Publications by authors named "Mahmoud Abdo"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inter-method variability of hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in a cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis B virus.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 3;22(2):151-157. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Endemic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: Hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen (HBsAg) levels can predict clinical and treatment outcomes in chronic HB virus (HBV) infection. We aimed to compare the performance of two different assays [Elecsys® (Roche) and Architect™ (Abbott)] for HBsAg quantification and evaluate HBsAg levels in the various immune phases in a cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic HBV.

Patients And Methods: Quantitative HBsAg by Elecsys® and Architect™ assays, measurement of routine biochemical and serological markers, and transient elastography were performed in 92 patients with chronic HBV. Results of the two assays and other tests were compared.

Results: Ninety-two treatment-naive patients with chronic HBV, (70% males; mean age, 36.1 ± 10.5 years) were recruited from Cairo Fatemic Hospital. Patients were categorized as HBeAg positive (n = 22) and HBeAg negative (n = 70). The Architect™ and Elecsys® assays were significantly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.913; 95% CI: 0.870-0.943; p < 0.001). However, Deming regression, Passing and Bablok, and Bland-Altman statistical analyses showed discordance among the assays. HBsAg levels by both assays were significantly higher in the HBeAg positive than patients with HBeAg-negative (p = 0.033 and 0.013, respectively). HBsAg levels in the Architect™ and Elecsys® assays were significantly higher in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis than in HBeAg-negative chronic infection (p = 0.002 and 0.004, respectively) CONCLUSION: Both assays for qHBsAg were found to be simple and reproducible tests that could classify patients and provide additional evidence on the natural history of HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Is Serum-Ascites Vitamin D Gradient a Valid Marker for Diagnosing Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients with Cirrhotic Ascites?

Lab Med 2021 Nov;52(6):567-573

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is considered the paradigmatic model of infection in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there is a need for an accurate and rapid method for SBP diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of serum-ascites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) gradient (SADG) as a marker for diagnosing SBP in patients with cirrhotic ascites.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analytic study of 88 patients with portal hypertensive ascites resulting from liver cirrhosis of any etiology. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the patients were recorded. The level of 25-OH vitamin D in serum and ascitic fluid was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography autoanalyzer. The SADG was calculated with the formula: 25-OH vitamin D in serum - 25-OH vitamin D in ascites.

Results: Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 89.8% of the studied patients. The SADG values ranged between 0 and 69.2 ng/mL, with a median value of 5.58 ng/mL. It was significantly lower in patients with SBP than in those without SBP (P = .004). The area under the curve for SADG in exclusion of SBP was 0.67 at a cutoff value of ≥5.57 ng/mL.

Conclusion: We found that SADG may be a valid marker of SBP in patients with cirrhotic ascites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/labmed/lmab019DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of sustained virological response on metabolic disorders in diabetic chronic hepatitis C virus patients after treatment with generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 12;33(12):1588-1594

Departments of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) treatment on the glycemic state and insulin resistance as well as lipid profiles of those who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) in diabetic chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 114 CHC patients with evidence of type 2 diabetes that were treated with generic SOF/DCV between May 2016 and August 2017. Baseline demographic and laboratory data were recorded. At 12-week post end of therapy (SVR12), glycemic state and insulin resistance as well as lipid profiles were re-evaluated and compared with baseline.

Results: A total of 98 diabetic CHC patients were finally included and were responders. A significant decline in the glycemic state as well as Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P ≤ 0.0001) was observed, but HOMA-S showed a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.0001) at SVR12 in comparison to baseline values. Also, a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was observed at SVR12 compared to baseline, but serum triglycerides levels showed a significant decrease. Logistic regression showed that the higher baseline HOMA-IR was a significant predictive variable of a decrease ≥20% of HOMA-IR, while higher baseline HOMA-IR and baseline triglycerides emerged as the only significant predictors of the Δ increase LDL-C level at SVR12.

Conclusion: SOF/DCV-based therapy led to an improvement of glycemic state associated with a global worsening of lipid profile. Further studies are strongly warranted to evaluate the cardiovascular balance between amelioration of insulin resistance and negative changes of the lipid profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001903DOI Listing
December 2021

Serum Serotonin as a Potential Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2019 12 30;39(12):780-785. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Kasr Alaini School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

To assess the potential role of serum serotonin level in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. A case-control study that involved 100 Egyptian adults. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: Group I: 21 patients with late-stage HCC on top of liver cirrhosis, Group II: 28 patients with early-stage HCC on top of liver cirrhosis, Group III: 26 patients with cirrhosis with no evidence of HCC, and Group IV: 25 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were as a control group. Serum serotonin level was determined in all recruited subjects using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection method. Alpha-fetoprotein had a statistically significant elevation in group I with a median of 1300 ng/L (195-2544 ng/L) compared to groups II and III ( ≤ 0.01). Regarding serum serotonin level, it had a statistically significant elevation in group II with a median of 275 ng/μL (204.7-400 ng/μL) compared to groups I, III, and IV with median of 33 ng/μL (30-50 ng/μL), 50 ng/μL (30-60 ng/μL), and 102 (85-150 ng/μL), respectively ( = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that serum serotonin at cutoff value of 108 ng/μL had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92.3% in discriminating early-stage HCC from cirrhosis. Serum serotonin level is a rapid, sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for the detection of early-stage HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2019.0088DOI Listing
December 2019

The statins effects on HbA1c control among diabetic patients: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and clinical trials.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jul - Aug;13(4):2557-2564. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Pharmacy School, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Statins have impacts on the metabolism of glucose that might influence the progress of diabetes in non-diabetics or affect glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes. Experimental proof has been contradictory about whether some statins display beneficial properties while others indicate harmful impressions. Some systematic reviews of statins had stated conflicting findings on the concern of glucose metabolism. The current study investigates the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses to combine their results and give a clear situation regarding the influence of statins therapy on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). This study has valuable strength points; long follow-up period and big sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

J Med Virol 2019 02 8;91(2):272-277. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered as a major public health problem that, worldwide, chronically affects 170 million people. Elderly patients are more likely than younger patients to have increased duration of infection, increased rate of disease progression, and subsequently increased incidence of advanced liver disease. Natural history models predicted that the prevalence of HCV infection and its chronic sequelae as well as extrahepatic manifestations will eventually increase through the next decade and will mostly affect those who are greater than 60 years of age. Moreover, polytherapy and polypharmacy are frequent in elderly patients due to associated comorbidities. As advanced age is associated with increasing risk of development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, elderly patients are in special need of safe and effective antiviral therapies. Achievement of sustained viral responses (SVR) is associated with reduced liver-related complications and overall mortality in such patients with the advanced liver disease. With the recent introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals, successful treatment for chronic HCV infection had dramatically improved, with overall cure rates that exceed 90% SVR. In our study, we aimed to study the efficacy and safety of combined sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, with or without ribavirin, in management of chronically infected HCV elderly patients who are more than 60 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25287DOI Listing
February 2019

Establishing ultrasound based transient elastography cutoffs for different stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2017 Dec 27;18(4):210-215. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroentrology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Study Aim: Transient elastography is widely used to assess fibrosis stage in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to establish and validate different transient elastography cut-off values for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in CHC genotype 4 patients.

Patients And Methods: The data of 100 treatment-naive CHC patients (training set) and 652 patients (validation set) were analysed. The patients were subjected to routine pretreatment laboratory investigations, liver biopsy and histopathological staging of hepatic fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system. Transient elastography was performed before and in the same week as liver biopsy using FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France). Transient elastography results were correlated to different stages of hepatic fibrosis in both the training and validation sets.

Results: ROC curves were constructed. In the training set, the best transient elastography cut-off values for significant hepatic fibrosis (≥F2 METAVIR), advanced hepatic fibrosis (≥F3 METAVIR) and cirrhosis (F4 METAVIR) were 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, with sensitivities of 87%, 87.5% and 90.9% and specificities of 100%, 99.9% and 99.9%, respectively. The application of these cut-offs in the validation set showed sensitivities of 85.5%, 82.8% and 92% and specificities of 86%, 89.4% and 99.01% for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively.

Conclusion: Transient elastography performs well for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with validated cut-offs of 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, respectively, in genotype 4 CHC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2017.11.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Serious Adverse Events with Sofosbuvir Combined with Interferon and Ribavirin: Real-Life Egyptian Experience.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2017 08;37(8):348-353

1 Faculty of Medicine, Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Cairo University , Cairo, Egypt .

Viral hepatitis is a serious problem worldwide that was under-recognized till recently. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to be 180 million people worldwide. Treatment of chronic HCV using combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG/RIBA) has long been the standard of care with modest response. In our study, we will report the real-life experience of serious adverse events (SAEs) that were reported by the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH, Cairo, Egypt) program while treating chronic HCV using the triple therapy, sofosbuvir combined with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG/RIBA/SOF), which led to premature discontinuation of treatment. This retrospective analysis included a total of 6,989 chronic HCV patients who were treated by the NCCVH. They received the triple antiviral therapy in 26 treatment centers in Egypt using PEG/RIBA/SOF for 12 weeks. Among 6,989 patients who were treated in 26 treatment centers related to NCCVH, 406 cases (5.9%) reported SAEs and prematurely stopped their treatment. Triple therapy PEG/RIBA/SOF was an important intermediate milestone between interferon-based therapy and the interferon-free all-oral direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Results of this study were the leading cause of discontinuation of interferon-based therapy and introduction of interferon-free all-oral treatment protocols, incorporating DAAs from different classes as soon as they gain approval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2016.0131DOI Listing
August 2017

Changes in liver stiffness measurements and fibrosis scores following sofosbuvir based treatment regimens without interferon.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Sep;32(9):1624-1630

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Accurate evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases is crucial, as liver fibrosis is important in order to make therapeutic decisions, determine prognosis of liver disease and to follow-up disease progression. Multiple non-invasive methods have been used successfully in the prediction of fibrosis; however, early changes in non-invasive biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis under effective antiviral therapy are widely unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes of transient elastography values as well as FIB-4 and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) in patients treated with Sofosbuvir-based treatment regimen.

Methods: This is a retrospective study including 337 chronic HCV Egyptian patients with genotype 4 mainly. They were treated with Sofosbuvir-based treatment regimen. Transient elastography values were recorded as well as FIB-4 and APRI were calculated at baseline and SVR12.

Results: There was a significant improvement of platelets counts, ALT and AST levels, which in turn cause significant improvement in FIB-4 and APRI scores at SVR12. Liver stiffness measurements were significantly lower in SVR12 (14.8 ± 10.7 vs 11.8 ± 8.8 kPa, P = 0.000). About 77% of responders and 81.1% of cirrhotic patients showed improvement in liver stiffness measurements at SVR12.Univariate and multivariate regression analysis showed that failure to achieve improvement in liver stiffness measurements were significantly associated with relapsers and low baseline liver stiffness measurement.

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based treatment resulted in a clinically significant improvement in parameters of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13758DOI Listing
September 2017

Real life Egyptian experience of efficacy and safety of Simeprevir/Sofosbuvir therapy in 6211 chronic HCV genotype IV infected patients.

Liver Int 2017 04 4;37(4):534-541. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Hepatology & Endemic Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background & Aims: Major changes have emerged during the last few years in the therapy of chronic HCV. Several direct acting antiviral agents have been developed showing potent activity with higher rates of sustained virological response, even in difficult-to-treat patients. This study explores real life experience concerning efficacy, safety and possible predictors of response for the first cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic HCV genotype IV treated with Sofosbuvir/Simprevir combination therapy.

Methods: This real life study recruited the first (6211) chronic HCV genotype IV Egyptian patients, who received antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis specialized treatment centres affiliated to the National committee for control of viral hepatitis. All enrolled patients received 12 weeks course of daily combination of sofosbuvir (400 mg) and simeprevir (150 mg). Patients were closely monitored for treatment safety and efficacy.

Results: Overall sustained virological response 12 rate was 94.0% while the end of treatment response rate was 97.6%. sustained virological response 12 rates in easy and difficult-to-treat groups were 96% and 93% respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant association of low albumin (<3.5), cirrhosis and Fib-4 score (>3.25) with treatment failure. Fatal adverse events occurred in 23/6211 cases (0.37%) due to liver cell failure adverse events or SAEs leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 97 patients (1.6%).

Conclusion: Sofosbuvir/Simeprevir combination is an effective and well tolerated regimen for patients with chronic HCV genotype IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13266DOI Listing
April 2017

Influence of delta virus infection on the virologic status in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis B virus genotype D.

J Med Virol 2016 May 13;88(5):837-42. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Department of Endemic Hepatology and Gasteroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) usually have an unfavorable clinical outcome in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients. In Egypt, data about epidemiology, the spectrum of disease, and impact of HDV on HBV infection are rare. To assess the prevalence, clinical and virological characteristics of HDV infection among Egyptian patients with chronic HBV. Adult patients with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive were evaluated for the presence of HDV using anti HDV-IgG and HDV RNA by RT-PCR. Routine laboratory investigations, genotypes and subtypes for both HBV and HDV, abdominal sonography, and transient elastography (TE) were done. Liver biopsy was performed only in whenever indicated. One hundred and twenty-one treatment-naïve chronic HBV patients were included. Wild HBV genotype-D2 was found in 98.2% and 81.9% were HBeAg negative. Prevalence of HDV was 8.3% by anti-HDV IgG and 9.9% by RT-PCR. Wild HDV genotype-IIb was reported in 83.3%. HDV infection was more common in males, 90.9% of delta patients were HBeAg negative. Compared to the mono-infected HBV, concomitant HBV/HDV infection was not associated with more derangment in ALT nor advanced stage of fibrosis. 66.7% of HDV patients had significantly lower HBV-DNA level compared to the non-delta patients (P < 0.001). HDV is not uncommon in Egypt. HBV genotype-D was associated with HDV genotype-IIb. Delta infection was associated with negative HBeAg status, reduction of HBV replication, but neither influenced the clinical course nor increased significant liver damage risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24412DOI Listing
May 2016

Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Feb 21;37(2):58-65. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ministry of Heath Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV).

Methods: This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests.

Conclusion: Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastrohep.2013.09.008DOI Listing
February 2014
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