extensive search in databases to compare the efficacy of the intranasal administration of naloxone with its intramuscular/intravenous administration in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose.

Evidence Acquisition: This meta-analysis included controlled trials conducted on the efficacy of naloxone administration in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose. A search was carried out in electronic databases on relevant articles published by the end of 2018. After data collection, analyses were performed in STATA 14.0 software and the efficacy and side-effects of the two administration routes of naloxone, i.e. intranasal and intramuscular/intravenous, were compared. An overall effect size with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was provided for each section.

Results: Eventually, data from six studies were included in this meta-analysis. The success rate of the intranasal and intramuscular/intravenous administration of naloxone in the management of opioid overdose in pre-hospital settings was 82.54% (95% CI: 57.97 to 97.89%) and 80.39% (95% CI: 57.38 to 96.04%), respectively. There was no difference between injectable (intramuscular/intravenous) naloxone and intranasal naloxone in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose (Odds Ratio=1.01; 95% CI: 0.42 to 2.43; P=0.98). The onset of action of intranasal naloxone, however, was slightly longer than injectable naloxone (Standardized Mean Difference=0.63; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.19; P=0.03). Additionally, the odds of needing a rescue dose was 2.17 times higher for intranasal naloxone than intramuscular/intravenous naloxone (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.53 to 3.09; P<0.0001). The prevalence of major side-effects was non-significant for both intranasal (0.00%) and intramuscular/intravenous (0.05%) routes of naloxone administration and there was no difference in the prevalence of major (OR=1.18; 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.69; P=0.777) and minor (OR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.17 to 2.34; P=0.497) side-effects between the two routes.

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis demonstrated that intranasal naloxone is as effective as injectable naloxone in the pre-hospital management of opioid overdose complications. Consequently, intranasal naloxone may be an appropriate alternative to injectable naloxone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22114/ajem.v0i0.279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163267PMC
November 2019

Antiviral therapy in management of COVID-19: a systematic review on current evidence.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 6;8(1):e45. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of the current systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapies in treatment of COVID-19. In addition, clinical trials on the efficacy of antiviral therapies in the management of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-Cov) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have also been reviewed, in order to identify potential treatment options for COVID-19.

Method: An extensive search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and CENTRAL databases until the end of March 15, 2020. Two independent researchers performed the screening, and finally the related studies were included.

Results: Only one clinical trial on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in management of COVID-19 was found. The results depicted that adding Lopinavir-Ritonavir to the standard treatment regimen of patients with severe COVID-19 has no benefits. Moreover, 21 case-series and case-report studies reported the prescription of antiviral agents in COVID-19, none of which can be used to determine the efficacy of antiviral therapies in confronting COVID-19. In addition, no clinical trials were found to be performed on the efficacy of antiviral agents in the management of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Conclusion: The current evidence impede researchers from proposing an appropriate antiviral therapy against COVID-19, making the current situation a serious concern for international organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO). In the time of the current pandemic and future epidemics, organizations such as WHO should pursue more proactive actions and plan well-designed clinical trials so that their results can be used in managing future epidemics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156260PMC
April 2020

Accuracy of Urine Kidney Injury Molecule-1 in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 5;8(1):e44. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is considerable controversy on the accuracy of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Therefore, the present study intends to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the value of this biomarker in predicting AKI in children.

Methods: An extensive search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases by the end of 2019. Cohort and case-control studies on children were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels were compared between AKI and non-AKI groups. Findings were reported as an overall standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Also, the overall area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was calculated.

Results: Data from 13 articles were included. Urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 1 AKI were higher than the non-AKI group only when assessed within the first 12 hours after admission (SMD = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.84; p = 0.034). However, urinary KIM-1 levels in children with stage 2-3 AKI were significantly higher than non-AKI children (p <0.01) at all times. The AUC of urinary KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.77).

Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, KIM-1 seems to have moderate value in predicting AKI in children. Since previous meta-analyses have provided other urinary and serum biomarkers that have better discriminatory accuracy than KIM-1, so it had better not to use KIM-1 in predicting AKI in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159147PMC
April 2020

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN Study.

Int J Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jan 19;18(1):e82866. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The assessment of the trend of changes in the prevalence of abdominal obesity can provide useful health information.

Objectives: This study aimed to conduct an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to provide the trend of the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Iranian pediatric population through the three temporal dimensions of age, period, and cohort.

Methods: Data were gathered from a total number of 53,962 Iranian children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years through four surveys of a national surveillance program (the CASPIAN study) conducted in 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist-to-height ratio of ≥ 0.5. The APC analysis was performed using the "apc_ie"command in STATA software.

Results: A significant correlation existed between age, period, and cohort effects and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. With increasing age, regardless of considerable fluctuations, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an overall increasing trend in both genders. The age effect coefficient increased from -2.1 in the age group of 5 - 9 years to 1.1 in the age group of 10 - 14 years and then decreased to 1.0 in the age group of 15 - 19 years among boys; figures followed an increasing trend in girls from -2.2 to 0.8 and 1.5, respectively. As for the period effect, in both boys and girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity followed an increasing trend when coming from the earlier periods to the recent ones (from -4.6 to 4.0 in boys and from -4.1 to 2.4 in girls). Likewise, this prevalence increased from earlier birth cohorts to the recent ones in both genders.

Conclusions: The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing among Iranian children and adolescents and this rising trend is affected by age, period, and birth cohort effects. The findings of this study emphasize the necessity of implementing comprehensive interventions for tackling the epidemic of childhood obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijem.82866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138598PMC
January 2020

Estimation of basic reproduction number for COVID-19 and the reasons for its differences.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 08;74(8):e13518

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262308PMC
August 2020

Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Fecal Incontinence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Sep-Oct;10(5):419-431. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Physiology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) in the control of Fecal Incontinence (FI).

Methods: Two independent reviewers extensively searched in the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus for the studies published until the end of 2016. Only randomized clinical trials were included. The studied outcomes included FI episodes, FI score, resting pressure, squeezing pressure, and maximum tolerable pressure. The data were reported as Standardized Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval.

Results: Five articles were included in the present study (249 patients under treatment with PTNS and 239 in the sham group). Analyses showed that PTNS led to a significant decrease in the number of FI episodes (SMD=-0.38; 95% CI: -0.67-0.10; P=0.009). Yet, it did not have an effect on FI score (SMD=0.13; 95% CI: -0.49-0.75; P=0.68), resting pressure (SMD=0.12; 95% CI: -0.14-0.37; P=0.67), squeezing pressure (SMD=-0.27; 95% CI: -1.03-0.50; P=0.50), and maximum tolerable pressure (SMD=-0.10; 95% CI: -0.40-0.24; P=0.52).

Conclusion: Based on the results, it seems that the prescription of PTNS alone cannot significantly improve FI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.9.10.290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149953PMC
September 2019

Discriminatory Precision of Renal Angina Index in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 26;8(1):e39. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: There is still controversy over the value of renal angina index (RAI) in predicting acute renal failure (AKI) in children. Therefore, the present study aims to provide evidence by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis on the value of RAI in this regard.

Methods: An extensive search of Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted by the end of January 2020 using words related to RAI and AKI. Two independent reviewers screened and summarized the related studies. Data were analysed using STATA 14.0 statistical program and discriminatory precision of RAI was assessed.

Results: Data from 11 studies were included. These studies included data from 3701 children (60.41% boys). There were 752 children with AKI and 2949 non-AKI children. Pooled analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve of RAI in prediction of AKI was 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85 to 0.91]. Sensitivity and specificity of this tool in predicting AKI were 0.85% (95% CI: 0.74% to 0.92%) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.69% to 0.89%), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of RAI was 20.40 (95% CI: 9.62 to 43.25).

Conclusion: The findings of the present meta-analysis showed that RAI is a reliable tool in predicting AKI in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7130445PMC
March 2020

The role of CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37) and Endomorphin-1 combination therapy on neuropathic pain alleviation and expression of Sigma-1 receptors and antioxidants in rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2020 07 21;106:101771. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Spinal cord injury is one of the most common causes of neuropathic pain which is not responsive to common treatments. Owing to the adverse effects of drugs, it seems that the use of Calcitonin Gene-Related Protein (CGRP) receptor antagonist or Morphine and their combination could be an appropriate strategy for pain alleviation.

Method: To achieve the objective, fifty six male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. CGRP8-37 and Endomorphin-1 alone, and in combinated administration, as bolus and continues dose. Both mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia were evaluated before and also15 and 60 min after injection to indicate the efficacy of the therapies in the acute and chronic circumstances on pain induced by spinal cord compression injury. Sigma-1 receptor experssion, oxidant and antioxidant activity after the seven days of the drug adminestration were evaluated.

Result: The results showed that Endomorphin-1and CGRP8-37 injections were able to reduce neuropathic pain after spinal cord compression injury. Compared to Endomorphin-1, or CGRP8-37 monotherapy, combination therapy did not show more attenuating effects on the pain threshold. Compared to the continous administration of Endomorphin-1 alone, and CGRP8-37 alone, the continous combination therapy did not reduce the pain further. Molecular studies disclosed the increased expression of the Sigma1 receptor, in the spinal cord after administration of Endomorphin-1, and CGRP8-37 alone, as well as combination therapy. Although, an increase in GPx and SOD activity, and decrease in MDA activity was observed in the combination therapy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that either Endomorphin-1 or CGRP receptor antagonist is able to decrease the neuropathic pain after SCI but combination therapy by a CGRP receptor antagonist and Endomorphin-1 did not make any further reduction in pain sensation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101771DOI Listing
July 2020

Pediatric Thoracic Injury Rule out Criteria (pTIRC) in Diagnosis of Very Low Risk Children for Traumatic Intrathoracic Injuries; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 8;8(1):e7. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Science Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The value of thoracic injury rule out criteria (TIRC) as a tool for decreasing the number of unnecessary chest radiographs in children has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, the present study was designed as a multi-center study to assess the validity of TIRC model in detection of very low risk children for traumatic intrathoracic injuries.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, clinical data and chest radiographs of 974 children less than 18 years of age (72.0% boys) who had presented to 5 hospitals, in Iran in 2018 were assessed. Data gathering and interpretation of radiographs were done by two independent researchers in each hospital. In the end, discriminatory power and calibration of the model was assessed with a 95% confidence interval (95% Cl).

Results: In the present study, age was not a predicting factor of abnormal findings in radiographs of children and adolescents (p=0.75); therefore, it was omitted from TIRC model and pediatric TIRC (pTIRC) was designed. Area under the curve of pTIRC rule was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98) for prediction of abnormal chest X-Ray in children and adolescents. The sensitivity and specificity of pTIRC was 100% and 90.1%, respectively. The calibration of this decision rule had great concordance with the perfect line with a slope of 0.99 and intercept of 0.001. There was a 90.1% reduction in the number of unnecessary chest radiographs when using pTIRC decision rule.

Conclusion: pTIRC decision rule was introduced in the present study. pTIRC has excellent performance in identification of traumatic intrathoracic injuries and decreasing the number of unnecessary chest radiographs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993076PMC
January 2020

The Efficacy of Ketamine Administration in Prehospital Pain Management of Trauma Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 30;8(1):e1. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Although previous articles and reviews suggest that ketamine might effectively manage pain in trauma patients, these articles have serious limitations. Accordingly, the current meta-analysis aims to investigate the efficacy of ketamine administration in prehospital pain management of trauma patients.

Method: In the present meta-analysis, controlled human studies were included. An extensive search was conducted in electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Central, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest, gathering data to the end of 2018. The efficacy and side effects of ketamine administration in pre-hospital pain management were compared with those of opioid analgesics based on standard mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) calculations with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Data from seven articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Ketamine administration was not more effective than administrating morphine or fentanyl in prehospital pain management of trauma patients (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.38 to 0.26, p = 0.117). However, co-administration of ketamine+morphine was considerably more effective than ketamine alone, in alleviating pain in prehospital settings (SMD = -0.62, 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.12, p = 0.010). Finally, it was concluded that ketamine alone had less side effects than morphine alone (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.56, p = 0.001). However, co-administration of ketamine+morphine increases the risk of side effects to 3.68 times compared to when morphine is prescribed solely (OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.99 to 6.82, p<0.001).

Conclusion: For the first time, findings of the current meta-analysis demonstrated that ketamine, being administered alone, is an effective and safe medication in prehospital pain management in trauma patients, and can be considered as an acceptable alternative to opioid analgesics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946038PMC
October 2019

Ultrasonography in Detection of Renal Calculi in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2019 24;7(1):e66. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University ofMedical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Although numerous studies have been done to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in diagnosis of renal calculi in children, there is still no consensus. Therefore, in the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in identifying renal stones in children.

Methods: A comprehensive search of the electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted up to July 2019. Diagnostic accuracy studies in children were included. Data was summarized and pooled. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio were reported with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Data from 7 articles were included. Pooled analysis showed that the area under the curve of ultrasonography in diagnosis of pediatric renal calculi was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.96). The sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic modality were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.87) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.84 to 1.00), respectively. Diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio of ultrasonography in detection of renal calculi were 110.32 (95% CI: 2.88 to 19.76) and 82362.41 (95% CI: 17.80 to 3.8 × 10), respectively.

Conclusion: Overall, the low level of evidence indicates that sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in detecting renal calculi in children are 80% and 100%, respectively. However, due to the serious limitations of the included studies, well-designed prospective diagnostic accuracy studies are recommended for future studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942918PMC
November 2019

Age, period and cohort analysis of high cholesterol levels in Iranian adults over a 20-year period.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019 Dec 25;18(2):289-299. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of non-communicable diseases and data on their values in different societies and their trend of changes should be updated every couple of years. Many studies have focused on assessing the prevalence of high cholesterol. We must emphasise that most of these studies were cross-sectional and did not directly investigate the temporal trends of change for age, period and birth cohort (APC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of age, period and birth cohort on the prevalence of borderline to high cholesterol levels in Iranian adult population.

Methods: The data were collected from 110,302 subjects between 25 and 69 years of age over the period of 1990-2011. Data from these subjects were collected by using five national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. The APC effect on the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels was assessed using the Intrinsic Estimator model.

Results: The overall prevalence of borderline cholesterol level among male subjects was found to be lower than that of females (39.8% vs. 46.3%). Similarly, the prevalence of high cholesterol level in men was reported to be 13.1%, which was lower than the 18.0% calculated in women. The prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels increased with age in men between the ages of 45-49. Then it stayed quite steady and eventually declined. Then it stayed quite steady and eventually declined. The prevalence in women also increased with age, with its maximum rise after the ages of menopause and a slight decline at the ages of 65-69. As for the birth cohorts, the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels followed a declining trend by going from earlier birth cohorts to the later ones.

Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that age, period and birth cohort affect the prevalence of borderline and high cholesterol levels. Thus, these factors should be considered when developing and implementing care plans for people with hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00410-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915163PMC
December 2019

Pre-hospital pain management; a systematic review of proposed guidelines.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2019 6;7(1):e55. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

Prehospital and Hospital Emergency Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: A standard guideline concerning pre-hospital pain management is still a matter of discussion. Therefore, the current umbrella review is determined to perform a comprehensive search in databases and Grey literature and collect and summarize the guidelines and protocols dealing with prehospital pain management.

Methods: In the present study, all of the available guidelines and protocols concerning pre-hospital pain management were reviewed. Presented guidelines are from 2010 up to present, as the majority of guidelines are considered old and become renewed after 10 years. Finally, the development quality of each guideline was evaluated using AGREE II instrument.

Results: The search conducted in databases and non-indexed protocols resulted in inclusion of 12 pre-hospital pain management guidelines. The time interval of the guidelines was from 2010 to 2019. Four guidelines were designed for pain management in trauma patients and other guidelines were presented for all of the clinical conditions associated with pain. All of the 12 included guidelines presented pain management instructions in adults. Pain management in children was reported in 10 guidelines. All of the guidelines persisted on a standard method for pain evaluation. Pain management was categorized in three groups; mild, moderate and severe pain. Most of the guidelines recommend paracetamol as an optional treatment for management of mild pain in both adults and children. In management of moderate and severe pain, fentanyl and morphine were suggested for both adults and children. In most of the treatment guidelines fentanyl is the optional choice for children.

Conclusion: The present umbrella review has summarized the current evidence in pre-hospital pain management for the first time via investigation of guidelines and protocols related to the matter. Based on the obtained evidence, no guideline is yet presented concerning opioid-free management of moderate and severe pain. The evidence is insufficient for using non opioid medications such as ketamine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905420PMC
October 2019

Effect of vitamins C and E on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury: systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

Nutr Rev 2020 06;78(6):465-473

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, and with the Brain and Spinal Injuries Research Center (BASIR), Neuroscience Institute, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Many animal studies have evaluated the role of vitamins in the recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury, but their results have been contradictory and no consensus has been reached.

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury in animal models.

Data Sources: Two authors independently collected the records of relevant articles published in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science through November 2018.

Study Selection: All studies conducted in animal models to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vitamin C or vitamin E or both on recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury were included. Studies that lacked a control group or a standard treatment, lacked an assessment of motor function, included genetically modified/engineered animals, included animals pretreated with vitamin C or vitamin E, or combined vitamin treatment with other methods, such as cell therapies, were excluded.

Data Extraction: Data from 10 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines.

Results: Daily supplementation with vitamin C (P < 0.0001) and vitamin E (P < 0.0001) significantly improved the recovery of motor function in animals affected by spinal cord injury. Vitamin C supplementation is effective only when administered intraperitoneally (P < 0.0001). Concurrent supplementation with both vitamins does not show better efficacy than treatment with either one alone.

Conclusion: Administration of vitamin C and vitamin E in animal models of spinal cord injury significantly improves the recovery of motor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz076DOI Listing
June 2020

Combination of laser and human adipose-derived stem cells in repair of rabbit anal sphincter injury: a new therapeutic approach.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 12 2;10(1):367. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Anal sphincter injury leads to fecal incontinence. Based on the regenerative capability of laser and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), this study was designed to assess the effects of co-application of these therapies on anal sphincter recovery after injury.

Design: Male rabbits were assigned to equal groups (n = 7) including control, sphincterotomy, sphincterotomy treated with laser (660 nm, 90 s, immediately after sphincterotomy, daily, 14 days), hADSCs (2 × 10 hADSCs injected into injured area of the sphincter immediately after sphincterotomy), and laser + hADSCs. Ninety days after sphincterotomy, manometry and electromyography were performed, sphincter collagen content was evaluated, and Ki67, myosin heavy chain (MHC), skeletal muscle alpha-actin (ACTA1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and vimentin mRNA gene expression were assessed.

Results: The laser + hADSCs group had a higher resting pressure compared with the sphincterotomy (p < 0.0001), laser (p < 0.0001), and hADSCs (p = 0.04) groups. Maximum squeeze pressure was improved in all treated animals compared with the sphincterotomized animals (p < 0.0001), without a significant difference between treatments (p > 0.05). In the laser + hADSCs group, motor unit numbers were higher than those in the laser group (p < 0.0001) but did not differ from the hADSCs group (p = 0.075). Sphincterotomy increased collagen content, but the muscle content (p = 0.36) and collagen content (p = 0.37) were not significantly different between the laser + hADSCs and control groups. Laser + hADSCs increased ACTA1 (p = 0.001) and MHC (p < 0.0001) gene expression compared with laser or hADSCs alone and was associated with increased VEGFA (p = 0.009) and Ki67 mRNA expression (p = 0.01) and decreased vimentin mRNA expression (p < 0.0001) compared with laser.

Conclusion: The combination of laser and hADSCs appears more effective than either treatment alone for promoting myogenesis, angiogenesis, and functional recovery after anal sphincterotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-019-1477-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889595PMC
December 2019

Clinical predictors of abnormal chest CT scan findings following blunt chest trauma: A cross-sectional study.

Chin J Traumatol 2020 Feb 11;23(1):51-55. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Emergency Department, Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Some surgeons believe that chest computed tomography (CT) scan should be used more prudently in management of blunt chest trauma patients. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical predictors of abnormal chest CT scan findings in trauma patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on blunt chest trauma patients aged ≥18 years who were referred to the emergency departments of two educational hospitals and underwent chest CT scan. These patients were enrolled in the study using a non-probability sampling method. The exclusion criteria included: class III or IV hemodynamic shock, need for immediate surgical or neurosurgical interventions, penetrating trauma, lack of required information, and pregnancy. Demographic factors, accident details, trauma mechanism, vital signs, and level of consciousness in predicting abnormal chest CT scan findings were evaluated. Analysis was performed using IBM SPSS statistics 21.

Results: A total of 977 patients (male 51.5%, female 48.5%) with the mean age of (41.71 ± 14.24) years, range 18-88 years were studied; 34.2% of them with high energy trauma mechanism. With 334 (34.2%) patients had abnormal findings on chest X-ray (CXR) and 332 (34.0%) cases had an abnormal findings on chest CT scan (agreement rate was 99.4%). There was a significant correlation between male gender (p < 0.0001), GCS<15 (p < 0.0001), high energy trauma mechanism (p < 0.0001), unstable hemodynamics (p < 0.01), and clinical signs and symptoms (p < 0.0001) with chest CT findings. Chest wall deformity (odds = 8; p < 0.0001), generalized tenderness (odds = 6.6, p < 0.0001), and decreased cardiac sound (odds = 3.8, p < 0.0001) were the important and independent clinical predictors of abnormal chest CT scan findings.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, chest wall deformity, generalized tenderness, decreased cardiac sound, distracting pain, chest wall tenderness, high energy trauma mechanism, male gender, respiratory rate > 20 breathes/min, decreased pulmonary sound, and chest wall crepitation were independent clinical predictors of abnormal chest CT scan findings following blunt trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2019.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049617PMC
February 2020

A combination of mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds promotes motor functional recovery in spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Nov;32(2):269-284

8Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and.

Objective: There is controversy about the role of scaffolds as an adjunctive therapy to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). Thus, the authors aimed to design a meta-analysis on preclinical evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy of scaffold + MSC transplantation in comparison with scaffolds alone and MSCs alone in improving motor dysfunction in SCI.

Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from inception until the end of August 2018. Two independent reviewers screened related experimental studies. Animal studies that evaluated the effectiveness of scaffolds and/or MSCs on motor function recovery following experimental SCI were included. The findings were reported as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: A total of 34 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Analyses show that combination therapy in comparison with the scaffold group alone (SMD 2.00, 95% CI 1.53-2.46, p < 0.0001), the MSCs alone (SMD 1.58, 95% CI 0.84-2.31, p < 0.0001), and the nontreated group (SMD 3.52, 95% CI 2.84-4.20, p < 0.0001) significantly improved motor function recovery. Co-administration of MSCs + scaffolds only in the acute phase of injury (during the first 3 days after injury) leads to a significant recovery compared to scaffold alone (SMD 2.18, p < 0.0001). In addition, the cotransplantation of scaffolds with bone marrow-derived MSCs (SMD 1.99, p < 0.0001) and umbilical cord-derived MSCs (SMD 1.50, p = 0.001) also improved motor function following SCI.

Conclusions: The findings showed that scaffolds + MSCs is more effective than scaffolds and MSCs alone in improving motor function following SCI in animal models, when used in the acute phase of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.8.SPINE19201DOI Listing
November 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019