Publications by authors named "Mahmood Ahmad"

173 Publications

Isolation of a Novel Endophytic Strain Capable of Transforming Pentachlorophenol and Structure Determination of Pentachlorophenol Phosphate Using Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 13;70(3):770-776. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Division of Environmental Chemical Research, Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8601, Japan.

A novel approach for the remediation of upland soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (CHClO; PCP) (), a fungicide, wood perservative, and herbicide, through the exploitation of plant-endophytic bacteria may overcome the existing issues in bioaugmentaion and phytoremidiation. In this study, we isolated the endophytic sp. strain PCP15 and determined its metabolite of PCP (). This strain degraded 8.03 μmol L PCP () within 24 h and generated the novel metabolite PCP phosphate (). The PCP15 strain showed nearly complete growth inhibition of 20 μmol L PCP (). In contrast, PCP15 showed resistance to PCP phosphate (), indicating that the phosphorylation of PCP, which has never previously been reported in organisms, contributed to the detoxification of PCP () in bacterial cells. Our results show the potential for practical application of this strain in hybrid remediation of PCP ()-contaminated soils and reveal a novel PCP () detoxification mechanism in organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05987DOI Listing
January 2022

Reshaping Patient Outcomes With Machine Learning.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Dec;7(12):1622-1623

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2021.09.010DOI Listing
December 2021

Letter by Martin and Ahmad Regarding Article, "Characterizing Sex Differences in Physical Frailty Phenotypes in Heart Failure".

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Dec 20:CIRCHEARTFAILURE121009256. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Tahir Heart Institute, Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan (M.A).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.121.009256DOI Listing
December 2021

Inducing Microscale Structural Order in Phage Nanofilament Hydrogels with Globular Proteins.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2022 01 14;8(1):340-347. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7, Canada.

Biological hydrogels play important physiological roles in the body. These hydrogels often contain ordered subdomains that provide mechanical toughness and other tissue-specific functionality. Filamentous bacteriophages are nanofilaments with a high aspect ratio that can self-assemble into liquid crystalline domains that could be designed to mimic ordered biological hydrogels and can thus find applications in biomedical engineering. We have previously reported hydrogels of pure cross-linked liquid crystalline filamentous phage formed at very high concentrations exhibiting a tightly packed microstructure and high stiffness. In this work, we report a method for inducing self-assembly of filamentous phage into liquid crystalline hydrogels at concentrations that are several orders of magnitude below that of lyotropic liquid crystal formation, thus creating structural order but a less densely packed microstructure. Hybrid hydrogels of M13 phage and bovine serum albumin (0.25 w/v%) were formed and shown to adsorb up to 16× their weight in water. Neither component gelled on its own at the low concentrations used, suggesting synergistic action between the two components in the formation of the hydrogel. The hybrid hydrogels exhibited repetitive self-healing under physiological conditions and at room temperature, autofluorescence in three channels, and antibacterial activity toward host cells. Furthermore, the hybrid hydrogels exhibited a more than 2× higher ability to pack water compared to BSA-only hydrogels and 2× lower compression modulus compared to tightly packed M13-only hydrogels, suggesting that our method could be used to create hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties and pore structure through the addition of globular proteins, while maintaining bioactivity and microscale structural order.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c01112DOI Listing
January 2022

The Results From the COMALIGN Study.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Dec;14(23):2635

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.10.010DOI Listing
December 2021

The long-run relationship between energy consumption, oil prices, and carbon dioxide emissions in European countries.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Business School, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255000, China.

Global climate change brings environmental quality sensitivity, especially in European countries. In this context, European countries are striving to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Renewable energy use can be an effective way to curtail the increasing environmental degradation. How the oil prices shape the energy use pattern and environmental quality remains unclear to date. Therefore, the present research examines the linkage between energy use (non-renewable and renewable energy), oil prices, and CO emissions in 30 European countries between 1997 and 2017. The study applied fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), Westerlund (2007) cointegration and the Driscoll-Kraay Regression tests to explore these associations. The result of individual samples and the full sample provides the same intimations for the use of energy in Europe. The outcomes of the research ratify the existence of a long-run relationship among variables and found that non-renewable energy consumption increases CO emissions, while renewable energy consumption mitigates CO emissions. Furthermore, when the oil prices rise, people switch towards substitute energy sources that reduce CO emissions. Based on the results, the study suggests that European countries should increase the share of renewable energy, promote the use of clean energy resources, and discourage fossil fuel energy consumption to ensure sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17601-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Analysis of influencing factors of carbon emissions in resource-based cities in the Yellow River basin under carbon neutrality target.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Business School, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255000, China.

In 2020, China promised to achieve carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, and these targets are famous as "Goal 3060" in China. Chinese resource-based cities are concerned about the realization of Goal 3060 to practice national action against environmental change. In this paper, this study evaluates the impact of population, economic growth, energy intensity, industrial structure, fixed asset investment, and urbanization level on carbon emissions in Chinese cities. To do so, the paper divides 36 Chinese cities into four types (growing city, mature city, recessionary city, and regenerative city) from 2003 to 2017 by factor investigation according to the diverse development stages. The extended STIRPAT model is used to assess the impact of various factors on CO emissions in the Yellow River basin and diverse city levels. The panel regression analysis was conducted for the basin as a whole and cities at different development stages through a fixed-effects model and a linear regression model with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors. The results show that (1) the total carbon emissions in the Yellow River basin continued to climb during the study period. However, the growth rate slowed down significantly after 2012. In addition, there are differences in the total carbon emissions and growth rate of different cities. (2) Population, real GDP, energy intensity, industrial structure, and fixed asset investment all have a significant positive impact on carbon emissions in the overall basin except the urbanization level which has a significant negative influence on carbon emissions. (3) There is heterogeneity in the influencing factors of carbon emissions in resource-based cities at various development stages. Based on these results, corresponding policies are proposed for different types of cities to help resource-based cities achieve the 3060 dual carbon goal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17386-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Probabilistic evaluation of CPT-based seismic soil liquefaction potential: towards the integration of interpretive structural modeling and bayesian belief network.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 10;18(6):9233-9252

School of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610513, Sichuan, China.

This paper proposes a probabilistic graphical model that integrates interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and Bayesian belief network (BBN) approaches to predict cone penetration test (CPT)-based soil liquefaction potential. In this study, an ISM approach was employed to identify relationships between influence factors, whereas BBN approach was used to describe the quantitative strength of their relationships using conditional and marginal probabilities. The proposed model combines major causes, such as soil, seismic and site conditions, of seismic soil liquefaction at once. To demonstrate the application of the propose framework, the paper elaborates on each phase of the BBN framework, which is then validated with historical empirical data. In context of the rate of successful prediction of liquefaction and non-liquefaction events, the proposed probabilistic graphical model is proven to be more effective, compared to logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest and naive Bayes methods. This research also interprets sensitivity analysis and the most probable explanation of seismic soil liquefaction appertaining to engineering perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021454DOI Listing
October 2021

Enhanced Recovery Program: Does Preoperative Education Reduces Length of Hospital Stay in Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty?

Cureus 2021 Oct 10;13(10):e18639. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Trauma and Orthopedics, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Louth, IRL.

Introduction Total knee and hip arthroplasty significantly improve the quality of life in people suffering from end-stage hip and knee arthritides. Enhanced recovery programs have shown improved outcomes following elective arthroplasty by decreasing patients' anxiety, postoperative pain and reducing the length of hospital stay (LOS). The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of preoperative education programs on LOS in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. Methods Retrospective data was collected from a consecutive series of 520 patients' charts and the Irish National Orthopaedic Register (INOR) for those who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018 in our hospital. The LOS study compared 226 patients in the Educational Group (EG) who attended the Hip & Knee School (Preoperative Education Class) with 294 patients in the Conventional Group (CG) who did not attend the hip and knee educational program.  Results We identified that LOS decreased to 5.2 days in EG from 5.5 days in CG (p-value equals 0.26, statistically insignificant, t = 1.1093, df = 518), with a mean difference of only 0.3 days (95% CI).  Conclusion Preoperative education does not reduce the LOS in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580128PMC
October 2021

Dengue-Related Information Needs and Information-Seeking Behavior in Pakistan.

Health Commun 2021 Nov 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

Institute of Information Management, University of the Punjab.

This present study aims to examine the information needs and information-seeking behavior of Dengue-affected and non-affected people by exploring their information needs, resources used, and obstacles encountered. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 Dengue patients and 200 non-patients. The collected data were analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that a majority of the respondents had information needs regarding nutritional options, best approaches to treatment, and expected benefits of treatment. They mostly sought information to keep themselves up-to-date and to prevent the disease. Television, Internet search engines, and social media outlets were frequently used information sources along with information-seeking from family and friends. Respondents with higher academic qualifications reported comparatively higher Dengue-related information needs. Moreover, age was a positive predictor of both their information needs and frequency of using health information sources. The findings will be helpful for healthcare providers to tailor Dengue awareness campaigns and prevention strategies according to the public needs and preferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2021.1996674DOI Listing
November 2021

The trade-off between energy consumption, economic growth, militarization, and CO emissions: does the treadmill of destruction exist in the modern world?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Banking and Finance, European University of Lefke, Lefke, Northern Cyprus, TR-10 Mersin, Turkey.

Militarization is crucial for the sovereignty of a nation; however, there are many environmental hazards associated with increased military spending. Previous panel studies mainly captured the short-run effects of militarization on the environment. Limited scholars determined the long-run environmental impacts of militarization but they mostly ignored possible cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity problems in panel data. Our research highlights this deeply neglected area and examines the impact of militarization on the environment in 22 OECD countries by controlling economic growth, renewable energy, and fossil fuel consumption. Drawing on an extensive dataset from 1971 to 2020, we employed advanced econometric approaches robust against endogeneity, heterogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence. The results of the cross-sectional augmented autoregressive distribute lag (CS-ARDL) analysis indicate a positive contribution of militarization to CO emissions implying that militarization is adding to the environmental degradation in OECD nations. This evidence proves the treadmill of destruction theory for OECD nations in the modern world. Economic growth and fossil fuels consumption increase CO emissions, while renewable energy mitigates emissions. Moreover, economic growth Granger causes militarization. Our results suggest that reduction in militarization level and energy conservation strategies will not hamper the economic progress of selected OECD countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17068-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Electrocardiogram screening programme in detecting sudden cardiac disease in the young: cost efficiency and diagnostic yield.

Europace 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Royal Free Hospital, Department of Cardiology, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab234DOI Listing
September 2021

Linking Innovative Human Capital, Economic Growth, and CO Emissions: An Empirical Study Based on Chinese Provincial Panel Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 11;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science, Cyprus International University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Mersin TR-10, Turkey.

To study the economic and environmental effects of human capital, previous studies measure human capital based on education; however, this approach has many shortcomings because not all educated people are innovative human capital. Hence, this study introduces the concept of innovative human capital by developing a new index that measures human capital based on the number of patents every one million R&D staff full-time equivalent. After this, this paper studies the impact of innovative human capital on CO emissions in China. The provincial panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2017 is analyzed using the fixed effect, ordinary least squares, and the system generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM). The analysis revealed that innovative human capital alleviates environmental deterioration in China. The findings unfold the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) considering innovative human capital in the model. It implies that Chinese economic development will eventually support environmental sustainability if China continues to develop its innovative human capital. Among the control variables, economic structure, population density, and energy intensity stimulate environmental degradation by increasing CO emissions. However, FDI has a negative relationship with CO emissions. Lastly, the study proposes comprehensive policies to increase innovative human capital for environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391553PMC
August 2021

Modeling the Dynamic Linkage between Tourism Development, Technological Innovation, Urbanization and Environmental Quality: Provincial Data Analysis of China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 10;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences, WSB University, 41300 Dabrowa Górnicza, Poland.

This study investigates the linkage between tourism development, technological innovation, urbanization and environmental degradation across 30 provinces of China. Based on data from 2001 to 2018, the study used an advanced economic methodology for the long-run estimate, the Augmented Mean Group (AMG) estimator, which accounts for heterogeneity in slope parameters and dependencies across countries. The empirical results show that tourism development degrades environmental quality, while technological innovation mitigates carbon emissions. Further, findings show that urbanization increases carbon emissions, while an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between economic growth and environmental degradation, implying the existence of EKC in China. Further, the Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality test shows that any policy aimed at tourism development or technological innovation would substantially contribute to environmental degradation, but not the other way round.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394915PMC
August 2021

Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Cross Linked Chitosan Nanoparticles, to Enhance the Bioavailability of 5-Flourouracil.

Dose Response 2021 Apr-Jun;19(2):15593258211025353. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicines, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

The present study aimed to formulate 5-fluorouracil loaded cross linked chitosan nanoparticles based on chemical cross-linking of low molecular weight chitosan with glutaraldehyde by reverse micelles technique as 5-FU is less hydrophobic, relatively potent, has a shorter half-life, is rapidly metabolized, less tolerated, and has low oral bioavailability; therefore, we aimed to formulate potential nanocarriers of 5-FU for efficient drug delivery to specific targeted areas of action, reduce oral toxicity, improve tolerability and therapeutic outcomes of 5-FU, in a restricted fashion to enhance the bioavailability of 5-FU. Nanoparticles were formulated by the reverse micelle method based on the chemical cross-linking of glutaraldehyde (25% aqueous solution) into a w/o emulsion in different ratios. LMWCH-NPs were characterized for post-formulation parameters by mean particle size, zeta potential, %age yield, loading/entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DSC/TGA, TEM, PXRD, drug release at pH 1.2, and pH 7.4. 5-FU loaded NPs showed a size range (198 nm-200 nm) and zeta potential (-39mV to -41mV), which ensured mechanical stability and increased retention time in blood vessels by the sustained release properties of biodegradable nanocarrier drug delivery systems. % age yield showed the range 92% to 96% while % LC ranged 2.0% to 3.4% and %EE ranged 40% to 43%. The TEM images showed spherical nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the compatibility between the drug and the cross-linked polymer. DSC/TGA ensured the thermal stability of the drug, while the solid-state stability of the drug-loaded cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. Drug release studies were performed using the dialysis bag technique at both pH (1.2 and 7.4) to mimic the gastrointestinal tract. Highly stable NPs displayed targeted release in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37°C. Fickian diffusion was the predominant release with an R value of 0.9975-0.9973-and an N value 0.45-0.53. Prepared nanoparticles are inert, biodegradable, and biocompatible drug delivery systems for sustained release of 5-FU with maximum therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15593258211025353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323436PMC
July 2021

Pharmacokinetic variables of medium molecular weight cross linked chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the bioavailability of 5-fluorouracil and reduce the acute oral toxicity.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1569-1584

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

To prepare glutaraldehyde-based cross-linked medium molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), to overcome dosing frequency as well as reducing acute oral toxicity and poor bioavailability of the drug. Medium molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles (MMWCH-NPs) were prepared by reverse micelles method based on glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking and optimized by the process as well as formulation variables like a various drug to polymer ratio, cross-linker volumes, varying stirring speeds (rpm), different time of rotation/stirring, respectively and their effects on the mean particles size distribution and entrapment efficiency %EE and %LC of NPs. Characterization of formulations was done by FTIR studies, TEM, PXRD, TGA, Stability, and dissolution drug release studies were performed by dialysis bag technique at both pH (1.2 & 7.4) and acute oral toxicity studies in albino rabbits. The formulated nanoparticles showed a smooth morphology with smaller particle size distribution (230-550 nm), zeta potential (-15 to -18 mV) required to achieve enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR), entrapment efficiency (%EE 12-59%). These NPs exhibited a controlled drug release profile with 84.36% of the drug over a period of 24 h. Drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models which predominantly followed Fickian diffusion mechanism ( = 0.972-0.976,  = 0.326-0.256). The optimized formulation (5-FU6) was observed under DSC/TGA, TEM. PXRD curves, FTIR, which confirmed thermal stability, structural integrity, amorphous state, compatibility between drug and polymer of optimized (5-FU6) as well as reduced acute oral toxicity in albino rabbits. Cross-linked medium molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles are nontoxic, well-tolerated therefore could be the future candidate for therapeutic effects as novel drug delivery carrier for anticancer drug(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1944398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300936PMC
December 2021

β-cyclodextrin chitosan-based hydrogels with tunable pH-responsive properties for controlled release of acyclovir: design, characterization, safety, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1093-1108

Department of Pharmacy, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan.

In this work, series of pH-responsive hydrogels (FMA1-FMA9) were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as potential carrier for oral delivery of an antiviral drug, acyclovir (ACV). Different proportions of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), chitosan (CS), methacrylic acid (MAA) and N' N'-methylenebis-acrylamide (MBA) were used to fabricate hydrogels free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed fabrication of new polymeric network, with successful incorporation of ACV. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated presence of slightly porous structure. Thermal analysis indicated enhanced thermal stability of polymeric network. Swelling studies were carried out at 37 °C in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The drug release data was found best fit to zero-order kinetics. The preliminary investigation of developed hydrogels showed a pH-dependent swelling behavior and drug release pattern. Acute oral toxicity study indicated no significant changes in behavioral, clinical, or histopathological parameters of Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic study indicated that developed hydrogels caused a significant increase in oral bioavailability of ACV in rabbit plasma as compared to oral suspension when both were administered at a single oral dose of 20 mg kg bodyweight. Hence, developed hydrogel formulation could be used as potential candidate for controlled drug delivery of an antiviral drug acyclovir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1921074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205001PMC
December 2021

Illicit sale of controlled drugs at community pharmacy/medical stores of Punjab, Pakistan: A road to demolition of public health.

Heliyon 2021 May 20;7(5):e07031. Epub 2021 May 20.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Sale of controlled drugs without prescription is a burning issue in developing countries like Pakistan. Illicit sale practices lead towards drug abuse and misuse among youngsters and negatively impact the health of youth and economy of any country. Present study aims to highlight the illicit sale practices at community pharmacies/drug stores of Punjab, Pakistan. Study was conducted at community pharmacies/drug stores (n = 200) of Punjab, Pakistan. Sales men at pharmacies/drugs stores were interviewed and then their statements were cross verified by sending fake customers at their community pharmacies to check the extent of illicit sale practices by them. Gathered data was analyzed using SPPS-22. Out of 200 pharmacies, pharmacists were physically present at 5% of pharmacies (n = 200), rest of the 95% pharmacies (n = 190) were being run by non-qualified persons and were found to be engaged in illicit sale practices. Controlled drugs were being provided to customers without prescription, which is a dilemma and need to be addressed for effective policy making. Physical presence of pharmacists at community pharmacies/drug stores is necessary to overcome the illicit sale practices. Effective policy must be developed and implemented by Governmental Authorities to prevent the youth from hazards associated with drug abuse and misuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165400PMC
May 2021

Letter to the Editor.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-021-10139-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Injury severity prediction of traffic crashes with ensemble machine learning techniques: a comparative study.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2021 Dec 1;28(4):408-427. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar (Bannu Campus), Peshawar, Pakistan.

A better understanding of injury severity risk factors is fundamental to improving crash prediction and effective implementation of appropriate mitigation strategies. Traditional statistical models widely used in this regard have predefined correlation and intrinsic assumptions, which, if flouted, may yield biased predictions. The present study investigates the possibility of using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model compared with few traditional machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, random forest, and decision tree) for crash injury severity analysis. The data used in this study was obtained from the traffic safety department, ministry of transport (MOT) at Riyadh, KSA, and contains 13,546 motor vehicle collisions along 15 rural highways reported between January 2017 to December 2019. Empirical results obtained using k-fold (k = 10) for various performance metrics showed that the XGBoost technique outperformed other models in terms of the collective predictive performance as well as injury severity individual class accuracies. XGBoost feature importance analysis indicated that collision type, weather status, road surface conditions, on-site damage type, lighting conditions, and vehicle type are the few sensitive variables in predicting the crash injury severity outcome. Finally, a comparative analysis of XGBoost based on different performance statistics showed that our model outperformed most previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2021.1928233DOI Listing
December 2021
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