Publications by authors named "Mahmoud Nabavi"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neurological features and outcome in COVID-19: dementia can predict severe disease.

J Neurovirol 2021 02 8;27(1):86-93. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Neurology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90 ± 16.76 years. The most common initial symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. In 21 patients (5.8%), the initial symptom was neurological. History of dementia was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio = 1.28). During the course of the disease, 186 patients (51.52%) had at least one neurological symptom, the most common being headache (109 [30.2%]), followed by anosmia/ageusia (69, [19.1%]), and dizziness (54, [15%]). Also, 31 patients had neurological complications (8.58%). Anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, and headache were associated with favorable outcome (P < 0.001), while altered mental status and hemiparesis were associated with poor outcome. The mortality rate of patients who had neurological complications was more than twice than that of patients without neurological complication (P = 0.008). Almost half of the patients experienced at least one neurological symptom, which may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Dementia appears to be associated with severe COVID-19. Mortality was higher in patients with neurological complications, and these patients needed more intensive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00918-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792552PMC
February 2021

Seroconversion after three doses of intramuscular rabies vaccine as a post-exposure treatment.

Virus Res 2020 03 22;278:197883. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Rabies is still threatening half of the world's population with the global burden of canine rabies being estimated as 59,000 human deaths, annually. With no cure existing for clinical rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the only certain means to save lives of the exposed people. In Iran, bite incidences exceed 180,000 per year, where all victims receive 5 vaccine doses for PEP, conforming to the Essen regimen. More than two-thirds of the exposed individuals stop receiving treatments after day 7, for the reason of being exposed to a non-rabid dog or cat. According to the national standard protocols, these individuals should re-start a complete 5-dose PEP course upon the re-exposure. New WHO recommendations based on scientific data is encouraging revisions to the existing prophylaxis programs. In order to know if an incomplete Essen regimen can provide adequate immunity, in the present study, 5 groups of individuals who had only received 3 first doses of the Essen regimen within the previous 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months were examined for immunity against rabies. Our results indicated sufficient anti-rabies neutralizing antibody in all individuals, before and after receiving two standard booster doses (i.e. days 0 and 3). This might also suggest the adequacy of the 3 first doses of vaccination, as a one-week long post-exposure vaccination program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197883DOI Listing
March 2020

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital's Residents in 2013.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19606. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide.

Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ(2) test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 17.

Results: The mean overall score of the residents' knowledge was 14.2 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD). The residents received weak scores in attitudes and practices. Forty-nine percent (n = 124) of the residents responded to the questions on attitudes toward hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours.

Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand hygiene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.19606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4640061PMC
October 2015