Publications by authors named "Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari"

76 Publications

Involvement of nNOS, and α1, α2, β1, and β2 Subunits of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Genes Expression in Anticonvulsant Effect of Sumatriptan on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizure in Mice.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):181-192

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Epileptic seizure is phenomenon of abnormal synchronous neuronal discharge of a set of neurons in brain as a result of neuronal excitation. Evidence shows the nitric oxide (NO) involvement in neuronal excitability. Moreover, the role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) activation in seizure pathogenesis is well-established. Sumatriptan is a selective agonist of 5-Hydroxytryptamine1B/D auto-receptor, has been reassessed for its neuroprotection. This study was aimed to explore the anticonvulsant effect of sumatriptan through possible involvement of NO-cGMP pathway in mice. For this purpose, the protective effect of sumatriptan on PTZ-induced clonic seizure threshold (CST) was measured using NO-cGMP pathway inhibitors including N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg), aminoguanidine (AG, 30, 50, and 100 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg) and sildenafil (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). The involvement of nitrergic system was further confirmed by measurement of nitrite levels by Griess reaction. The gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and subunits of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) was studied using qRT-PCR analysis. Acute administration of sumatriptan (1.2 and 0.3 mg/kg) in combination with subeffective doses of NOS, sGC, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors significantly reversed the PTZ-induced CST ( 0.001). The nitrite level in prefrontal cortex was significantly attenuated by sumatriptan ( ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, sumatriptan downregulated the PTZ-induced mRNA expression of nNOS ( ≤ 0.01), α1 ( ≤ 0.001), α2 ( ≤ 0.05), and β1 ( ≤ 0.05) genes in cerebral cortex of mice. In conclusion, the anticonvulsant activity of sumatriptan at least, in part, is mediated through inhibiting NO-cGMP pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.112594.13844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019868PMC
January 2020

Glatiramer acetate attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive deficits induced by post-weaning social isolation in male mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 13145-784, Tehran, Iran.

Rationale: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder with adverse effects on mood, memory, and quality of life.

Objectives: In this study, the antidepressant potential of glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug used in the management of multiple sclerosis, was investigated in acute and chronic models of depression in male mice. The acute antidepressant screening was performed with the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests. In the chronic phase, post-weaning social isolation (SI) was used to induce depressive-/anxiety-like behaviors.

Methods: Mice were reared in two different groups of social (SG) and isolated (IG) for 4 weeks. IG mice were treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of GA for the last 2 weeks of the SI period. Animals were assessed by the behavioral tests of depression, anxiety, learning, and memory, and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level was measured.

Results: The acute tests confirmed the antidepressant potential of GA. In the chronic phase, GA could reduce immobility time in FST (P < 0.05), increase exploration activity in open field test (P < 0.05), increase open arms duration (P < 0.05) and entries in elevated plus maze (P<0.001), and improve memory and learning in passive avoidance test (P < 0.05). The BDNF level was increased in IG mice and decreased in IG mice treated with GA.

Conclusions: Our results showed that GA improved depressive-/anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunction of SI reared mice without increasing the BDNF level which may be associated with other mechanisms of actions of GA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05836-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Study of the cardioprotective effects of crocin on Human Cardiac Myocyte cells and reduction of oxidative stress produced by aluminum phosphide poisoning.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, School of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: The effects of Crocin as a cardioprotective material against Aluminum phosphide poisoning by reducing the oxidative stress is investigated.

Methods: The level of biomarkers of oxidative stress (Catalase, Superoxide dismutase, Malondialdehyde and Protein carbonyl) were measured in the cell culture model on Human Cardiac Myocyte cells to detect the protective effect of crocin. Initially, to define the pure impact of aluminum phosphide poison and crocin on the heart cells, their effects on the biomarkers quantity in cell line were measured, separately, using the standard related kits. Later the effect of crocin with different concentration as a treatment on the oxidative stress biomarkers of the poisoned heart cells were monitored. Note that in pre-treatment case, the crocin was initially added to the cells before poisoning them. Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance method.

Key Findings: Results showed that crocin treatment reduced the aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning effect significantly. The treatment resulted in substantial deviation in the biomarkers of oxidative stress at the pre- and post-treatment phases for all groups. The oxidative markers values of the poisoned cells were recovered by crocin treatment.

Conclusions: Crocin is proposed as a potentially powerful antioxidant to treat the cardiotoxicity caused by aluminum phosphide poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgaa066DOI Listing
February 2021

Foretinib induces G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and invasion in human glioblastoma cells through c-MET inhibition.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of I.R. Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. The c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) which is frequently deregulated in GBM is considered as a promising target for GBM treatment. The c-MET plays a key role in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Here, we investigated the anti-tumour activity of foretinib, a c-MET inhibitor, on three human GBM cells (T98G, U87MG and U251).

Methods: Anti-proliferative effect of foretinib was determined using MTT, crystal violet staining, and clonogenic assays. PI and Annexin V/PI staining flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of foretinib on cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Scratch assay, qRT-PCR, western blot, and zymography analyses were applied to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumour activity of foretinib.

Results: Foretinib treatment reduced phosphorylation of c-MET on T98G and U251 cells, but not in U87MG cells. The highest inhibitory effect was observed in T98G cells (IC = 4.66 ± 0.29 µM) and the lowest one in U87MG cells (IC = 29.99 ± 1.31 µM). The results showed that foretinib inhibited the proliferation of GBM cells through a G2/M cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in association with alternation in expression of the related genes and protein-regulated G2/M phase and apoptosis. Foretinib diminished GBM cell invasion through downregulation of the proteolytic cascade of MMP2, uPA and uPAR and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes. A different GBM cell sensitivity pattern was noticeable in all experiments which demonstrated T98G as a sensitive and U87MG as a resistant phenotype to foretinib treatment.

Conclusion: The results indicated that foretinib might have the therapeutic potential against human GBM which deserve further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04242-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Method development for determination of imatinib and its major metabolite, N-desmethyl imatinib, in biological and environmental samples by SA-SHS-LPME and HPLC.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Feb 15:e5088. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A salting-out-assisted switchable hydrophilicity solvent-based liquid phase microextraction (SA-SHS-LPME) was developed for the separation and determination of trace amounts of imatinib and N-desmethyl imatinib in biological and environmental samples by HPLC-UV. Triethylamine as a hydrophobic compound and protonated triethylamine carbonate as a hydrophilic one were switched by the addition or elimination of CO . The use of NaOH resulted in the elimination of CO from the sample solution, which led to the conversion of P-TEA-C into triethylamine (TEA) and as a result, the analytes was extracted and entered the TEA phase. The salting out was performed to speed up the formation of the TEA in the shape of fine droplets in the specimen solution. Furthermore, the impact of several momentous factors that influence the recovery of the extraction was investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection and limit of quantification were obtained in ranges of 0.03-0.05 and 0.1-0.15 μg L for imatinib and 0.04-0.06 and 0.13-0.20 μg L for N-desmethyl imatinib, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 250. Inter- and intraday precision (RSD, n = 5) was <5%. In the case of imatinib and N-desmethyl imatinib in biological and environmental specimens, a range of 97.0-102% was obtained as the recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5088DOI Listing
February 2021

Assessment of tramadol pharmacokinetics in correlation with CYP2D6 and clinical symptoms.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 06 29;35(2). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives Due to lack of adequate data on tramadol kinetic in relevance of CYP2D6 toxicity, this study was designed to investigate the effect of CYP2D6 phenotype in tramadol poisoning. The saliva, urine and blood samples were taken at the admission time. Consequently, concentration of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured. Methods A pharmacokinetic and metabolic study was developed in cases of tramadol poisoned (n=96). Cases of tramadol poisoned evidenced seizure, hypertension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting symptoms participated. Results Female cases showed higher N-desmethyltramadol (M2) tramadol concentrations than male cases: in urine (40.12 ± 124.53 vs. 7.3 ± 7.13), saliva (16.91 ± 26.03 vs. 5.89 ± 7.02), and blood (1.11 ± 1.56 vs. 0.3 ± 0.38) samples. Significant correlation between blood, saliva, and urine concentrations were found (r = 0.5). Based on the metabolic ratio of O-desmethyltramadol (M1) of male (0.53 ± 0.22) and female (0.43 ± 0.26), poisoning and severe symptoms like seizure in female occurs statistically fewer (13.04%) than in male (50.6%). Assessment of CYP2D6 phenotype showed all of the participants were extensive metabolizers (EM) and their phenotype was associated with clinical symptoms. Conclusions According to our results, M1 as a high potent metabolite has an important role in toxicity and the likelihood of poisoning in people with EM phenotype. Finally, tramadol metabolic ratio may justify the cause of various symptoms in human tramadol poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2019-0021DOI Listing
June 2020

Assessment of tramadol pharmacokinetics in correlation with CYP2D6 and clinical symptoms.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives Due to lack of adequate data on tramadol kinetic in relevance of CYP2D6 toxicity, this study was designed to investigate the effect of CYP2D6 phenotype in tramadol poisoning. The saliva, urine and blood samples were taken at the admission time. Consequently, concentration of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured. Methods A pharmacokinetic and metabolic study was developed in cases of tramadol poisoned (n=96). Cases of tramadol poisoned evidenced seizure, hypertension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting symptoms participated. Results Female cases showed higher N-desmethyltramadol (M2) tramadol concentrations than male cases: in urine (40.12 ± 124.53 vs. 7.3 ± 7.13), saliva (16.91 ± 26.03 vs. 5.89 ± 7.02), and blood (1.11 ± 1.56 vs. 0.3 ± 0.38) samples. Significant correlation between blood, saliva, and urine concentrations were found (r = 0.5). Based on the metabolic ratio of O-desmethyltramadol (M1) of male (0.53 ± 0.22) and female (0.43 ± 0.26), poisoning and severe symptoms like seizure in female occurs statistically fewer (13.04%) than in male (50.6%). Assessment of CYP2D6 phenotype showed all of the participants were extensive metabolizers (EM) and their phenotype was associated with clinical symptoms. Conclusions According to our results, M1 as a high potent metabolite has an important role in toxicity and the likelihood of poisoning in people with EM phenotype. Finally, tramadol metabolic ratio may justify the cause of various symptoms in human tramadol poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2019-0021DOI Listing
June 2020

Identification of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters Using a Fluorescent Electronic Tongue.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 01 19;11(1):25-33. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Chemistry , Sharif University of Technology , Tehran , 11155-9516 , Iran.

Catecholamine neurotransmitters, specifically, dopamine (DA), epinephrine (EP), and norepinephrine (NE), are known as substantial indicators of various neurological diseases. Developing rapid detection methods capable of simultaneously screening their concentrations is highly desired for early clinical diagnosis of such diseases. To this aim, we have designed an optical sensor array using three fluorescent dyes with distinct emission bands and have monitored variations in their emission profiles upon the addition of DA, EP, and NE in the presence of gold ions. Because of the different reducing power of catecholamines, differently sized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different levels of aggregation were generated, resulting in different amounts of spectral overlap between the absorption band of the in situ generated plasmonic GNPs and the emission bands of the fluorescent dyes. These energy-transfer-based fingerprint profiles were used to discriminate the neurotransmitters by applying pattern recognition methods including linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) and to determine their concentration using multiple linear regression (MLR). Our proposed array also showed a good performance in the discrimination of DA, EP, and NE in complex biological media such as human urine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00537DOI Listing
January 2020

Enhancing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin when loaded into olive oil nanoemulsion: An in vivo study.

Int J Pharm 2019 Mar 31;559:341-347. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran; Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Topical preparations of capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient of hot pepper, are being used for management of pain and inflammatory disorders. Purpose of this study was to use nanoemulsion as an effective topical drug carrier for in vivo delivery of capsaicin. An oil-in-water nanoemulsion containing capsaicin was prepared by spontaneous emulsification method. Optimized formulation showed a median droplet diameter (d50) of 13-14 nm and was stable for more than 8 months in room and harsh temperature (i.e. 4 and 45 °C). The nanoemulsion was then formulated into topical cream and gel to compare its efficacy and safety profiles with conventional cream of capsaicin. Skin irritation study showed that topical application of capsaicin nanoemulsion was safe and no sign of edema and erythema was observed. The preparation significantly decreased inflammation of rats paw edema compared to the commercial cream and control group, especially in 2nd and 3rd hours of the test. Also, pretreated rats with capsaicin nanoemulsion gel showed very good resistance to the pain caused by heat stimulus. In total, the selected nanoemulsion showed great potential as carrier for topical delivery of capsaicin for improving its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. It was also found that the topical gel outperforms the topical cream as dosage form for the nanoemulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.043DOI Listing
March 2019

Combination therapy of mesenchymal stromal cells and sulfasalazine attenuates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced colitis in the rat: The S1P pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2019 07 23;234(7):11078-11091. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) transplantation is a novel immunomodulatory therapeutic tool to ameliorate the symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of combined sufasalazine and ASCs therapy in a rat model of IBD. After induction of colitis in rats, ASCs were cultured and intraperitoneally injected (3 × 10 cells/kg) into the rats on Days 1 and 5 after inducing colitis, in conjunction with daily oral administration of low dose of sulfasalazine (30 mg/kg). The regenerative effects of combination of ASCs and sulfasalazine on ulcerative colitis were assessed by measuring body weight, colonic weight/length ratio, disease activity index, macroscopic scores, histopathological examinations, cytokine, and inflammation markers profiles. In addition, western blot analysis was used to assess the levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and apoptosis related proteins in colitis tissues. Simultaneous treatment with ASCs and sulfasalazine was associated with significant amelioration of disease activity index, macroscopic and microscopic colitis scores, as well as inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Moreover, combined ASCs and sulfasalazine therapy effectively inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway, reduced the expression of Bax and prevented the loss of Bcl-2 proteins in colon tissue of the rats with TNBS-induced colitis. Furthermore, combined treatment with ASCs and sulfasalazine shifted inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages by decreasing the levels of MCP1, CXCL9 and increasing IL-10, Arg-1 levels. In conclusion, combination of ASCs with conventional IBD therapy is potentially a much more powerful strategy to slow the progression of colitis via reducing inflammatory and apoptotic markers than either therapy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27944DOI Listing
July 2019

Radioprotective effect of melatonin on expression of and genes in rat peripheral blood.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S1070-S1075

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Ionizing radiation is a critical threat to biomolecules, especially DNA. Various combinatorial compounds have been studied to protect this biomolecule. Melatonin has been reported as a direct and indirect free radical scavenger, but in this study, we explored the effect of melatonin on assisting in DNA repair by expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50; both of these genes are involved in DNA repair signaling, induced by radiation in rat peripheral blood.

Materials And Methods: Rats were irradiated with single whole-body linear accelerator X-ray radiation doses of 2 and 8 Gy with or without melatonin (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatments. The rats were randomly divided into nine groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h before radiation. Blood samples were taken 8, 24, and 48 h postradiation to measure gene expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50 using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique.

Results: Melatonin pretreatment increased the expression of Cdkn1a and Rad50 in 8 and 24 h postradiations (2 and 8 Gy) (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in 48 h postradiation compared to the radiation-only and vehicle plus radiation (2 and 8 Gy) groups.

Conclusions: Based on our results, pretreatment with melatonin (100 mg/kg) may ameliorates injurious effects of 2 and 8 Gy ionization radiation by increasing the expression level of Cdkn1a and Rad50 in rat peripheral blood and assist in DNA double-strand breaks repair, especially during the early postradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.196758DOI Listing
December 2018

Pharmacokinetic changes of tramadol in rats with hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and acetaminophen in perfused rat liver model.

Alcohol 2019 06 22;77:49-57. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 13147-789, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Tramadol is an opioid agonist with activation monoaminergic properties. It can be administered orally, rectally, intravenously, or intramuscularly as a centrally acting analgesic. Liver injury can lead to changes in the metabolism of tramadol. In this study, the rate of tramadol metabolism in rats with damaged liver induced by ethanol and acetaminophen was assessed in a recirculation perfusion system. Acetaminophen is a mild analgesic and antipyretic agent, which can cause centrilobular hepatic necrosis in toxic doses, whereas alcohol causes death due to liver diseases. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), such as alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic fibrosis, is the most common liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration in tramadol metabolism in different hepatotoxicity conditions in animal models. Male rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The control group received normal saline, group 2 received acetaminophen at the dose of 250 mg/kg/day, and group 3 received ethanol at the beginning dose of 3 g/kg/day, which was slowly increased to 6 g/kg/day. Tramadol was added to the perfusion solution at the concentration of 500 ng/mL. Samples were collected during 180 min, and analyte concentrations were determined by the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The concentration of tramadol and its three main metabolites, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), N-desmethyltramadol (M2), and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5), were determined in perfusate samples. Ethanol and acetaminophen significantly affected the pattern of weight gain and liver weights before perfusion and caused a significant increase in enzyme activities. Moreover, histopathologic examination revealed that ethanol and acetaminophen caused liver damage. An increase in the elimination half-life and reduced clearance rate of tramadol were seen in the acetaminophen and ethanol groups, in comparison to the control group. Additionally, significant reductions in the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of metabolites of tramadol (M1, M2, and M5) were observed in the acetaminophen and ethanol groups in the perfused rat liver model. Liver damage caused by ethanol and acetaminophen during 45 days in animals leads to a significant reduction in the level of tramadol metabolites. Therefore, in patients with liver damage caused by ethanol and acetaminophen, caution needs to be considered when prescribing tramadol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.09.006DOI Listing
June 2019

Introducing a new standardized nanomaterial environmental toxicity screening testing procedure, ISO/TS 20787: aquatic toxicity assessment of manufactured nanomaterials in saltwater Lakes using Artemia sp. nauplii.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2019 Feb 27;29(2):95-109. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

h HCTm CO., LTD , Icheon , Republic of Korea.

This paper introduces a new standardized testing procedure for nanomaterial environmental toxicity (International Organization for Standardization/Technical Specification (ISO/TS) 20787): 'aquatic toxicity assessment of manufactured nanomaterials in saltwater lakes using Artemia sp. Nauplii' intended to generate more reliable and repeatable aquatic toxicity data testing manufactured nanomaterials, using Artemia sp., to evaluate their possible ecotoxicity in saltwater lake ecosystems. The principles behind testing with Artemia sp. are reviewed and the paper gives an overview of research published between 2009 and 2018 in which manufactured nanomaterials were tested using Artemia sp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2018.1512695DOI Listing
February 2019

Synergistic effect of rapamycin and metformin against germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress after testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 11;105:645-651. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin (rapa) and metformin (met), combined administration on testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. A total of 108 male rats were divided randomly into six groups (n = 18), control, sham-operated, T/D, T/D + met (100 mg/kg), T/D + rapa (0.25 mg/kg) and T/D + met (100 mg/kg)+rapa (0.25 mg/kg). Except for the control and sham groups, torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 h. Treatment groups received drug intraperitoneally, 30 min before detorsion. The right testis of 6 animals from each group was excised 4 h after detorsion for the measurement of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were determined by measuring mean of seminiferous tubules diameters (MSTD) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) test in rest of animals, 24 h after detorsion. In T/D group tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased in comparison with the control group after detorsion. Met and rapa separately pre-treatment reduced MDA and caspase-3 levels, normalized antioxidant enzyme activities, reduced germ cell apoptosis and improved the MSTD in comparison with T/D group. However combined administration of met and rapa indicated a significant augmented effect as compared to the individual drug interventions on the reversal of T/D induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and histologic changes, suggesting a synergistic response. Thus, this study shows that rapa and met combination have significant synergistic effects against oxidative stress and apoptosis and opens up further possibilities for the design of new combinatorial therapies to prevent tissue damage after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.012DOI Listing
September 2018

Maternal dietary nitrate intake and risk of neural tube defects: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Aug 12;118:287-293. Epub 2018 May 12.

Students' Scientific Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran; Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Despite growing evidence for the potential teratogenicity of nitrate, knowledge about the dose-response relationship of dietary nitrate intake and risk of specific birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTDs) is limited. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the dose-response relation between maternal dietary nitrate intake and the risk of NTDs. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus up to February 2018 for observational studies. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using a random-effects model for highest versus lowest intake categories. The linear and non-linear relationships between nitrate intake and risk of NTDs were also investigated. Overall, 5 studies were included in the meta-analyses. No association was observed between nitrate intake and NTDs risk in high versus low intake (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.89-1.99, p = 0.158) and linear dose-response (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07, p = 0.141) meta-analysis. However, there were positive relationships between nitrate intake and risk of NTDs in non-linear (p<0.05) model. Findings from this dose-response meta-analysis indicate that maternal nitrate intake higher than ∼3 mg/day is positively associated with NTDs risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.033DOI Listing
August 2018

Correlation between plasma concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites and the incidence of seizure in tramadol-intoxicated patients.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2018 06;33(2):75-83

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 1416753955, Tehran, Iran, Tel/Fax: +9821-6640-2569,

Background: Seizure is one of the important symptoms of tramadol poisoning, but its causes are still unknown. The aim of this study is to find a relationship between tramadol and the concentrations of its metabolites versus the incidence of seizures following the consumption of high doses of tramadol.

Methods: For this purpose, the blood samples of 120 tramadol-intoxicated patients were collected. The patients were divided in two groups (seizure and non-seizure). The concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites (M1, M2 and M5) were measured by using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The relationship between tramadol and the levels of its metabolites and seizure incidences was also investigated.

Results: In 72% of the patients, seizures occurred in the first 3 h after the ingestion of tramadol. The seizure incidences were significantly correlated with the patients' gender, concentrations of tramadol, M1 and M2 and the history of previous seizures (p<0.001). The average concentration of M2 was significantly higher in males (p=0.003). A previous history of the use of sedative-hypnotics and the co-ingestion of benzodiazepines and other opioids were shown to significantly decrease the rate of seizure. The rate of seizure was directly related to the concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites. Higher M2 concentration in males can be considered a reason for increased incidences of seizures in males. The plasma concentration of M1 affected the onset of seizure.

Conclusions: Therefore, it can be concluded that differences in the levels of the metabolites can affect the threshold of seizure in tramadol-intoxicated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2017-0040DOI Listing
June 2018

Sildenafil protective effects on high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells: the role of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways in an in vitro cellular model for diabetic neuropathy.

Neurol Res 2018 Aug 6;40(8):624-636. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

c Razi Drug Research Center , Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objectives Diabetic neuropathy (DN) induces lifetime disability and there is currently no effective therapy to treat or to minimize patients suffering, so it is thereby imperative to develop therapeutic strategies for this disease. Since oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation are crucial mechanisms in development and progression of DN, it is important to explore tools by which one can reduce factors related to these pathways. Herein, the understandings of the sildenafil neuroprotective effect through increase of cGMP level and the mediation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways on neurotoxicity induced by high glucose (HG) in PC12 cells as an in vitro cellular model for DN were investigated. Methods We reported that the PC12 cells pre-treatment with sildenafil (0.008 μM) for 60 min and then exposing the cells to HG (25 mM for 72 h) or normal glucose (NG) (5 mM for 72 h) condition, show: Results (1) significant attenuation in reactive oxygen species, MDA and TNF-a levels, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, expression of caspase 3 and UCP2 proteins; (2) significant increase in viability, GSH/GSSG ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP levels. Conclusion All these data together led us to propose neuroprotective effect of sildenafil is probably through its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Of course, further studies are required to explain the underlying mechanism of the sildenafil effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2018.1458813DOI Listing
August 2018

Maternal exposure to silver nanoparticles are associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: Role of mitochondria and innate immunity in developmental toxicity.

Neurotoxicology 2018 05 14;66:66-77. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iran Nanosafety Network (INSN) of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently used in a wide range of consumer products. Considering the small size of Ag-NPs, they are able to pass through variety of biological barriers and exert their effects. In this regard, the unique physicochemical properties of Ag-NPs along with its high application in the industry have raised concerns about their negative effects on human health. Therefore, it investigated whether prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce any abnormality in the cognitive and behavioral performance of adult offspring. We gavaged pregnant NMRI mice with, 1) Deionized water as vehicle, 2) Ag-NPs 10 nm (0.26 mg/kg/day), 3) Ag-NPs 30 nm (0.26 mg/kg/day), and 4) AgNO (0.26 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 0 until delivery day. At the postnatal day (PD) 1, our results showed that high concentration of silver is present in the brain of pups. Further, we observed mitochondrial dysfunction and upregulation of the genes relevant to innate immune system in the brain. At PD 60, results revealed that prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs provoked severe cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in male offspring. In addition, we found that prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs was associated with abnormal mitochondrial function and significant up-regulation of the genes relevant to innate immunity in the brain. Although the Ag-NPs have been considered as safe compounds at low doses, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce behavioral and cognitive abnormalities in adulthood. Also, we found that these effects are at least partly associated with hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of sterile inflammation during early stages of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2018.03.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Pirfenidone protects against paraquat-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice by modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Feb 19;112:39-46. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study we investigated the protective effects and possible mechanisms of pirfenidone (PF) in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Lung injury was induced by injection of PQ (20 mg/kg). Thereafter, mice orally received water and PF (100 and 200 mg/kg) for four weeks. After 28 days, the inflammation and fibrosis were determined in the lungs by analysis of histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, lung wet/dry weight ratio, hydroxyproline content, and oxidative stress biomarkers. Expression of several genes involved in fibrogenesis and modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, such as TGF-β1, α-SMA, collagen Iα and IV, NOX1, NOX4, iNOS, and GPX1 were determined using RT-qPCR. PF significantly decreased the lung fibrosis and edema, inflammatory cells infiltration, TGF-β1 concentration, and amount of hydroxyproline in the lung tissue. PF dose-dependently improved the expression level of the studied genes to the near normal. Decreasing of lung lipid peroxidation and catalase activity, and increasing of SOD activity in the treated mice were significant compared to the control group. Pirfenidone ameliorate paraquat induced lung injury and fibrosis partly through inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress, and downregulation of genes encoding for profibrotic cytokines and enzymatic systems for ROS production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.12.034DOI Listing
February 2018

Rapamycin protects testes against germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by testicular ischemia-reperfusion.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Aug;20(8):905-911

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant compound with a broad spectrum of pharmaco-logical activities. In recent years, it has been used successfully to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of rapamycin on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control (group1), sham-operated (Group2), T/D + DMSO as vehicle group (group3), and groups 4-6; respectively received 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mgkg of rapamycin, IP 30 min before detorsion. Ischemia was achieved by twisting the right testis 720° clockwise for 1 hr. The right testis of 6 animals from each group were excised 4 hr after detorsion for the measurement of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were determined by measuring mean of seminiferous tubules diameters (MSTD) and TUNEL test in right testis of 6 animals per group, 24 hr after detorsion.

Results: Testicular T/D caused increases in the apoptosis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and caspase-3 levels and decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in ipsilateral testis (<0.001). The rats treated with rapamycin had significant decreases in the MDA and caspase-3 levels and significant increases in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities in ipsilateral testis compared with the T/D group (<0.001); germ cell apoptosis was decreased, and MSTD was improved.

Conclusion: Rapamycin administration during testicular torsion decreased ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cellular damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651476PMC
August 2017

Effect of Crude Venom of Scorpion in Cell Culture using Ion Channel Modulators.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(2):648-652

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Scorpion venom toxicity is one of the major medical concerns from old years, due to its influence on human activities and health. From many years ago a lot of researches established to examine different aspects of venom toxicity and its effects on different organs. During these years researchers are doing more specific studies on the cytotoxicity of scorpion venom. In Iran, the yellow scorpion is one of the major threats based on its neuro toxicity and severe pathophysiologic effects and researchers tried to find the mechanism of these neuro toxic effects. The previous studies have shown that in isolated organs the yellow scorpion venom is affecting the ion channels. Also some studies showed that this venom has severe cytotoxic effects on the cell lines with many ion channels like nerve cell lines. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of the crude venom of on the 1321N1 cell line (cancerous nerve cells) was studied. Primary cell cultured investigated in the presence of different ion channel blockers: Ouabain (1mmol as Na channel blocker), Nifedipin (100 µmol as Ca channel blocker), and TEA (40 mmol as K channel blocker) by MTT method. The result showed that the crude venom has cytotoxic effect via Na channels.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603873PMC
January 2017

The Role of TNF-α in Aflatoxin B-1 Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver Model.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Jul;55(7):416-421

Department of Basic Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.

Aflatoxin B-1 (AFB1) is one of the major mycotoxins causing food contamination. Previous studies have shown that AFB1 can induce carcinogenicity and toxic effects in the isolated perfused rat liver and these effects are associated with its metabolites and peroxidation activity. Here we surveyed whether these pathogenic effects of AFB1 are associated with TNF-α as an inflammatory cytokine in general liver damages. In this study, we used twenty male Wistar rats (250-300 g). Rats were divided into four groups. Control group was pre-treated with LPS and then perfused with KHBB. The second group was pretreated with PTX and LPS and then perfused with KHB. The third group was pre-treated with LPS and then perfused with AFB-1 and KHB. The last group was pretreated with LPS and PTX and then perfused with AFB1 and KHB. Results revealed that aflatoxin B1 significantly increased the enzyme activity of aminotransferase and levels of lipid peroxidation. Also, the levels of Glutathione decreased in the aflatoxin group significantly. TNF-α released in perfusate and increased in aflatoxin B1 group significantly and decreased in AFB-1+PTX. Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 may induce reactive oxygen species, so these species may induce overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and may cause more damage to hepatic cells.
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July 2017

Colorimetric Fingerprints of Gold Nanorods for Discriminating Catecholamine Neurotransmitters in Urine Samples.

Sci Rep 2017 08 15;7(1):8266. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 11155-9516, Iran.

Catecholamine neurotransmitters, generally including dopamine (DA), epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) are known as substantial indicators of various neurological diseases. Simultaneous detection of these compounds and their metabolites is highly recommended in early clinical diagnosis. To this aim, in the present contribution, a high performance colorimetric sensor array has been proposed for the detection and discrimination of catecholamines based on their reducing ability to deposit silver on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs). The amassed silver nanoshell led to a blue shift in the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of AuNRs, creating a unique pattern for each of the neurotransmitters. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) pattern recognition techniques were employed to identify DA, EP and NE. The proposed colorimetric array is able to differentiate among individual neurotransmitters as well as their mixtures, successfully. Finally, it was shown that the sensor array can identify these neurotransmitters in human urine samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08704-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557886PMC
August 2017

Ion-pair switchable-hydrophilicity solvent-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of paraquat in environmental and biological samples before high-performance liquid chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2017 Sep 31;40(18):3703-3709. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

An approach involving ion-pair switchable-hydrophilicity solvent-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography has been applied for the preconcentration and separation of paraquat in a real sample. A mixture of triethylamine and water was used as the switchable-hydrophilicity solvent. The pH was regulated using carbon dioxide; hence the ratio of the ionized and non-ionized form of triethylamine could control the optimum conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was utilized as an ion-pairing agent. The ion-associate complex formed between the cationic paraquat and sodium dodecyl sulfate was extracted into triethylamine. The separation of the two phases was carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide, which changed the ionization state of triethylamine. The effects of some important parameters on the extraction recovery were investigated. Under the optimum conditions (500 μL of the extraction solvent, 1 mg sodium dodecyl sulfate, 2.0 mL of 10 mol/L sodium hydroxide, and pH 4), the limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.2 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively, with preconcentration factor of 74. The precision (RSD, n = 10) was  <5%. The recovery of the analyte in environmental and biological samples was in the range of 90.0-92.3%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201700222DOI Listing
September 2017

A disposition kinetic study of Tramadol in bile duct ligated rats in perfused rat liver model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Jul 28;91:251-256. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 13147-789, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug and is used to treat chronic pain. In this study, the effects of Bile Duct Ligation (BDL) on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in a liver recirculating perfusion system of male rats were used. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham and two weeks BDL and four weeks BDL. Serum levels of liver enzymes were measured before perfusion and the pharmacokinetics of tramadol was evaluated by using liver recirculating perfusion system. Tramadol and metabolites concentrations were determined by HPLC-FL. The sharp increase in liver enzymes level in both BDL groups was observed and significant changes were also observed in liver weight and volume. Tramadol metabolites concentration significantly decreased compared with the control and sham group (P<0.05). The decrease in the hepatic metabolism of tramadol and increase in the half-life of the elimination of tramadol in rats with BDL suggests that personalized treatment and the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data examination are necessary for patients with bile duct diseases and the dose of tramadol should be accordingly adjusted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.082DOI Listing
July 2017

Anti-tumour activity of tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of VEGF receptors, in therapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

Sci Rep 2017 04 6;7:45954. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Centre, Shariati Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most fatal gynaecological malignancy. Despite initial therapeutic response, the majority of advanced-stage patients relapse and succumb to chemoresistant disease. Overcoming drug resistance is the key to successful treatment of EOC. Members of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are overexpressed in EOC and play key roles in its malignant progression though their contribution in development of the chemoresistant disease remains elusive. Here we show that expression of the VEGF family is higher in therapy-resistant EOC cells compared to sensitive ones. Overexpression of VEGFR2 correlated with resistance to cisplatin and combination with VEGFR2-inhibitor apatinib synergistically increased cisplatin sensitivity. Tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of VEGF receptors, reduced proliferation of the chemoresistant EOC cells through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Tivozanib decreased invasive potential of these cells, concomitant with reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and diminishing the enzymatic activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, tivozanib synergistically enhanced anti-tumour effects of EGFR-directed therapies including erlotinib. These findings suggest that the VEGF pathway has potential as a therapeutic target in therapy-resistant EOC and VEGFR blockade by tivozanib may yield stronger anti-tumour efficacy and circumvent resistance to EGFR-directed therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep45954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5382685PMC
April 2017

Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors by tivozanib has potential anti-tumour effects on human glioblastoma cells.

Sci Rep 2017 03 13;7:44075. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Centre, Shariati Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most fatal human malignancies due to its high angiogenic and infiltrative capacities. Even with optimal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide, it is essentially incurable. GBM is among the most neovascularised neoplasms and its malignant progression associates with striking neovascularisation, evidenced by vasoproliferation and endothelial cell hyperplasia. Targeting the pro-angiogenic pathways is therefore a promising anti-glioma strategy. Here we show that tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, inhibited proliferation of GBM cells through a G2/M cell cycle arrest via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signalling pathway and down-modulation of Aurora kinases A and B, cyclin B1 and CDC25C. Moreover, tivozanib decreased adhesive potential of these cells through reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Tivozanib diminished GBM cell invasion through impairing the proteolytic cascade of cathepsin B/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Combination of tivozanib with EGFR small molecule inhibitor gefitinib synergistically increased sensitivity to gefitinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that VEGFR blockade by tivozanib has potential anti-glioma effects in vitro. Further in vivo studies are warranted to explore the anti-tumour activity of tivozanib in combinatorial approaches in GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep44075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347040PMC
March 2017

Improvement of memory and learning by intracerebroventricular microinjection of T3 in rat model of ischemic brain stroke mediated by upregulation of BDNF and GDNF in CA1 hippocampal region.

Daru 2017 Feb 15;25(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Ischemic stroke is a common leading cause of death and disability with lack of effective therapies. In this study, T3 was intra-ventricularly injected to evaluate gene expression and protein concentration of and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in hippocampal CA1 region in rat model of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).

Methods: In this study, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was used as model of ischemic brain stroke. Rats were randomly divided in four groups of Co, Sh, tMCAo and tMCAo + T3. Then, a single dose of intra-ventricular T3 was administered via a Hamilton syringe. Passive avoidance test was used as behavioral investigations. After 21 days, the animals were sacrificed and their brains were used for molecular and histopathological studies.

Results: T3 significantly improved the learning and memory compared with tMCAo group according to Morris water maze findings (P < 0.05). Step-through latency (STL) significantly decreased in tMCAo group (P < 0.05). There were significant increase in the STL of T3 group compared with tMCAo group (P < 0.05).A significant reduction in BDNF mRNAs and protein levels were observed in the tMCAo compared with Co and Sh group (P < 0.05). A significant increase of BDNF and GDNF mRNAs and proteins was recorded in tMCAo + T3 group compared with Co, Sh and tMCAO groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The results of current study demonstrated that T3 had therapeutic effects on cerebral ischemic stroke by increasing the neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF) in CA1 region of hippocampus. The effects of intracerebroventricular microinjection of T3on memory and learning in rat model of ischemic brain stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40199-017-0169-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312580PMC
February 2017

Protective effects of gabapentin against the seizure susceptibility and comorbid behavioral abnormalities in the early socially isolated mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Feb 21;797:106-114. Epub 2017 Jan 21.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box, 13145-784, Tehran, Iran; Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Adolescence is a pivotal period of brain development during lifespan, which is sensitive to stress exposure. Early social isolation stress (SIS) is known to provoke a variety of psychiatric comorbidities as well as seizure risk. Psychiatric comorbidities present challenging dilemmas for treatment and management in people with seizure disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether gabapentin (GBP) as an anti-epileptic drug is able to alleviate the seizure activity as well as comorbid behavioral abnormalities in socially isolated mice. Results showed that early SIS induced proconvulsant effects along with depressive, aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Whereas the administration of both acute and chronic GBP at sub-effective doses produced no alterations in the behavioral profile of socially conditioned counterparts the same treatments effectively reversed the seizure susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole and behavioral deficits in isolated mice. Results of the study indicate that 1) Early SIS could be considered as an animal model of psychosocial stress to investigate the psychiatric comorbidities in seizure disorders, 2) Chronic administration of low dose GBP prevented the shaping of behavioral abnormalities in adulthood, 3) Chronic administration of low dose GBP produced no negative behavioral effects in socially conditioned mice suggesting the safety of the drug, 4) Gabapentin at low doses may be considered as an agent for management of epilepsy in individuals with psychiatric comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.01.024DOI Listing
February 2017

In-vitro cytotoxicity and combination effects of the docetaxel-conjugated and doxorubicin-conjugated poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate-based polymeric micelles in human ovarian cancer cells.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2017 Feb 3;69(2):151-160. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The pH-sensitive doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated and docetaxel (DTX)-conjugated poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PLA-PEG-FOL)-based polymeric micelles were developed and characterized in this study.

Key Findings: The drugs were released from the micelles (particle size, ~185 nm) in a pH-dependent manner. The drug-conjugated PLA-PEG-FOL micelles showed higher cellular uptake than nontargeting ones. Single agent and combination in-vitro cytotoxicity studies were also performed using the two drugs in both free and their micellar forms in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells using three different cytotoxicity assays. Like the free drugs, DOX-conjugated and DTX-conjugated targeting micelles showed significant cytotoxic effects in SKOV3 cell line. Moreover, the drug-conjugated targeting micelles improved cytotoxicity compared to the FOL-free ones. Different ratios of IC of free drugs were used for combination therapy, and synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects were evaluated. The synergistic effect was observed in specific DOX : DTX mixing ratios, which result in the increase in therapeutic efficacy using low doses of each test compound without formulation related side effects.

Conclusions: The prepared micelles may provide appropriate delivery systems for doxorubicin and docetaxel in both single and combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12675DOI Listing
February 2017