Publications by authors named "Mahmood Alimohammadi"

62 Publications

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater in 3 cities of Iran: Tehran, Qom and Anzali during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Feb 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to identifying the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw and treated wastewater during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Qom and Anzali cities (Iran). From three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 28 treated and untreated wastewater composite samples were collected from April 4 to May 2, 2020. In this study, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used through one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for identification of RNA viruses. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was elicited from wastewater composite samples in all inlet samples taken from the three above mentioned cities. The results of outlet samples were as follows: 1) Results from Qom and East Anzali outlets showed no trace of SARS-CoV-2 RNA despite the difference in treatment disinfection method used (chlorine vs. ultraviolet (UV) disinfection). 2. In Tehran, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the outlet samples taken from the modules disinfected by UV. Out of the four samples taken from the modules disinfected by chlorine, two were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA which could have been caused by deficiencies in operation and maintenance. It can be concluded that meeting the standards of operation and maintenance (O&M) in WWTPs can considerably ensure that wastewater does not act as one of the roots of transmission for the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00629-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903026PMC
February 2021

Monitoring of caffeine concentration in infused tea, human urine, domestic wastewater and different water resources in southeast of Iran- caffeine an alternative indicator for contamination of human origin.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;283:111971. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Solid Waste Research (CSWR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The present study was developed to evaluate the caffeine concentration in commercially high-consumed brands of dry black tea, urine of tea consumers, raw and treated wastewater, as well as water resources (WRs) in Zabol city, Iran. Furthermore, a complementary analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between caffeine content and total coliform (TCF) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water sources. In this end, tea (90 samples), urine (90 samples), raw sewage (72 samples), treated sewage (72 samples), and septic tank sewage (36samples) were taken from Zabol city and analyzed in terms of caffeine content. To evaluate the correlation between caffeine and TCF and E. coli, 102 water samples were taken from WRs in Zabol city. Caffeine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, TFC and E. coli were measured based on the procedure outlined by standard methods for water and wastewater examination and the most probable number (MPN) method. The results indicated that the caffeine concentration in different tea brands consumed by Zabol people were in the range of 12.35-18.75 mg/L. The mean caffeine level in the male group' urine (7.08 ± 1.00 μg/mL) was significantly higher than the female group (4.83 ± 1.94 μg/mL). The results showed that the total average amount of caffeine in raw and treated wastewater in Zabol city was 21.04 ± 2.22 and 19.86 ± 2.08 μg/L, respectively. Besides, the caffeine removal efficiency by the Zabol wastewater treatment plant (ZWTP) was found to be between 4.79 and 51.39%. According to the results, the environmental risk associated with caffeine through the discharge of raw and treated wastewater from ZWTP into receiving WRs was estimated to be less than the allowable limit (RQ = 1). The results showed that caffeine could be an indicator for fecal contamination with human origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111971DOI Listing
April 2021

Isolation and characterization of a multidrug-resistant toxinotype V from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 26;18(2):1281-1288. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, PO Box: 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is regarded as a potential source for transmission of from urban areas into the surface water, through feces of human and animals. The aim of this study was to screen and characterize the bacteria in inlet and outlet wastewater of different WWTPs in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Totally, 72 samples were collected from three different WWTPs (inlet site and outlet sites) during a year. was isolated and characterized in terms of toxins, toxinotype, resistance profile and genes, and colonization factors using PCR.

Results: One toxinotype V was isolated from the outlet samples. The isolate was susceptible to vancomycin but resistant to metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin using MIC Test Strips. The isolated was toxigenic (, , , positive and CPE positive) and had genotype. No mutations were found in and . The sequence type was 078 - 01. The was positive for , , but negative for , , and genes. Mutations were not observed in and genes.

Conclusions: This study provided evidence of presence of a multidrug-resistant toxinotype V in one of the municipal WWTP. The transmission of such isolate to the environment and reuse of treated wastewater by human pose a threat to human health and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria which are untreatable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00546-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721768PMC
December 2020

Magnetic carnosine-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles: fabrication, characterization and application as arsenic adsorbent.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 16;18(2):1163-1174. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study centers on the controllable synthesis, characterization, and application of a novel magnetic bio-metal-organic framework (Bio-MOF) for the adsorption and subsequent removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. Zinc ions and carnosine (Car) were exploited to construct the Car-based MOF on the surface of magnetite (FeO NPs). The Magnetite precoating with Car led to an increase in the yield and the uniform formation of the magnetic MOF. The prepared magnetic Bio-MOF nanoparticles (FeO-Car-MOF NPs) had semi-spherical shape with the size in the range of 35-77 nm, and the crystalline pattern of both magnetite and Car-based MOF. The NPs were employed as an adsorbent for arsenic (As) removal. The adsorption analyses revealed that all studied independent variables including pH, adsorbent dose, and initial arsenic concentration had a significant effect on the arsenic adsorption, and the adsorption data were well matched to the quadratic model. The predicted adsorption values were close to the experimental values confirming the validity of the suggested model. Furthermore, adsorbent dose and pH had a positive effect on arsenic removal, whereas arsenic concentration had a negative effect. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies both revealed that As adsorption fitted best to the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (94.33 mg/g) was achieved at room temperature, pH of 8.5 and adsorbent dose of 0.4 g/L. Finally, the results demonstrated that the adsorbent could be efficiently applied for arsenic removal from aqueous environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00535-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721956PMC
December 2020

Evaluating the performance of coupled MFC-MEC with graphite felt/MWCNTs polyscale electrode in landfill leachate treatment, and bioelectricity and biogas production.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 16;18(2):1067-1082. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: A bioelectricity producing system was configured by connecting to a microbial electrolysis cell producing hydrogen, in which both systems were without mediator, to treatment the landfill leachate of the and generate bioelectricity and hydrogen.

Methods: The anode electrode was made with MWCNTs polyscale coating on graphite felt and the cathode electrode with activated carbon coating on carbon cloth. In the MFC-MEC coupled system, the electrodes were connected in series using copper wire. The system was set up in a fed-batch mode and the landfill synthetic leachate was injected into the anode MFC-MEC chamber as fuel.

Results: In MFC, the highest voltage, current density and power density were 1114 mV, 44.2A/m and 49.24 W/m, respectively. The maximum of the coulombic efficiency system was 94.10%. The highest removed COD, NH-N and P was 97.38%, 79.56% and 74.61%, respectively. In the MEC, the maximum of voltage input, current density and power density was 1106 mV, 43.88 A/mand 48.54 W/m, respectively. The maximum coulombic efficiency system was 125.54%. Also the highest removed COD, NH-N and P was 97.46%, 78.81% and 76.25%, respectively. The highest biogas production rate and its yield were 39 mL/L.d, and 0.0118 L/g CODrem, respectively.

Conclusion: This study found that the MFC-MEC coupled system had promising potential for strong wastewaters treatment, such as the leachate of landfill; and the in-site use of generated electricity and the production of useful fuels such as biogas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00528-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721933PMC
December 2020

Human health and ecological risk assessment of heavy metal(loid)s in agricultural soils of rural areas: A case study in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 8;18(2):469-481. Epub 2020 May 8.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Agricultural soils pollution with heavy metal (loid) s (HMs) can create significant ecological and health problems. The aims of present study were to characterize HMs pollution profile of dry farmland soils in rural areas of Kurdistan province in Iran and evaluate potential associated ecological and health risks.

Methods: Different indices of Geo-accumulation index (I), Individual contamination factor (ICF), Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) were employed to assess the bio-accumulation of the HMs and evaluate associated ecological risks. Human health risks estimated with total hazard index (THI) and total carcinogenic risk (TCR) indices based on ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure pathways for children and adults.

Results: As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb exceeded the soil standards. The spatial maps of the I showed that As pollution was at severe level in eastern part of the study region. According to the ICF results, the studied soils were extremely contaminated with As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, based on the pollution indices, some of sampling sites were critically polluted by abovementioned HMs. For children and adults groups, the THI values in 13 and 97% of sampling sites were more than 1 and the TCR in 7 and 14% of sampling sites were more than 10, respectively. The farmland soil pollution of the study area by As and Cr were found to be quite serious and dangerous.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that further attention should be paid by decision-makers to control the HMs pollution in the agricultural soils of the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00475-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721949PMC
December 2020

A Comparative Survey on Antioxidant Activity of Iranian Shrimp Waste [Penaeus Semisulcatus] and Synthetic Antioxidants.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Division of Food Safety and Hygiene, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,. Iran.

Shrimp waste, as an important source of natural carotenoids, is produced in large quantities in seafood processing industry. One of the important characteristics of carotenoids is their ability to act as antioxidants, thus protecting cells and tissues from damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. The aim of this study was to find effective method for carotenoid extraction [Enzymatic and alkaline treatment] from shrimp waste and compare their antioxidant potential with synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA] and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT] using sunflower oil. The sunflower oil was exposed to three concentration of extracted carotenoid [470, 235 and 118 mg/kg] and synthetic antioxidants. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated for Malondialdehyde and peroxide value. The mean values of carotenoid extract were 243 and 170 mg/kg for enzymatic and alkaline treatment, respectively. So the highest efficacy of carotenoid extraction was obtained from enzymatic extraction. The oil samples containing 470 ppm carotenoid, which extracted by alcalase as the default treatment, exhibited the less peroxide value and higher antioxidant potential than the oil samples containing synthetic antioxidants. According to the results, the synthetic antioxidants can be replaced by extracted carotenoids from shrimp waste as a natural antioxidant to inhibit oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817999201006192141DOI Listing
October 2020

Melamine migration measurement through spectrophotometry device and the effect of time and tableware type on it.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2019 Dec 30;12(4):163-168. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine is an organic-based chemical material widely used in the production of tableware. Given the adverse effects of melamine on human health, melamine tableware can be a source for its introduction into the human body. The aim of this study was to use a simple method for monitoring the rate of melamine migration from the tableware to food and the effect of time and tableware on this migration. To measure the migration, spectrophotometry was used. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2 (μg/ml), which is functional for measuring the rate of migration. The investigation of sample migration of melamine tableware revealed that migration has occurred across all samples. The rate of migration in all samples was less than the standard level of the European Union (30 μg/ml). Statistical analysis indicated that time is an important factor in melamine migration, which significantly increased (<0.05) in 93% of cases with lengthening the contact time from 30 minutes to 90 minutes. The type of tableware (new or old) and production conditions (standard or non-standard) were found to significantly affect (<0.001) the rate of migration. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that old tableware increased melamine migration in 41% of cases (<0.05). Non-standard tableware significantly (<0.001) increased the rate of migration and thus the effect of non-standard production on melamine tableware was more significant than the age of the tableware.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/intox-2019-0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247367PMC
December 2019

Assessment of Rice Marketed in Iran with Emphasis on Toxic and Essential Elements; Effect of Different Cooking Methods.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Dec 18;198(2):721-731. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Vice-chancellery of food and drug, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

Rice is one of the most valuable nutrients in the diet of most people in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various pre-cooking (washing, soaking) and cooking processes (traditional and rinse) of rice on the amount of toxic and essential elements in the various brands of rice in Iran and assessing human health risks from their carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. For this purpose, totally, 144 sample sizes were examined from three brand (Iranian (n = 48), Pakistani (n = 48), and Indian (n = 48)) in order to the amount of toxic and essential elements using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The results showed that pre-cooking processes such as washing and soaking in the rinse method were significantly effective in removal toxic metals than the traditional method, so that the most changes were observed for potassium and aluminum metals. The estimated daily intakes of copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, and zinc in different cooking methods were 1.19-1.2%, 0.29-0.32%, 1.01-1.23%, 0.4-0.98%, and 0.9-1.32%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation results showed that the rank order of toxic metals of cooked rice based on target hazard quotients value was arsenic > chromium > cadmium > mercury > lead > aluminum, respectively. The result of cancer risk probability was lower than the safe risk limits (1E-4), representing no remarkable cancer risk probability that was due to ingestion of rice for adults and children in Iran. According to the this results, it is recommended to use the rinse method due to further reduction of metals especially toxic metals for rice samples, although the amount of essential elements was also removed by this method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02110-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of chlorpyrifos residue in breast milk and its metabolite in urine of mothers and their infants feeding exclusively by breast milk in north of Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 3;17(2):817-825. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

4Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1417993359 Iran.

Background: The most common method of combating insects in low-income communities and developing countries, is the use of insecticides. The use of organophosphate insecticides is increasing due to their low prices and availability on the market. Chlorpyrifos is a medium-risk insecticide for human. The widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides, especially chlorpyrifos, in residential homes has undoubtedly created many health concerns. Babies have a high sensitivity to pesticides and environmental contaminants because of their evolutionary status. On the other hand, the main source of infants' exposure who are breast-fed exclusively to environmental pollutants is through breast milk and oral contact with objects that are covered with dust and particles.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the concentration of chlorpyrifos in breast milk and its metabolite in urine samples of mothers and their under six months infants, feeding exclusively by breast milk in north of Iran have been investigated. The demographic data was collected through interviewing with selected mothers and completion of prepared data collecting forms. The data were statistically analyzed to investigate the relationships between exposure of mothers and their infants to chlorpyrifos.

Results: The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in mothers' urine and milk samples and infant's urines were 1.3 ± 0.6, 2.1 ± 1.4 and 1.4 ± 0.7 μg/L, respectively. Also, the mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in the dust on the house floors was73.4 ± 49 ng/g. There are good correlations between the mean values of chlorpyrifos concentrations and its metabolite in mother's milk and urine (r = 0.872,  = 0.001), and the mother's milk and infant's urine (r = 0.722, p = 0.001). Also, there was a significant correlation between the concentration of chlorpyrifos in floor dust and its metabolites in the infant's urine (r = 0.554,  = 0.001).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the infants are the recipient of concentrated forms of chlorpyrifos residues through breast milk and house dust and it is quite well known that OP pesticides are toxic and have different kinds of adverse health effects. However, further research needs to be done to determine what these chemicals are doing to our children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00398-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985376PMC
December 2019

Impacts of drought phenomenon on the chemical quality of groundwater resources in the central part of Iran-application of GIS technique.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Dec 23;192(1):64. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the recent decades, global warming has caused water shortages all over the world. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of drought caused by climate change on the chemical quality of groundwater in Saveh County, Markazi province, Iran. The physicochemical parameters of 29 wells were analyzed by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during the drought period 2004-2015. Wilcox and Schoeller diagrams were applied to evaluate the water quality of wells for irrigation and drinking purposes, respectively. Schoeller diagram was consulted to show the relative concentrations of anions and cations typically expressed in milliequivalents per liter. Also, the Wilcox diagram was consulted to determine the suitability of water for agriculture purposes. Finally, the geographic information system was applied to the zoning of the groundwater quality parameters. According to the results, almost 90% of wells were in the category of "very salty and harmful for agriculture uses" in the last year of the study period (2015). The Schoeller diagram suggests that the water quality of 72.5, 10.4, 65.5, 100, 44.9, and 69% of wells were inappropriate and exceeded the Iranian National Standard level, in terms of TDS, TH, Na، Mg Cl, and SO in 2015, respectively. A decrease in yearly average precipitation during the studied period has not only caused overuse of groundwater as the primary water resources but also led to a significant decline in its chemical quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-8037-4DOI Listing
December 2019

Photocatalytic degradation of ketoconazole by Z-scheme AgPO/graphene oxide: response surface modeling and optimization.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jan 30;27(1):250-263. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Biomaterials Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ketoconazole is an imidazole fungicide which is commonly used as pharmaceutical and healthcare products. Residual amount of this compound can cause adverse ecological health problems. The present study investigated ketoconazole photocatalytic degradation using AgPO/graphene oxide (GO). AgPO/GO and AgPO as visible light-driven photocatalysts was synthesized using the in situ growth method. Degradation of ketoconazole at the concentration of 1-20 mg/L in aqueous solutions was optimized in the presence of AgPO/GO nanocomposite with the dosage of 0.5-2 g/L, contact time of 15-20 min, and pH of 5-9 using response surface methodology. A second-order model was selected as the best fitted model with R value and lack of fit as 0.935 and 0.06, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the AgPO/GO catalyst achieved a photocatalytic efficiency of 96.53% after 93.34 min. The photocatalytic activity, reaction kinetics, and stability were also investigated. The results indicated that the AgPO/GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for ketoconazole degradation, which was 2.4 times that of pure AgPO. Finally, a direct Z-scheme mechanism was found to be responsible for enhanced photocatalytic activity in the AgPO/GO nanocomposite. The high photocatalytic activity, acceptable reusability, and good aqueous stability make the AgPO/GO nanocomposite a promising nanophotocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of azoles contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06812-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Measurement of melamine migration from melamine-ware products by designed HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of migration.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2018 Dec 18;11(4):316-320. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melamine-ware is widely used around the world. There is a public health concern as regards the safety of melamine when exposed to food. This study was carried out to measure the level of melamine migration in melamine-ware products by HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of melamine migration. In food control laboratories in Iran, there is no common method to measure and monitor melamine migration, hence a method using HPLC technique was adopted and validated to solve this problem. The validation results showed the reliability with 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.145 and 0.435 μg/ml, which for a new method were within acceptable ranges. Melamine migrations from 4 most available melamine wares were measured. Distilled water, 3% acetic acid and 15% ethanol were used as food simulant at 30 °C for 90 min. Although melamine migration occurred in all samples and acidic conditions had a significant effect, the values were not higher than the European standard (30 μg/ml). The study revealed that the HPLC method was valid and could be applied and developed to measure melamine migration. However, precautions should be considered while choosing melamine-ware utensil as long-term exposure to this substance has a negative effect on health, especially on the kidneys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/intox-2018-0031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853010PMC
December 2018

Influence of postharvest application of chitosan combined with ethanolic extract of liquorice on shelflife of apple fruit.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 14;17(1):331-336. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1Department of Environment Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Edible coatings are useful method that applied to preserve postharvest quality of production. The coatings can extend the shelf life of products and inhibit microbial growth. Chitosan based coatings are one of the best methods to prolong fruit and vegetable shelf life. The antimicrobial and other properties of chitosan are developed when it is combined with other functional ingredients.

Methods: The effectiveness of chitosan, ethanolic extract of liquorice (LE) and complex of chitosan-liquorice extract (CHLE) was evaluated for controlling blue mold and extending shelf life in apples. The fruits were coated with chitosan(1.0%), LE (62.5 mg/ml) and CHLE coating, and stored at 25 °C. Quality properties of fruit (such as weight loss, firmness, total soluble solid content(TSS), titrable acidity and pH) and decay incidence were assessed on 0,1,4,7 and 14 days of incubation, respectively.

Results: The results of experiments indicated that minimum of water loss(3.8%), TSS(14.53) and firmness(5.6 kg/cm ) were in CHLE coated apples. In addition, this coating significantly inhibited during the storage and the lowest decay incidence was for apples coated with CHLE(29 mm). Chitosan and LE coating retarded undesirable changes during postharvest storage and inhibited decay incidence compared with uncoated samples. There was no significant difference ( ≤ 0/05) between treatments and control overtime in terms of titrable acidity and pH levels.

Conclusions: The results reported here indicate importance and efficacy of CHLE coating in extending shelflife and reduction of postharvest losses of apple in storage time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00351-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582078PMC
June 2019

Developing environmental health indicators [EHIs] for Iran based on the causal effect model.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 27;17(1):273-279. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Environmental health monitoring and its effects on health are very important in health systems. Relationship between environment and health can be done by simplifying data in understandable indicators for people and policy-makers. The present study presents the general framework for formulating environmental health quality index for Iran.

Methods: This study was implemented through expert panel at two levels: indicator domain determination and domain specific variables selection. Domain specific variables were selected based on the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework from the list of national and international variables.

Results: Seven environmental health issues [air quality, drinking water, sewage disposal, food, radiation management and housing and human settlements] were determined, and three variables were selected for air quality, 8 variables for water quality, 5 variables for sanitation, 1 variable for food quality, 3 variables for housing and human settlements, 4 variables for solid waste management and 3 variables for radiation management.

Conclusions: Environmental health indicators determination based on the causal effect model leads to a better understanding of the relationship between the environment and health by simplifying data in an understandable format for public and improves prioritization of policy-making in the environmental health. In this study, environmental health indicators for Iran were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00346-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582035PMC
June 2019

Propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assay for rapid detection of viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) in swimming pools.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 7;17(1):407-416. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

1Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Lack of culturability in the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria and the ability to regain infectivity in favourable conditions is one of the new challenges of public health providers for monitoring in environmental samples. Propidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) is one of the promising methods for timely detection of VBNC pathogens in environmental samples. We developed and used a method for the first time to detection of VBNC in swimming pool water samples using a membrane filter (MF). Moreover, the dominant model of the distribution of colonies on the MF and the effect of the culture medium and MF type on colony recovery by MF were evaluated. Swimming pool samples were subjected to conventional culture-based, qPCR and PMA-qPCR methods and the results were compared for the presence of VBNC in the samples. The positivity rate was 21% and 75% for in water samples as confirmed by standard culture-based and qPCR methods, respectively. Furthermore, of 24 samples, 9 (37.5%) were positive for VBNC . The developed qPCR/PMA-qPCR assay can detect the VBNC bacteria directly from aquatic samples and may result in better monitoring of recreational waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00359-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582174PMC
June 2019

Determining additional risk of carcinogenicity and non-carcinogenicity of heavy metals (lead and arsenic) in raw and as-consumed samples of imported rice in Tehran, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 21;26(23):24190-24197. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rice is considered the most main food in Iranian diet. Its chemical contamination with heavy metals can lead to adverse effects to human health. In the present study, 60 imported rice samples from 20 different brands were collected and examined in terms of lead and arsenic levels in Tehran. Besides, point estimation and uncertainty analysis were used to determine the additional risk of carcinogenicity and non-carcinogenicity in raw and as-consumed rice. The results showed that the means of lead and arsenic (mg/kg fresh weight) in raw sampled rice were 0.0352 ± 0.0398 and 0.106 ± 0.049, respectively, and they were 0.0226 ± 0.0360 and 0.0689 ± 0.046 in as-consumed rice, respectively. Additionally, lead and arsenic amounts were 5% and 15% higher than the value set by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran respectively, while assessment of the non-carcinogenicity risk of lead and arsenic in point estimation and uncertainty analysis showed the hazard quotient and hazard index values were less than 1 and in safe ranges in both raw and as-consumed rice and were not considered a threat to the public health. The additional risk of arsenic carcinogenicity in point estimation and uncertainty analysis in raw and as-consumed rice samples found higher than the 1E-06 EPA's acceptable level of risk. So, these results could be applicable and encourage researchers to perform more detailed studies with more samples for considering by food authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05778-8DOI Listing
August 2019

An innovative swimming pool water quality index (SPWQI) to monitor and evaluate the pools: design and compilation of computational model.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Jun 19;191(7):448. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This research aimed to develop an index known as swimming pool water quality index (SPWQI) for quantifying the water pollution potential. The index is a quantitative tool to show the data on the water quality of swimming pools consistently. It makes summarizing the complex data on water quality possible and paves the way for its communication to the general public and decision makers. In this study, the SPWQI has been formulated according to the literature review and Delphi method. According to literature review and the total judgment of the panelist (23 experts specialized in environmental health engineering), 13 physicochemical and biological parameters along with their weights were selected for inclusion in the SPWQI. The results indicated the possibility of calculating a single numerical value (i.e., SPWQI), which indicates the combined effect of significant selected parameters on water quality. In addition, biological composition (47%) had a strong preference weighting than physical and chemical parameters in evaluating the index. Next, it was attempted to implement a novel and user-friendly mathematical model for evaluating the SPWQI. Then, the model accuracy and performance was confirmed by a case study. Overall, it could be said that the assessment of SPWQI sheds light on the concurrent power of several pollutants and can help the authorities to decide upon water quality management and treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7577-yDOI Listing
June 2019

Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid detection and virulence evaluation of the environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Aug 15;46(4):4049-4061. Epub 2019 May 15.

Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rapid and species-specific detection, and virulence evaluation of opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are issues that increasingly has attracted the attention of public health authorities. A set of primers and hydrolysis probe was designed based on one of the P. aeruginosa housekeeping genes, gyrB, and its specificity and sensitivity was evaluated by TaqMan qPCR methods. The end point PCR and SYBR Green qPCR were used as control methods. Furthermore, multiplex RT-qPCRs were developed for gyrB as reference and four virulence genes, including lasB, lasR, rhlR and toxA. Totally, 40 environmental samples, two clinical isolates from CF patients, two standard strains of P. aeruginosa, and 15 non-target reference strains were used to test the sensitivity and specificity of qPCR assays. In silico and in vitro cross-species testing confirmed the high specificity and low cross-species amplification of the designed gyrB418F/gyrB490R/gyrB444P. The sensitivity of both TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCRs was 100% for all target P. aeruginosa, and the detected count of bacteria was below ten genomic equivalents. The lowest M value obtained from gene-stability measurement was 0.19 that confirmed the suitability of gyrB as the reference gene for RT-qPCR. The developed qPCRs have enough detection power for identification of P. aeruginosa in environmental samples including clean and recreational water, treated and untreated sewage and soil. The short amplicon length of our designed primers and probes, alongside with a low M value, make it as a proper methodology for RT-qPCR in virulence genes expression assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-019-04855-yDOI Listing
August 2019

The investigation of type and concentration of bio-aerosols in the air of surgical rooms: A case study in Shariati hospital, Karaj.

MethodsX 2019 19;6:641-650. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

The presence of bio-aerosols is one of the main causes of hospital infections that can be dangerous especially for immunocompromised patients. This research aimed to determine the relationship between hospital infections and surgical incision size in addition to determining the concentration and bacterial and fungal bioaerosols found in the operating rooms. This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was carried out in the operating rooms of Shariati Hospital in Karaj, Iran during the years 2016 and 2017. A total of 198 bacterial samples and 198 fungal samples were collected and analyzed using a passive sampling standard method (1/1/1) for 180 days. Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium were used for bacterial and fungal samples, respectively. Relevant differential tests were used to determine the genus and species of bacteria and fungi such as DNase test, Bile-esculin, motility test urease test. In general, this work presents: •The present evaluated the relationship between bioaerosols concentration and surgical incision size.•The intraoperative concentration of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in indoor air of the orthopedic, internal and cesarean operating rooms was significantly higher than their preoperative concentration (p-value<0.05).•Also, there was not significant difference between the bacterial and fungal concentrations in various operating rooms) p-value<0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.03.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447748PMC
March 2019

Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its health outcomes: A systematic review.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jun 1;174:236-244. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Water Quality Research (CWQI), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Health Equity Research Center (HERC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Exposure to endotoxin occurs environmentally and occupationally. There are several differences between them in terms of the variety and severity of health outcomes, possible exposed groups and type and route of exposure. Occupational exposures caused adverse health outcomes in almost all cases, but there is disparity in the incidence of significant health outcomes due to environmental exposure to endotoxin. This study has therefore endeavoured to investigate health outcomes from environmental exposure to endotoxin. A systematic review was conducted of three databases and non-occupational studies reporting the environmental concentration of endotoxin, and observed health outcomes in exposed groups were included in the review (n = 27). The studies showed that first exposure to endotoxin occurs in infancy by the inhalation route. Inhalation is the only exposure route that can induce inflammation as the main symptom of exposure to endotoxin. The studies included were conducted using four approaches: molecular immunology, measurement of lung volumes, clinical sensitisation test and diagnosis of asthmatic and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing. By the immunological approach, all the included studies reported that environmental exposure to endotoxin, especially at a younger age, has a protective effect on the incidence of asthma in adolescence. The main disparity observed was in studies using the approach of diagnosed asthma. Overall, however, they confirm the protective effect of exposure to endotoxin although, in the case of children with non-atopic asthma, the results could be different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.046DOI Listing
June 2019

Endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions with dimethylamine-functionalized graphene oxide: Modeling study and optimization of adsorption parameters.

J Hazard Mater 2019 04 12;368:163-177. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Biomaterials Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials and Medicinal Biomaterials Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Novel graphene oxide (GO)-based adsorbent embedded with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a coupling agent and dimethylamine (DMA) as a ligand (GO-ECH-DMA) were prepared and employed for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of nanocomposite were fully characterized. The model attributed to batch adsorption process was optimized employing response surface methodology (RSM) via various parameters such as pH, GO-ECH-DMA dosage, and contact time and endotoxin concentration. The p-value with low probability (<0.00001), determination coefficient (R=0.99) and the non-significant lack of fit (p > 0.05) showed a quadratic model with a good fit with experimental terms. The synergistic effects of the linear term of contact time and GO-ECH-DMA dosage on endotoxin removal were significant. The optimum condition for endotoxin removal was obtained at pH of 5.52, GO-ECH-DMA dosage of 21 mgL, contact time of 56 min and endotoxin concentration of 51.3 endotoxin units per milliliter (EUmL). The equilibrium was the better explained by Langmuir isotherm with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 121.47 EUmg-1, while the kinetics of the endotoxin adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbent could be recycled with NaOH. The possible mechanisms of endotoxin adsorption were proposed by hydrogen-bonding, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.028DOI Listing
April 2019

Assessment of bioaerosol particle characteristics at different hospital wards and operating theaters: A case study in Tehran.

MethodsX 2018 1;5:1588-1596. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study was aimed to investigate the types and number of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in indoor air of hospitals according to the type of wards and operating theaters. Bacterial and fungal samples were collected using the passive sampling method of 1/1/1 scheme during a six months' period in the Khatam-Al-Anbia hospital, Tehran, Iran. A simple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between bioaerosol concentrations and the number of active beds. Bacterial bioaerosol concentrations were mainly higher than fungi in all sampling sites. A significant association was found between airborne fungal concentrations and the numbers of beds (R = 0.76, p < 0.05), but not observed for bacteria (R = 0.02, p < 0.05). Our findings provided an exposure database of airborne bacterial and fungal bioaerosol in hospital wards and operating theaters in Tehran. •Due to the importance of the exposure risk to bioaerosols for patients and medical personnel, we focused on identification of the density and diversity of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in different wards and operating theaters.•Our results showed that the numbers of the beds have a significant effect on airborne fungal concentrations.•The results of this study can be used to set indoor air quality standards for hospital wards and operating theatres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313819PMC
December 2018

Performance of granular ferric hydroxide process for removal of humic acid substances from aqueous solution based on experimental design and response surface methodology.

MethodsX 2019 18;6:35-42. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Response surface methodology has been used to design experiments and to optimize the effect of independent variables responsible for higher adsorption of humic acid (HA) by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) from aqueous solutions. The variables of pH (3-11), contact time (15-120 min), adsorbent dose (1-5 g/L) and initial concentration of humic acid (5-20 mg/L) were examined. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of humic acid substances on granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were studied. Also the design of the experiments was performed using R software by the CCD (central composite design) method. Variance analysis (ANOVA) was used as the statistical response analysis method. Result of this study proved the optimal values of the independent variables of the adsorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration of humic acid and pH were 4 g/L, 93.75 min, 16.25 mg/L, and 5, respectively. The experimental data followed the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second kinetic model. Based on the response surface methodology, higher HA removal efficiencies were obtained with acidic condition, longer reaction time, and appropriated loading amount of GFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308244PMC
December 2018

Data on the levels of Melamine- migration from Melamine- ware products and effect of food type and time on it.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 17;21:758-762. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, Melamine- containers is widely use to because of heat- resistant. Due to the effects of Melamine- on human health, constant and long-term usage of Melamine- containers can be a source of Melamine- exposure to human body. The objective of this research was to measure the levels of Melamine- migration from Melamine- ware-products into foods at different test conditions and Effect of food type and Time on it. Spectrophotometer UV/VIS method was used to detect the limits of Melamine- and the method was based on the in the complex of Melamine- formaldehyde and Uranin (a ketone group).The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.2 (µg/ml) which is functional for measuring. Migration was less than the standard level of European Union (30 µg/ml). In this study, 3% acetic acid, distilled water and 15% ethanol were used as simulants. The results showed the temperature is an important factor in Melamine- migration and in 97% of cases, with increasing temperature from 30 to 90 there is a significant increase ( < 0.05) in Melamine- migration furthermore migration from acidic simulants was more than alcoholic and neutral ones ( < 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.10.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214836PMC
December 2018

Determination of nitrate concentration and its risk assessment in bottled water in Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Aug 2;19:2133-2138. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Bottled water is one of the sources of drinking water in many arid and semi-arid countries, including Iran. The greatest concern is the health effects of exposure to excessive nitrate concentrations in drinking water due to the development of methemoglobinemia in children. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the concentration of nitrate and its risk assessment in drinking water bottled in Iran. 71 different bottled water brands were identified in this study. The nitrate concentration in water samples was then measured using an Ion Chromatography No. 4110 in accordance Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The hazard quotient (HQ) of nitrate was calculated using the formula based on input variables including nitrate concentration, water per capita, body weight and reference dose. The results showed that the concentration of nitrate in bottled water was in the range of 0.146-50.1 mg/L (average 10.55 mg/L) in one of which, the concentration of nitrate was higher than the WHO guideline. The mean EDI values for nitrate in different groups of infants, children, teenagers and adults were 0.0795, 0.5633, 0.3976 and 0.3186 mg/kg, respectively. The mean HQ values for nitrate in different groups of infants, children, teenagers and adults were 0.0528, 0.3737, 0.2638 and 0.2114, respectively. In general, the hazard quotient (HQ>1) for the population consuming bottled water, appropriate strategies should be considered in order to reduce the concentration of nitrate in bottled water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.06.110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141436PMC
August 2018

Data on prevalence of additive colors in local food and beverage products, Tehran, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Aug 9;19:2104-2108. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The quality check and determination of permitted and non-permitted additive colors in food products is very important for customer׳s right protection and health. This survey was undertaken to demonstrate the frequently use of additive colors and products targeted to color adulteration in Iranian foods and beverages. From the 1120 of the samples, 18.86% contained artificial colors, 11.89% contained natural colors and 69.25% of samples had no additive colors. Tartrazine (E102) was the only non-permitted artificial dye used in samples. Among products with additive colors, only 4.38% of samples failed to meet with national Iranian standard and 61.23% of non-compliance samples were from non-industrial sectors and mostly were saffron and food containing saffron such as saffron rock candy and saffron chicken. These places and products quality are main the concern to solve the color adulteration in Iranian food market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141502PMC
August 2018

Data on investigating the quantitative and qualitative status of effluent in a petrochemical complex in Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Oct 31;20:1191-1200. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this data was investigating the quantity and quality of the produced effluent by different petrochemical industry units in Iran and comparison of effluent with the present standards. In the present data, 5 effluent channel of the complex with interval of 12 h (in two shifts) were sampled and 28 physical and chemical parameters were analyzed according to the standard methods. These parameters are pH, Temperature, DO, Conductivity, Color, TDS, TSS, TP, PO, Oil, BOD, COD, Turbidity, TKN, Fe, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO, Si, CO, HCO NO, NO, NH, Na, K, Mn. Then, the average of each parameter was obtained for each channel, and finally, values of these parameters were compared with the standard set by Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to surface water resources. Gathered Data showed that many of these parameters, including Oil, BOD, COD, Turbidity, PO, SO, TSS, in effluent of industrials are higher than the permitted amount. Therefore, regarding discharge of the to the surface water (seawater) and in accordance with Environment Protection Agency standards for effluent disposal, it should be purified to about 90% prior to discharge. Due to high concentration of solutes in petrochemical wastewater, it is not possible to use it for agricultural purpose. In this data, due to ethical considerations, we did not mention the name of petrochemical complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139488PMC
October 2018

Data on assessing fluoride risk in bottled waters in Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Oct 31;20:825-830. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Food Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

The general goal of this data was to determine the concentration of fluoride and assess its risk in waters bottled in Iran. Seventy-one samples of different brands of bottled water were collected. Then, the fluoride concentration was measured through standard method for water and wastewater experiments. The non-carcinogenicity risk of fluoride for different groups of infants, children, teenagers, and adults was calculated by proper formula. The data presented here indicated that the mean concentration of fluoride in bottled waters was 0.272 mg/L, which is lower than the minimum world health organization (WHO) guideline. Further, the mean hazard quotient (HQ) values for fluoride across the groups of infants, children, teenagers, and adults with respective values of 0.0363, 0.2568, 0.1813, and 0.1452 were observed in 0, 1, 1, and 0 cases of HQ>1. Generally, in most of the tested brands, HQ value was less than 1, and this value was above 1 in only one brand of bottled water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134186PMC
October 2018

The concentration of heavy metals in noodle samples from Iran's market: probabilistic health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 4;25(31):30928-30937. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Monteiro Lobato, 80, Caixa Postal: 6121, Campinas, São Paulo, 13083-862, Brazil.

In the current study, the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and aluminum (Al) in commonly instant noodles consumed in Iran (either imported from other countries or produced in Iran) was investigated by acid digestion method followed by an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry system (ICP-OES). Also, the associated non-carcinogenic risk due to ingestion of heavy metals for adults and children was estimated by calculating percentile 95% target hazard quotient (THQ) in the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The average concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al in Iranian instant noodle samples were measured as 1.21 ± 0.81, 0.08 ± 0.10, 0.03 ± 0.06, and 9.15 ± 4.82 (mg/kg) and in imported instant noodle samples were 1.00 ± 0.61, 0.07 ± 0.07, 0.04 ± 0.03, and 15.90 ± 0.93 (mg/kg), respectively. A significant difference (p value < 0.05) in the mean concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al of Iranian instant noodle and imported instant noodle samples was observed. Also, the concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al in all brands of instant noodle (0.025 mg/kg, 0.050 mg/kg, 0.003 mg/kg, and 0.237 mg/kg, respectively) surpassed the WHO-permitted limits for Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al. Percentile 95% of THQ of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al for the adult consumers was calculated as 0.012, 0.000007, 0.010, and 1.789; while in the case of children, percentile 95% of THQ of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Al was defined as 0.044, 0.00023, 0.035, and 6.167, respectively. Health risk assessment indicated that both adults and children are at considerable non-carcinogenic health risk for Al (THQ > 1). Therefore, approaching the required strategies in order to reduce the concentration of heavy metals particularly Al in the instant noodle is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3030-yDOI Listing
November 2018