Publications by authors named "Mahmoud Aljurf"

269 Publications

Upfront Alternative Donor Transplant Versus Immunosuppressive Therapy in Patients with Severe Aplastic Anemia Who Lack Fully HLA Matched Related Donor: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Retrospective Studies. on Behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (SAAWP of EBMT).

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a rare and life-threatening disorder with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from matched sibling donor (MSD) being the standard treatment strategy for young patients. The use of alternative donor transplant (ADT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) or HLA haploidentical donor (HID) is not commonly used in the frontline setting. The aim of this systematic review/meta-analysis is to compare ADT as an upfront, rather than delayed, treatment strategy in the absence of a MSD to immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in severe aplastic anemia (SAA). We searched PUBMED/MEDLINE and EMBASE (1998-2019) for studies that compared the outcomes of ADT with IST as upfront therapy in patients with SAA. We included studies with five patients or more in each arm. Studies that included patients with inherited forms of bone marrow failure syndromes were excluded. The primary outcome was the 5- year overall survival rate. Five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled 5-year odd ratio (OR) for OS was statistically significant at 0.44 [95% CI 0.23-0.85] in favor of upfront ADT. Additionally, the survival was compared between upfront versus salvage ADT in six studies. The pooled 5-year OR for OS was statistically significant at 0.31 [95% CI 0.15-0.64] in favor of upfront ADT. Although this analysis has some limitations including the retrospective nature of the included studies, the lack of ethnic diversity, the predominantly pediatric population and the relatively suboptimal IST regimen used in some of the studies, it indicated that upfront ADT is a potential alternative treatment option in young and pediatric SAA patients who lack an HLA identical sibling donor, particularly when optimal IST is not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.10.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Omission of day +11 methotrexate dose and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes: results of a systematic review/meta-analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Hematology-Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Programs, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for patients with malignant and benign hematologic conditions. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a known complication of allo-HCT that results in significant morbidity and mortality. A common GVHD prophylaxis strategy combines a calcineurin inhibitor with methotrexate. When mucositis and organ toxicity develop, the day +11 dose is frequently omitted to limit further organ damage. The potential impact of this practice on allo-HCT outcomes is unclear as published data show conflicting results. Thus, we performed a systematic review/meta-analysis of the available literature to assess the impact of omitting day +11 methotrexate on allo-HCT recipients. Data were extracted in relation to benefits (overall survival [OS], progression-free survival [PFS]) and harms (acute and chronic GVHD, non-relapse mortality [NRM], and relapse). Pooled OS rate favored those who received day +11 methotrexate vs. those who did not (HR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.02-1.43; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in pooled rates of PFS (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.60-1.52; p = 0.85), acute GVHD (HR = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.35-2.98; p = 0.96), chronic GVHD (HR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.44-1.57; p = 0.57), NRM (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.67-1.11; p = 0.25), and relapse (HR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.75-1.26; p = 0.83) between the two groups. Large prospective multicenter studies are needed to better define the significance of day +11 methotrexate omission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01496-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Improved survival in adolescents and young adults (AYA) patients aged 14-55 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia using pediatric-inspired protocol - a retrospective analysis of a real-world experience in 79 of patients treated at a national tertiary care referral center.

Leuk Res Rep 2021 24;16:100270. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Treating adolescents and young adults (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using pediatric-inspired protocols have shown improvement in outcomes. Most data available in the literature of such protocols is derived from well-controlled clinical trials. This report aims to provide a real-world experience from using a pediatric-inspired protocol in ALL-AYA population in larger number of patients treated at a national tertiary care referral center.

Methods: Newly diagnosed Philadelphia negative ALL-AYA patients ages between 14 and 55 years of age were treated on an institutional protocol (AYA-15 protocol) adopted from a modified version of Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1900 protocol. At the time of this publication, a total of 79 patients were treated using the AYA-15 protocol between 2015 and 2020). Event-free survival (FFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 18 years (14-51 years) with 63% male patients. Complete remission (CR) at day 28 of induction was achieved in 88.6% of which 73.4% were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative. At a median follow up of 5 years, EFS, DFS and OS were 57.5%, 69.2% and 75.8% respectively. Toxicities were within the expected range with infections and transaminitis being the most common adverse events.

Conclusion: Our single-center experience real-world data in treating AYA-ALL patients with pediatric-inspired protocol demonstrates encouraging results of high survival rate and excellent tolerability for patients aged 18-55 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrr.2021.100270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488255PMC
September 2021

Outcomes and toxicity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia patients previously treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a prospective non-interventional study from the Chronic Malignancy Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, 59000, Lille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a treatment option for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who fail to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). While imatinib seems to have no adverse impact on outcomes after transplant, little is known on the effects of prior use of second-generation TKI (2GTKI). We present the results of a prospective non-interventional study performed by the EBMT on 383 consecutive CML patients previously treated with dasatinib or nilotinib undergoing allo-HCT from 2009 to 2013. The median age was 45 years (18-68). Disease status at transplant was CP1 in 139 patients (38%), AP or >CP1 in 163 (45%), and BC in 59 (16%). The choice of 2GTKI was: 40% dasatinib, 17% nilotinib, and 43% a sequential treatment of dasatinib and nilotinib with or without bosutinib/ponatinib. With a median follow-up of 37 months (1-77), 8% of patients developed either primary or secondary graft failure, 34% acute and 60% chronic GvHD. There were no differences in post-transplant complications between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. Non-relapse mortality was 18% and 24% at 12 months and at 5 years, respectively. Relapse incidence was 36%, overall survival 56% and relapse-free survival 40% at 5 years. No differences in post-transplant outcomes were found between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. This prospective study demonstrates the feasibility of allo-HCT in patients previously treated with 2GTKI with a post-transplant complications rate comparable to that of TKI-naive or imatinib-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01472-xDOI Listing
October 2021

An adapted European LeukemiaNet genetic risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. A CIBMTR analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Division of Hematology/BMT, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities are known to influence post-transplant outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but data assessing the prognostic value of combined genetic models in the HCT setting are limited. We developed an adapted European LeukemiaNet (aELN) risk classification based on available genetic data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, to predict post-transplant outcomes in 2289 adult AML patients transplanted in first remission, between 2013 and 2017. Patients were stratified according to aELN into three groups: favorable (Fav, N = 181), intermediate (IM, N = 1185), and adverse (Adv, N = 923). Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in 2-year overall survival (OS) (Fav: 67.7%, IM: 64.9% and Adv: 53.9%; p < 0.001); disease-free survival (DFS) (Fav: 57.8%, IM: 55.5% and Adv: 45.3; p < 0.001) and relapse (Fav: 28%, IM: 27.5% and Adv: 37.5%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) revealed no differences in outcomes between the Fav and IM groups, thus they were combined. On MVA, patients in the Adv risk group had the highest risk of relapse (HR 1.47 p ≤ 0.001) and inferior DFS (HR 1.35 p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.39 p < 0.001), even using myeloablative conditioning or in those without the pre-HCT measurable-residual disease. Novel approaches to mitigate relapse in this high-risk group are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01450-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-HCT outcomes in intermediate-, adverse-risk, and KMT2A-rearranged AML.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States.

Little is known about whether risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. We evaluated 8709 AML patients from the CIBMTR database and, after selection and manual curation of cytogenetics data, 3779 patients in CR1 were included in the final analysis: 2384 with intermediate-risk, 969 with adverse-risk, and 426 with KMT2A-rearranged disease. An adjusted multivariable analysis compared to intermediate-risk patients detected an increased risk of relapse for KMT2A-rearranged and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.27, p = 0.01 and HR 1.71, p < 0.001, respectively). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was similar for KMT2A and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.26, p = 0.002 and HR 1.47, p < 0.001), as was overall survival (OS) (HR 1.32, p < 0.001 and HR 1.45, p < 0.001). No differences in outcome could be detected when patients were stratified by KMT2A fusion partner. This is the largest study conducted to date on post-HCT outcomes in AML using manually curated cytogenetics for risk stratification. Our work demonstrates that risk classification at diagnosis remains predictive of post-HCT outcomes in AML. It also highlights the critical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with KMT2A rearrangements and adverse-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004881DOI Listing
September 2021

Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004916DOI Listing
September 2021

American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Practice Recommendations for Transplantation and Cellular Therapies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09;27(9):720-728

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Autologous (auto-) and allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities in contemporary treatment algorithms for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy recently received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT remain unclear. The American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-HCT, allo-HCT, and CAR T cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated, with a few key statements as follows: in the first line setting, auto-HCT consolidation represents standard of care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T cell therapy outside of clinical trials. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T cell therapy, especially in patients with MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T cell therapy fails or is infeasible. Several recommendations were based on expert opinion, where the panel developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios to guide clinical practice. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447221PMC
September 2021

Outcomes of autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in Saudi Arabia.

Ann Saudi Med 2021 Jul-Aug;41(4):198-205. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

From the Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In 2015, multiple myeloma (MM) represented 1% of all cancers and about 5% of hematologic malignancies in Saudi cancer registry. We conducted this large study because only small pilot studies have examined MM outcomes after autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). The standard therapy for eligible patients is induction chemotherapy followed by ASCT.

Objectives: Determine the demographic characteristics of MM patients and the outcomes of ASCT.

Design: Retrospective.

Setting: Tumor registry database of major tertiary cancer care center in Riyadh.

Patients And Methods: We identified patients with newly diagnosed MM who underwent ASCT from October 1997 to March 2015.

Main Outcome Measures: The demographic characteristics of MM patients and the outcomes of ASCT in the form of response evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Sample Size: 169 patients with newly diagnosed MM.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 51 years (range 23-69) and 100 (59.2%) were male. The most common immunoglobulin (Ig) subtype was IgG-kappa (80 patients; 47.6%). Most patients presented with advanced ISS stage III (75 patients; 47.5%). The cytogenetic analysis was documented in only 87 patients (51.4%); about half (48.3%) had normal cytogenetics by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Deletion 13 was present in 18.4% of patients. In post-induction therapy, 84 patients (50%) achieved a complete response, which increased to 78.1% (132 patients) after ASCT. The median PFS and OS post-transplantation were 30 and 202 months, respectively. Only one patient (<1%) died in the first 100 days after transplantation.

Conclusions: Our transplant eligible MM patients tend to be younger with a higher OS and a low ASCT-related mortality (<1%) than is reported internationally.

Limitations: Usual limitations of a retrospective analysis using registry-level data; no data on quality of life.

Conflicts Of Interest: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2021.198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380276PMC
September 2021

ASTCT, CIBMTR, and EBMT clinical practice recommendations for transplant and cellular therapies in mantle cell lymphoma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Autologous (auto-) or allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are accepted treatment modalities for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy received approval for MCL; however, its exact place and sequence in relation to HCT is unclear. The ASTCT, CIBMTR, and the EBMT, jointly convened an expert panel to formulate consensus recommendations for role, timing, and sequencing of auto-, allo-HCT, and CAR T-cell therapy for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory (R/R) MCL. The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements. Seventeen consensus statements were generated; in the first-line setting auto-HCT consolidation represents standard-of-care in eligible patients, whereas there is no clear role of allo-HCT or CAR T-cell therapy, outside of a clinical trial. In the R/R setting, the preferential option is CAR T-cell therapy especially in MCL failing or intolerant to at least one Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, while allo-HCT is recommended if CAR T-cell therapy has failed or is not feasible. In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a formal framework for developing consensus recommendations for the timing and sequence of cellular therapies for MCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01288-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Fludarabine and Melphalan Compared with Reduced Doses of Busulfan and Fludarabine Improve Transplantation Outcomes in Older Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus, Madrid, Spain.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens developed to extend the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to older patients have resulted in encouraging outcomes. We aimed to compare the 2 most commonly used RIC regimens, i.v. fludarabine with busulfan (FluBu) and fludarabine with melphalan (FluMel), in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), we identified 1045 MDS patients age ≥60 years who underwent first HSCT with a matched related or matched (8/8) unrelated donor using an RIC regimen. The CIBMTR's definition of RIC was used: a regimen that incorporated an i.v. busulfan total dose ≤7.2 mg/kg or a low-dose melphalan total dose ≤150 mg/m. The 2 groups, recipients of FluBu (n = 697) and recipients of FluMel (n = 448), were comparable in terms of disease- and transplantation-related characteristics except for the more frequent use of antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab in the FluBu group (39% versus 31%). The median age was 67 years in both groups. FluMel was associated with a reduced relapse incidence (RI) compared with FluBu, with a 1-year adjusted incidence of 26% versus 44% (P ≤ .0001). Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) was higher in the FluMel group (26% versus 16%; P ≤ .0001). Because the magnitude of improvement with FluMel in RI was greater than the improvement in TRM with FluBu, disease-free survival (DFS) was better at 1 year and beyond with FluMel compared with FluBu (48% versus 40% at 1 year [P = .02] and 35% versus 27% at 3 years [P = .01]). Overall survival was comparable in the 2 groups at 1 year (63% versus 61%; P = .4) but was significantly improved with FluMel compared with FluBu at 3 years (46% versus 39%; P = .03). Our results suggest that FluMel is associated with superior DFS compared with FluBu owing to reduced RI in older patients with MDS patients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.007DOI Listing
August 2021

One and a half million hematopoietic stem cell transplants: continuous and differential improvement in worldwide access with the use of non-identical family donors.

Haematologica 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CIBMTR (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN; University of Minnesota, MMC 480, Minneapolis, MN 55455.

The Worldwide Network of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) pursues the mission of promoting hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for instance by evaluating activities through member societies, national registries and individual centers. In 2016, 82,718 first HCTs were reported from 1662 HCT teams in 86 of the 195 World Health Organization member states representing a global increase of 6.2% in autologous and 7.0% in allogeneic HCT and bringing the total to 1,298,897 procedures. Assuming a frequency of 84,000/year, 1.5 million HCTs had been performed by 2019 from 1957. Slightly more autologous (53.5%) than allogeneic and more related (53.6%) than unrelated HCTs were reported. A remarkable increase was noted in haploidentical related HCT for leukemias and lymphoproliferative diseases, but even more in non-malignant diseases. Transplant rates (TR; HCT/10 million population) varied according to region reaching 560.8 in North America, 438.5 in Europe, 76.7 in Latin America, 53.6 in South East Asia/Western Pacific (SEA/WPR) and 27.8 in African/East Mediterranean (AFR/EMR). Interestingly, haploidentical TR amounted to 32% in SEA/WPR and 26% in Latin America, but only 14% in Europe and EMR and 4.9% in North America of all allogeneic HCT. HCT team density (teams/10 million population) was highest in Europe (7.7) followed by North America (6.0), SEA/WPR (1.9), Latin America (1.6) and AFR/EMR (0.4). HCTs are increasing steadily worldwide with narrowing gaps between regions and greater increase in allogeneic compared to autologous activity. While related HCT is rising, largely due to increase in haploidentical HCT, unrelated is plateauing and cord blood in decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.279189DOI Listing
August 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Full Dose Cyclophosphamide with the Addition of Fludarabine for Matched Sibling Transplants in Severe Aplastic Anemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 12;27(10):851.e1-851.e6. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The recommended therapy for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) in younger patients with a matched sibling donor (MSD) is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). A number of conditioning regimens and protocols have been used for these patients. Here we report a homogeneous cohort of SAA patients receiving a uniform transplantation protocol. This study is a retrospective analysis of 82 consecutive patients with SAA who underwent MSD allo-HCT at a single center. The median duration of follow-up for survivors was 100 months, the 10-year overall survival (OS) was 87.5%, and the 10-year event-free survival was 75.3%. The OS was 97.4% for "mobilized" bone marrow (BM) graft recipients and 78.9% for "nonmobilized" BM graft recipients (P = .01. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 25.6%, that of chronic GVHD was 27.16%, and that of graft failure was 16.2%. Recipient age ≥30 years and transplantation at >6 months after SAA diagnosis were associated with a increased risk of events. In the presence of a fully matched sibling donor, allo-HCT with a mobilized BM graft and fludarabine-cyclophosphamide conditioning is an efficacious and safe approach. Early transplantation is associated with a better outcome, emphasizing the importance of not delaying transplantation in these patients. Prospective trials are needed to determine the optimal regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide containing regimens after matched sibling, matched unrelated and haploidentical donor transplants in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission, a comparative study of the ALWP of the EBMT.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 05 28;14(1):84. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematology, and INSERM UMRs 938, Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: There is no information on the impact of donor type in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) using homogeneous graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 that had received HCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from HLA-matched sibling (MSD) (n = 78), matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 94) and haploidentical family (Haplo) (n = 297) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2018. The median follow-up period of the entire cohort was 2.2 years.

Results: Median age of patients was 38 years (range 18-76). Compared to MSD and MUD, Haplo patients received peripheral blood less frequently. For Haplo, MUD, and MSD, the cumulative incidence of 100-day acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV, and 2-year chronic and extensive chronic GVHD were 32%, 41%, and 34% (p = 0.4); 13%, 15%, and 15% (p = 0.8); 35%, 50%, and 42% (p = 0.01); and 11%, 17%, and 21% (p = 0.2), respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 20%, 20%, and 28% (p = 0.8); and 21%, 18%, and 21% (p = 0.8) for Haplo, MUD, and MSD, respectively. The leukemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival for Haplo, MUD, and MSD was 59%, 62%, and 51% (p = 0.8); 66%, 69%, and 62% (p = 0.8); and 46%, 44%, and 35% (p = 0.9), respectively. On multivariable analysis, transplant outcomes did not differ significantly between donor types. TBI-based conditioning was associated with better LFS.

Conclusions: Donor type did not significantly affect transplant outcome in patient with ALL receiving SCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01094-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161915PMC
May 2021

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: proposed definitions and management strategies for graft failure, poor graft function and relapse: best practice recommendations of the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Leukemia 2021 09 26;35(9):2445-2459. Epub 2021 May 26.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, Lille, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative approach in myelofibrosis (MF). Despite advances over recent decades, relapse and non-relapse mortality rates remain significant. Relapse rates vary between 15 and 25% across retrospective studies and management strategies vary widely, ranging from palliation to adoptive immunotherapy and, in some cases, a second allo-HCT. Moreover, in allo-HCT, there is a higher incidence of poor graft function and graft failure due to splenomegaly and a hostile "pro-inflammatory" marrow niche. The Practice Harmonisation and Guidelines subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party (CMWP) of EBMT convened an international panel consisting of transplant haematologists, histopathologists and molecular biologists to propose practical, clinically relevant definitions of graft failure, poor graft function and relapse as well as management strategies following allo-HCT. A systematic approach to molecular monitoring, histopathological assessment and chimerism testing is proposed. These proposed recommendations aim to increase the accuracy and uniformity of reporting and to thereby facilitate the development of more consistent approaches to these challenging issues. In addition, we propose management strategies for these complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01294-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnosis and treatment of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: A systematic literature review.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to investigate different diagnostic methods and the available treatment options for subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL).

Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EBSCO, and CINAHL Plus for published case reports of SPTCL. From each record, we extracted data of the diagnostic methods, immunohistochemical profile, clinical characteristics, and the treatment approaches provided. Data were summarized and narratively synthesized to highlight the various diagnostic methods and treatment options of SPTCL.

Results: Our literature search yielded 1293 unique citations. Following screening, nine articles reporting a total of 15 cases were included in this systematic review. All patients presented with subcutaneous nodules. Three of the 15 cases were initially misdiagnosed. The atypical lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, granzyme B, and TIA-1 and negative for CD1a, EBER, and CD20 in all the reported cases. The atypical lymphoid cells were positive for CD45RO in four out of seven cases, positive for CD56 in three out of 12 cases tested, while positive for CD5 and CD8 in the majority of cases. Therapy ranged from topical agents to immunosuppressive agents all the way to multiagent chemotherapy.

Conclusion: SPTCL is a rare lymphoma. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the immunohistochemical stains added to histopathologic and radiologic findings. Therapy is dependent on the pace of the disease, with encouraging results obtained with single-agent cyclosporine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2021.04.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Special issues related to the diagnosis and management of acquired aplastic anemia in countries with restricted resources, a report on behalf of the Eastern Mediterranean blood and marrow transplantation (EMBMT) group and severe aplastic anemia working party of the European Society for blood and marrow transplantation (SAAWP of EBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 19;56(10):2518-2532. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cellular Therapy and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aplastic anemia is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder, with a reported higher incidence in developing countries in comparison to the West. There are significant variations in epidemiological as well as etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndromes in the developing countries in comparison to the developed world. Furthermore, the management of bone marrow failure syndromes in resource constraint settings has significant challenges including delayed diagnosis and referral, limited accessibility to healthcare facilities, treatment modalities as well as limitations related to patients who require allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Here we will provide a review of the available evidence related to specific issues of aplastic anemia in the developing countries and we summarize suggested recommendations from the Eastern Mediterranean blood and bone marrow transplantation (EMBMT) group and the severe aplastic anemia working party of the European Society of blood and marrow transplantation (SAAWP of EBMT) related to the diagnosis and therapeutic options in countries with restricted resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01332-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Enteropathy-Associated T cell Lymphoma.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 04 19;16(2):140-147. Epub 2021 May 19.

Adult Hematology/HSCT, Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose Of Review: Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare subtype of mature T cell lymphoma. The available literature about this rare type T cell lymphoma is relatively limited. This article provides a summary and review of the available literature addressing this entity in terms of risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic, and therapeutic options.

Recent Findings: EATL has two distinct subtypes. Type I EATL, now known as EATL, is closely, but not exclusively linked to celiac disease (CD), and it is primarily a disease of Northern European origin. It accounts for < 5% of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). Risk factors for EATL include advanced age, male sex, and most importantly, genetic susceptibility in the form of HLA-DQ2 homozygosity. The pathogenesis of EATL is closely related to celiac disease as it shares common pathogenic features with refractory celiac disease. The gold standard of diagnosis is histological diagnosis. EATL carries an aggressive course and a poor prognosis. Treatment of EATL includes surgery, induction chemotherapy, and consolidation in first complete remission and autologous stem cell transplant. The role of targeted and biologic therapies in newly diagnosed EATL patients along with relapsed, refractory cases is evolving and discussed in this review. EATL is an aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma with poor overall treatment outcome using currently available therapy options. Clinical trials are considered the best approach for treatment of EATL. Early diagnosis and early referral to specialized centers would be the best way to deal with such patients. Development of new prognostic models and early surgical intervention are warranted. Prevention is where all the efforts should be spent, by counseling patients with CD regarding the importance of adherence to gluten-free diet and development of periodic surveillance programs in celiac disease patients for early detection of pre-lymphoma lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11899-021-00634-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant patients, a regional report from the Middle East.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 27;56(9):2144-2151. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a potentially lethal infection. Cancer patients, and specifically hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are severely immunocompromised and may be at a higher risk of a complicated course with this infection. We aimed to study the COVID-19 outcomes and severity in post HCT patients. We retrospectively reviewed post-HCT patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 15, 2020, and December 1, 2020 at 10 transplant centers across the Middle East. We identified 91 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection across 10 transplant centers. The median age upon presentation with COVID-19 was 35. Fifty two patients were post allo-HCT while the remaining 39 patients were post auto-HCT. The median time from transplant was 14.9 months. Mortality rate was 4.4%. Hospital admission rate was 53%. ICU admission rate was 14%. Mechanical ventilation rate was 10%. Oxygen supplementation rate was 18%. Time from HCT to COVID-19 >6 months was associated with lower admission rates and lower rates of the "severity" composite endpoint. Antibody responses was seen 67% of evaluable patients. In this series of HCT recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 and provide preliminary insights into the clinical course of this disease in this specific population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01312-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078827PMC
September 2021

Impact of depth of clinical response on outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients in first complete remission who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2108-2117. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Haematology Research Centre, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in first complete remission (CR). We examined the effect of depth of clinical response, including incomplete count recovery (CRi) and/or measurable residual disease (MRD), in patients from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) registry. We identified 2492 adult patients (1799 CR and 693 CRi) who underwent alloHCT between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors. Baseline characteristics were similar. Patients in CRi compared to those in CR had an increased likelihood of death (HR: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.43). Compared to CR, CRi was significantly associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM), shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and a trend toward increased relapse. Detectable MRD was associated with shorter OS, shorter DFS, higher NRM, and increased relapse compared to absence of MRD. The deleterious effects of CRi and MRD were independent. In this large CIBMTR cohort, survival outcomes differ among AML patients based on depth of CR and presence of MRD at the time of alloHCT. Further studies should focus on optimizing post-alloHCT outcomes for patients with responses less than CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01261-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425595PMC
September 2021

Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis on Efficacy of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Sickle Cell Disease: An International Effort on Behalf of the Pediatric Diseases Working Party of European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the Sickle Cell Transplantation International Consortium.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 10;27(2):167.e1-167.e12. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Division of Hematology-Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Program, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida. Electronic address:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects more than 300,000 children annually worldwide. Despite improved supportive care, long-term prognosis remains poor. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is the sole validated curative option, resulting in sustained resolution of the clinical phenotype. The medical literature on allo-HCT for SCD is largely limited to children. Recent studies have evaluated allo-HCT efficacy in adults. Here, we conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis to assess the totality of evidence on the efficacy, or lack thereof, of allo-HCT in treating SCD. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library databases on November 13, 2019. Four authors independently extracted data on clinical outcomes related to benefits (overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]) and harms (acute graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD], chronic graft-versus-host disease [cGVHD], nonrelapse mortality [NRM], and graft failure [GF]). Our search identified a total of 1906 references. Only 33 studies (n= 2853 patients) met our inclusion criteria. We also performed a subset analysis by age. Analyses of all-age groups showed pooled rates of 96% for OS, 90% for DFS, 20% for aGVHD, 10% for cGVHD, 4% for NRM, and 5% for GF. In the pediatric population, pooled rates for OS, DFS, aGVHD, cGVHD, NRM, and GF were 97%, 91%, 26%, 11%, 5%, and 3%, respectively. In adults, pooled rates for OS, DFS, aGVHD, cGVHD, NRM, and GF were 98%, 90%, 7%, 1%, 0%, and 14%, respectively. Our data show that allo-HCT is safe and effective, yielding pooled OS rates exceeding 90%. The high GF rate of 14% in adults is concerning and emphasizes the need to evaluate new strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcome of haploidentical versus matched sibling donors in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 04 1;14(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Haematology, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: Non-T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HaploSCT) is being increasingly used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with improving patient outcomes. We have recently reported that outcomes of adult patients (pts) with ALL in complete remission (CR) receiving HaploSCT are comparable to unrelated donor transplants. We now compared HaploSCT and matched sibling donor (MSD) transplants in pts with ALL.

Aim: To assess transplantation outcomes of HaploSCT and MSD transplants in pts with ALL in CR.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed adult patients (≥ 18 years) with ALL who underwent their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in first or second CR between 2012 and 2018, either from a T cell replete Haplo or MSD donor, and whose data were reported to the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Multivariate analysis (MVA) adjusting for differences between the groups was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Propensity score matching was also performed to reduce confounding effects.

Results: The analysis comprised 2304 patients: HaploSCT-413; MSD-1891. Median follow-up was 25 months. Median age was 37 (range 18-75) and 38 (18-76) years in HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. HaploSCT patients were transplanted more recently than those transplanted from MSD (2016 vs 2015, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of HaploSCT was in CR2 (33.4% vs 16.7%, p < 0.0001), respectively, and fewer received myeloablative conditioning (68% vs 83.2%, p < 0.0001). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity was lower in HaploSCT patients (22% vs 28%, p = 0.01) and donors (27.1% vs 33%, p < 0.02), and a higher proportion of the HaploSCTs were performed using a bone marrow (BM) graft (46.2% vs 18.6%, p < 0.0001). The 2 groups did not differ with regard to gender, Karnofsky performance status score, ALL phenotype, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positivity and pre-alloSCT measurable residual disease (MRD). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was mainly post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) based (92.7%) in the HaploSCT setting, while it was mostly pharmacologic in the setting of MSD (18.7% received ATG). Cumulative incidence of engraftment at day 60 was higher in MSD transplants compared to HaploSCT (98.7% vs 96.3%, p = 0.001), respectively. Day 180 incidence of acute (a) GVHD II-IV and III-IV was higher in HaploSCT vs. MSD: 36.3% vs 28.9% (p = 0.002 and 15.2% vs 10.5% (p = 0.005), respectively. Conversely, the 2-year chronic (c) GVHD and extensive cGVHD were 32% vs 38.8% (p = 0.009) and 11.9% vs 19.5% (p = 0.001) in HaploSCT vs MSD, respectively. Main causes of death were leukemia (31.8% vs 45%), infection (33.1% vs 19.7%) and GVHD (16.6% vs 19.7%) for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. Two-year relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 26% vs 31.6%, 22.9% vs 13%, 51% vs 55.4%, 58.8% vs 67.4% and 40.6% vs 39% for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. In the MVA, RI was significantly lower in HaploSCT in comparison with MSD, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.83, p = 0.004), while NRM was significantly higher, HR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.43-2.53, p < 0.0001). aGVHD grade II-IV and grade III-IV were higher in HaploSCT than in MSD HR = 1.53 (95% CI 1.23-1.9, p = 0.0002) and HR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.1-2.15, p = 0.011), respectively. Extensive cGVHD was lower in HaploSCT compared with MSD, HR = 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.007), while total cGVHD did not differ significantly, HR = 0.94 (95% CI 0.74-1.18, p = 0.58). LFS, OS and GRFS did not differ significantly between the 2 transplant groups, HR = 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-1.14, p = 0.66); HR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.96-1.43, p = 0.11) and HR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.79-1.09, p = 0.37), respectively. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis.

Conclusions: Outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR receiving alloSCT from haploidentical donors are not significantly different from those receiving transplants from MSD in terms of LFS, OS and GRFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01065-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017786PMC
April 2021

Changes in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Practices in Response to COVID-19: A Survey from the Worldwide Network for Blood & Marrow Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03 15;27(3):270.e1-270.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly worldwide, but the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains unknown. To understand this better, an 18-item online survey was disseminated by the Worldwide Network for Blood & Marrow Transplantation with questions exploring SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithms, mobilization, and cryopreservation strategies and COVID-19 infections in allogeneic related and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) donors. The aim of this survey was to assess the impact of the outbreak on policies relating to HPC mobilization, collection, and processing with respect to changes in daily routine. A total of 91 individual responses from distinct centers in 6 continents were available for analysis. In these centers, the majority (72%) of allogeneic related and autologous donors are routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 before HPC collection, and 80% of centers implement cryopreservation of allogeneic HPC grafts before commencing conditioning regimens in patients. Five related and 14 autologous donors who tested positive for COVID-19 did not experience any unexpected adverse events or reactions during growth factor administration (eg, hyperinflammatory syndrome). These data are limited by the small number of survey respondents but nonetheless suggest that centers are following the recommendations of appropriate scientific organizations and provide some preliminary data to suggest areas of further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834678PMC
March 2021

Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) Recommendations Regarding Essential Medications Required To Establish An Early Stage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Program.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03 16;27(3):267.e1-267.e5. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Establishing a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) program is complex. Planning is essential while establishing such a program to overcome the expected challenges. Authorities involved in HCT program establishment will need to coordinate the efforts between the different departments required to start up the program. One essential department is pharmacy and the medications required. To help facilitate this, the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation organized a structured survey to address the essential medications required to start up an HCT program. A group of senior physicians and pharmacists prepared a list of the medications used at the different phases of transplantation. These drugs were then rated by a questionnaire using a scale of necessity based on the stage of development of the transplant program. The questionnaire was sent to 30 physicians, in different parts of the world, who have between 5 and 40 years of experience in autologous and/or allogeneic transplantation. This group of experts scored each medication on a 7-point scale, ranging from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). The results are presented here to help guide the prioritization of required medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Comprehensive multi-omics analysis of G6PC3 deficiency-related congenital neutropenia with inflammatory bowel disease.

iScience 2021 Mar 25;24(3):102214. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Adult hematology/BMT, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Autosomal recessive mutations in cause isolated and syndromic congenital neutropenia which includes congenital heart disease and atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In a highly consanguineous pedigree with novel mutations in and , we performed comprehensive multi-omics analyses. Structural analysis of variant G6PC3 and MPL proteins suggests a damaging effect. A distinct molecular cytokine profile (cytokinome) in the affected proband with IBD was detected. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of the G6PC3-deficient plasma samples identified 460 distinct proteins including 75 upregulated and 73 downregulated proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor GATA4 and LST1 were downregulated while platelet factor 4 (PF4) was upregulated. GATA4 and PF4 have been linked to congenital heart disease and IBD respectively, while LST1 may have perturbed a variety of essential cell functions as it is required for normal cell-cell communication. Together, these studies provide potentially novel insights into the pathogenesis of syndromic congenital G6PC3 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960940PMC
March 2021

Current practice of oral care for hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: A survey of the Eastern Mediterranean Blood and Marrow transplantation group.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: The oral cavity is one of the most common sites impacted by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with acute complications including mucositis, bleeding, salivary gland dysfunction, infection, and taste alteration. These complications may result in significant morbidity and can negatively impact outcomes such as length of stay and overall costs. As such, oral care during HSCT for prevention and management of oral toxicities is a standard component of transplant protocols at all centers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current oral care practices for patients during HSCT at different transplant centers within the Eastern Mediterranean region.

Material And Methods: An internet-based survey was directed to 30 transplant centers in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The survey included five sections asking questions related to (1) transplant center demographics; (2) current oral care protocol used at the center and type of collaboration (if any) with a dental service; (3) use of standardized oral assessment tools and grading systems for mucositis; (4) consultations for management of oral complications; and (5) oral health needs at each center. Data are presented as averages and percentages.

Results: A total of 16 responses from 11 countries were collected and analyzed, indicating a response rate of 53%. Eight centers reported that a dentist was part of the HSCT team, with four reporting oral medicine specialists specifically being part of the team. Almost all centers (15/16; 93%) had an affiliated dental service to facilitate pre-HSCT dental clearance with an established dental clearance protocol at 14 centers (87%). Dental extraction was associated with the highest concern for bleeding and the need for platelet transfusion. With respect to infection risk, antibiotic prophylaxis was considered in the setting of low neutrophil counts with restorative dentistry and extraction. All centers provide daily reinforcement of oral hygiene regimen. The most frequently used mouth oral rinses included sodium bicarbonate (68%) and chlorhexidine gluconate (62%), in addition to ice chips for dry mouth (62%). The most frequently used mucositis assessment tools were the World Health Organization scale (7/16; 43%) and visual analogue scale for pain (6/16; 37%). Mucositis pain was managed with lidocaine solution (68.8%), magic mouth wash (68.8%) and/or systemic pain medications (75%).

Conclusions: Scope and implementation of oral care protocols prior to and during HSCT varied between transplant centers. The lack of a universal protocol may contribute to gaps in oral healthcare needs and management for this group of patients. Further dissemination of and education around available oral care guidelines is warranted.

Clinical Relevance: Considering oral care during HSCT a standard component of transplant protocols, the current study highlights the common oral care practices for patients at centers within the Eastern Mediterranean region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2021.01.006DOI Listing
February 2021
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