Publications by authors named "Mahir Karakas"

96 Publications

Association of iron deficiency with incident cardiovascular diseases and mortality in the general population.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Although absolute (AID) and functional iron deficiency (FID) are known risk factors for patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease, their relevance for the general population is unknown. The aim was to assess the association between AID/FID with incident CV disease and mortality in the general population.

Methods And Results: In 12 164 individuals from three European population-based cohorts, AID was defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L or as ferritin < 30 μg/L (severe AID), and FID was defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L or ferritin 100-299 μg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%. The association between iron deficiency and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CV mortality, and all-cause mortality was evaluated by Cox regression models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Median age was 59 (45-68) years; 45.2% were male. AID, severe AID, and FID were prevalent in 60.0%, 16.4%, and 64.3% of individuals. AID was associated with CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.39, P = 0.01], but not with mortality. Severe AID was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.46, P < 0.01), but not with CV mortality/CHD. FID was associated with CHD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43, P < 0.01), CV mortality (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P = 0.03), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, P = 0.03). Overall, 5.4% of all deaths, 11.7% of all CV deaths, and 10.7% of CHD were attributable to FID.

Conclusions: In the general population, FID was highly prevalent, was associated with incident CHD, CV death, and all-cause death, and had the highest PAF for these events, whereas AID was only associated with CHD and severe AID only with all-cause mortality. This indicates that FID is a relevant risk factor for CV diseases in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13589DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety and tolerability of non-neutralizing adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab (HAM8101) in septic shock patients: the AdrenOSS-2 phase 2a biomarker-guided trial.

Intensive Care Med 2021 Nov 4;47(11):1284-1294. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Université de Paris, U942 Inserm, MASCOT, APHP, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire PROMICE, Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis-Lariboisière, Fernand-Widal, 2, Rue Ambroise-Paré, 75475, Paris Cedex 10, France.

Purpose: Investigate safety and tolerability of adrecizumab, a humanized monoclonal adrenomedullin antibody, in septic shock patients with high adrenomedullin.

Methods: Phase-2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled biomarker-guided trial with a single infusion of adrecizumab (2 or 4 mg/kg b.w.) compared to placebo. Patients with adrenomedullin above 70 pg/mL, < 12 h of vasopressor start for septic shock were eligible. Randomization was 1:1:2. Primary safety (90-day mortality, treatment emergent adverse events (TEAE)) and tolerability (drug interruption, hemodynamics) endpoints were recorded. Efficacy endpoints included the Sepsis Support Index (SSI, reflecting ventilator- and shock-free days alive), change in Sequential-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and 28-day mortality.

Results: 301 patients were enrolled (median time of 8.5 h after vasopressor start). Adrecizumab was well tolerated (one interruption, no hemodynamic alteration) with no differences in frequency and severity in TEAEs between treatment arms (TEAE of grade 3 or higher: 70.5% in the adrecizumab group and 71.1% in the placebo group) nor in 90-day mortality. Difference in change in SSI between adrecizumab and placebo was 0.72 (CI -1.93-0.49, p = 0.24). Among various secondary endpoints, delta SOFA score (defined as maximum versus minimum SOFA) was more pronounced in the adrecizumab combined group compared to placebo [difference at 0.76 (95% CI 0.18-1.35); p = 0.007]. 28-day mortality in the adrecizumab group was 23.9% and 27.7% in placebo with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.53-1.31, log-rank p = 0.44).

Conclusions: Overall, we successfully completed a randomized trial evaluating selecting patients for enrolment who had a disease-related biomarker. There were no overt signals of harm with using two doses of the adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab; however, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm efficacy and safety of this agent in septic shock patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-021-06537-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487806PMC
November 2021

Previous Catheter Ablation Predicts In-Hospital Restoration of Sinus Rhythm in Patients Presenting with Recent-Onset Atrial Fibrillation-The Retrospective HAMBURG-AF Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 30;57(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Center Hamburg, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrythmia of the human heart. Patients mostly present highly symptomatic with dyspnea and tachycardia and have a disproportionate risk of developing heart failure or stroke events. We aimed to evaluate the determinants of early conversion into sinus rhythm during initial stay at the emergency department of a large tertiary care center. A total of 1384 subjects with recent-onset AF were recruited between October 2014 and April 2017. Patients with longstanding AF were excluded, resulting in a total of 935 patients for the present analysis. In multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses, previous catheter ablation therapy was a strong predictor of conversion in sinus rhythm during the stay in the emergency department, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.87 (95% CI 2.40, 6.54; < 0.001). In contrast, existing antiarrhythmic medication showed no association with facilitated conversion [OR 0.89 (95%CI 0.65, 1.20); = 0.44]. Likewise, conventional cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes) were also not associated with conversion during hospital stay. This is the first report on the relevance of previous ablation therapy for early restoration of sinus rhythm in recent-onset AF. Although catheter ablation is associated with relevant risk of late recurrence of atrial fibrillation, it seems to have a large benefit for patients with recent-onset AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398982PMC
July 2021

A Biomarker Model to Distinguish Types of Myocardial Infarction and Injury.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(8):781-790

Department of Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Center, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Discrimination among patients with type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), and myocardial injury is difficult.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative value of a 29-biomarker panel in an emergency department setting.

Methods: Patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) were recruited. The final diagnosis in all patients was adjudicated on the basis of the fourth universal definition of MI. A panel of 29 biomarkers was measured, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of these biomarkers with the diagnosis of MI or myocardial injury. Biomarkers were chosen using backward selection. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping.

Results: Overall, 748 patients were recruited (median age 64 years), of whom 138 had MI (107 T1MI and 31 T2MI) and 221 had myocardial injury. In the multivariable model, 4 biomarkers (apolipoprotein A-II, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, copeptin, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) remained significant discriminators between T1MI and T2MI. Internal validation of the model showed an area under the curve of 0.82. For discrimination between MI and myocardial injury, 6 biomarkers (adiponectin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, transthyretin, copeptin, and high-sensitivity troponin I) were selected. Internal validation showed an area under the curve of 0.84.

Conclusions: Among 29 biomarkers, 7 were identified to be the most relevant discriminators between subtypes of MI or myocardial injury. Regression models based on these biomarkers allowed good discrimination. (Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care [BACC]; NCT02355457).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.027DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Outcome in Takotsubo Syndrome: Data From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 28;10(15):e014059. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology Intensive Care Medicine and Angiology Vincentius-Diakonissen-Hospital Karlsruhe Germany.

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for mortality. The prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) have not yet been investigated in a large patient cohort. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in patients with TTS. Methods and Results Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry, which is a multinational network with 26 participating centers in Europe and the United States. Patients were dichotomized according to the presence or absence of AF at the time of admission. Of 1584 patients with TTS, 112 (7.1%) had AF. The mean age was higher (<0.001), and there were fewer women (=0.046) in the AF than in the non-AF group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (=0.001), and cardiogenic shock was more often observed (<0.001) in the AF group. Both in-hospital (<0.001) and long-term mortality (<0.001) were higher in the AF group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that AF was independently associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.50-3.55; <0.001). Among patients with AF on admission, 42% had no known history of AF before the acute TTS event, and such patients had comparable in-hospital and long-term outcomes compared with those with a history of AF. Conclusions In patients presenting with TTS, AF on admission is significantly associated with increased in-hospital and long-term mortality rates. Whether antiarrhythmics and/or cardioversion are beneficial in TTS with AF should thus be tested in a future trial. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475688PMC
August 2021

Optimising clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: a statement from the 2020 Critical Care Clinical Trialists Workshop.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Oct 7;9(10):1192-1202. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesia, Burn and Critical Care Medicine, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Saint-Louis-Lariboisière, FHU PROMICE, INI-CRCT, and Université de Paris, MASCOT, INSERM, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS) is a critical syndrome with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Current management consists of coronary revascularisation, vasoactive drugs, and circulatory and ventilatory support, which are tailored to patients mainly on the basis of clinicians' experience rather than evidence-based recommendations. For many therapeutic interventions in AMICS, randomised clinical trials have not shown a meaningful survival benefit, and a disproportionately high rate of neutral and negative results has been reported. In this context, an accurate definition of the AMICS syndrome for appropriate patient selection and optimisation of study design are warranted to achieve meaningful results and pave the way for new, evidence-based therapeutic options. In this Position Paper, we provide a statement of priorities and recommendations agreed by a multidisciplinary group of experts at the Critical Care Clinical Trialists Workshop in February, 2020, for the optimisation and harmonisation of clinical trials in AMICS. Implementation of proposed criteria to define the AMICS population-moving beyond a cardio-centric definition to that of a systemic disease-and steps to improve the design of clinical trials could lead to improved outcomes for patients with this life-threatening syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00172-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Multi-Centre, Multi-Vendor and Multi-Disease Cardiac Segmentation: The M&Ms Challenge.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jun 17;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

The emergence of deep learning has considerably advanced the state-of-the-art in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) segmentation. Many techniques have been proposed over the last few years, bringing the accuracy of automated segmentation close to human performance. However, these models have been all too often trained and validated using cardiac imaging samples from single clinical centres or homogeneous imaging protocols. This has prevented the development and validation of models that are generalizable across different clinical centres, imaging conditions or scanner vendors. To promote further research and scientific benchmarking in the field of generalizable deep learning for cardiac segmentation, this paper presents the results of the Multi-Centre, Multi-Vendor and Multi-Disease Cardiac Segmentation (M&Ms) Challenge, which was recently organized as part of the MICCAI 2020 Conference. A total of 14 teams submitted different solutions to the problem, combining various baseline models, data augmentation strategies, and domain adaptation techniques. The obtained results indicate the importance of intensity-driven data augmentation, as well as the need for further research to improve generalizability towards unseen scanner vendors or new imaging protocols. Furthermore, we present a new resource of 375 heterogeneous CMR datasets acquired by using four different scanner vendors in six hospitals and three different countries (Spain, Canada and Germany), which we provide as open-access for the community to enable future research in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3090082DOI Listing
June 2021

Spontaneous Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Premature Ventricular Contractions and Their Prognostic Relevance in Patients with Cancer in Routine Care.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), 13353 Berlin, Germany.

It is largely unknown whether cancer patients seen in routine care show ventricular arrhythmias in 24 h electrocardiograms (ECGs), and whether when they are detected they carry prognostic relevance. We included 261 consecutive cancer patients that were referred to the department of cardiology for 24 h ECG examination and 35 healthy controls of similar age and sex in the analysis. To reduce selection bias, cancer patients with known left ventricular ejection fraction <45% were not included in the analysis. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) episodes of either ≥3 and ≥4 beats duration were more frequent in cancer patients than controls (17% vs. 0%, = 0.0008; 10% vs. 0%, = 0.016). Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)/24 h were not more frequent in cancer patients compared to controls (median (IQR), 26 (2-360) vs. 9 (1-43), = 0.06; ≥20 PVCs 53% vs. 37%, = 0.07). During follow-up, (up to 7.2 years, median 15 months) of the cancer patients, 158 (61%) died (1-/3-/5-year mortality rates: 45% [95%CI 39-51%], 66% [95%CI 59-73%], 73% [95%CI 64-82%]). Both non-sustained ventricular tachycardia of ≥4 beats and ≥20 PVCs/24 h independently predicted mortality in univariate and multivariate survival analyses, adjusted for all other univariate predictors of mortality as well as relevant clinical factors, including cancer stage and type, performance status (ECOG), prior potentially cardiotoxic anti-cancer drug therapy, coronary artery disease, potassium concentration, and haemoglobin (multivariate adjusted hazard ratios: NSVT ≥4 beats [HR 1.76, = 0.022], ≥20 PVCs/24 h [HR 1.63, < 0.0064]). NSVT ≥4 beats and ≥20 PVCs/day seen in routine 24 h ECGs of patients with cancer carry prognostic relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151948PMC
May 2021

Ethnic comparison in takotsubo syndrome: novel insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Ethnic disparities have been reported in cardiovascular disease. However, ethnic disparities in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remain elusive. This study assessed differences in clinical characteristics between Japanese and European TTS patients and determined the impact of ethnicity on in-hospital outcomes.

Methods: TTS patients in Japan were enrolled from 10 hospitals and TTS patients in Europe were enrolled from 32 hospitals participating in the International Takotsubo Registry. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between Japanese and European patients.

Results: A total of 503 Japanese and 1670 European patients were included. Japanese patients were older (72.6 ± 11.4 years vs. 68.0 ± 12.0 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to be male (18.5 vs. 8.4%; p < 0.001) than European TTS patients. Physical triggering factors were more common (45.5 vs. 32.0%; p < 0.001), and emotional triggers less common (17.5 vs. 31.5%; p < 0.001), in Japanese patients than in European patients. Japanese patients were more likely to experience cardiogenic shock during the acute phase (15.5 vs. 9.0%; p < 0.001) and had a higher in-hospital mortality (8.2 vs. 3.2%; p < 0.001). However, ethnicity itself did not appear to have an impact on in-hospital mortality. Machine learning approach revealed that the presence of physical stressors was the most important prognostic factor in both Japanese and European TTS patients.

Conclusion: Differences in clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between Japanese and European TTS patients exist. Ethnicity does not impact the outcome in TTS patients. The worse in-hospital outcome in Japanese patients, is mainly driven by the higher prevalence of physical triggers.

Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01857-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Low testosterone concentrations and prediction of future heart failure in men and in women: evidence from the large FINRISK97 study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 08 2;8(4):2485-2491. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department for Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: The increased incidence of heart failure in men suggests that endogenous sex hormones might play a role in the development of heart failure, but epidemiological data remain sparse. Here, we evaluated the predictive value of low testosterone levels on future heart failure in the large population-based FINRISK97 study.

Methods And Results: Baseline serum testosterone concentrations were measured in 7855 subjects (3865 men and 3990 women) of the FINRISK97 study. During a median follow-up (FU) of 13.8 years, a total of 564 heart failure events were recorded. The age-adjusted baseline testosterone levels did not differ significantly between subjects developing incident heart failure during FU and those without incident events during FU (men: 16.6 vs. 17.1 nmol/L, P = 0.75; women: 1.15 vs. 1.17 nmol/L, P = 0.32). Relevant statistically significant correlations of testosterone levels were found with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (R = 0.22; P < 0.001), body mass index (R = -0.23; P < 0.001), and waist-to-hip ratio (R = -0.21; P < 0.001) in men, while statistically significant correlations in women were negligible in effect size. In sex-stratified Cox regression analyses, taking age into account, a quite strong association between low testosterone and incident heart failure was found in men [hazard ratio (HR) 1.51 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09-2.10); P = 0.020 for lowest vs. highest quarter], but not in women [HR 0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.98); P = 0.086 for lowest vs. highest quarter]. Nevertheless, this association turned non-significant after full adjustment including body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, and testosterone levels were no longer predictive for incident heart failure-neither in men [HR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.70-1.42); P = 0.77 for lowest vs. highest quarter] nor in women [HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.64-1.33); P = 0.99 for lowest vs. highest quarter]. Accordingly, Kaplan-Meier analyses did not reveal significant association of testosterone levels with heart failure.

Conclusions: Low levels of testosterone do not independently predict future heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318459PMC
August 2021

Prognostic Value of Bioactive Adrenomedullin in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 in Germany: An Observational Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 13;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Intensive and Intermediate Care, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals worldwide. Objective biomarkers for early risk stratification and clinical management are still lacking. The aim of this work was to determine whether bioactive adrenomedullin can assist in the risk stratification and clinical management of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Fifty-three patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this prospective observational cohort study between March and April 2020. Bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) plasma concentration was measured daily for seven days after admission. The prognostic value and clinical significance of bio-ADM plasma levels were evaluated for the severity of respiratory failure, the need for extracorporeal organ support and outcome (28-day mortality). Bio-ADM levels increased with the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; < 0.001) and were significantly elevated in invasively ventilated patients ( = 0.006) and patients in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( = 0.040) or renal replacement therapy (RRT; < 0.001) compared to patients without these conditions. Non-survivors showed significantly higher bio-ADM levels than survivors ( = 0.010). Bio-ADM levels predicted 28-day mortality (C-index 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.87, < 0.001). Bio-ADM plasma levels correlate with disease severity, the need for extracorporeal organ assistance, and outcome, and highlight the promising value of bio-ADM in the early risk stratification and management of patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069401PMC
April 2021

Modifiable lifestyle risk factors and C-reactive protein in patients with coronary artery disease: Implications for an anti-inflammatory treatment target population.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 04 10;28(2):152–158. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors (modRF) of coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with increased inflammation represented by elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Lifestyle changes may influence the inflammatory burden in patients with CAD, relevantly modifying the target population for emerging anti-inflammatory compounds.

Aims: The aims of this study were to analyse the association of modRF and CRP levels in CAD patients, and to define a potential target population for anti-inflammatory treatment with and without the optimisation of modRF.

Methods: We included all patients with angiographically documented CAD from the observational cohort study INTERCATH. Patients with recent myocardial infarction, malignancy, infectious disease, and pre-existing immunosuppressive medication including a history of solid organ transplantation were excluded. Overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2), smoking, lack of physical activity (PA; <1.5 h/week), and poor diet (≤12 points of an established Mediterranean diet score (MDS), range 0-28 points) were considered as modRF. CRP was measured by a high-sensitivity assay (hsCRP) at baseline. We performed multivariable linear regressions with log-transformed hsCRP as the dependent variable. Based on these associations, we calculated potential hsCRP levels for each patient, assuming optimisation of the individual modRF.

Results: Of 1014 patients, 737 (73%) were male, the mean age was 69 years, and 483 (48%) had an hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l. ModRF were significantly overrepresented in patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l compared to patients with an hsCRP < 2 mg/l (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: 76% vs 61%; PA < 1.5 h/week: 69% vs 57%; MDS ≤ 12: 46% vs 37%; smoking: 61% vs 54%; p < 0.05 for all). hsCRP increased with the incremental number of modRF present (median hsCRP values for N = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 modRF: 1.1, 1.0, 1.6, 2.4, 2.8 mg/l, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, sex, intake of lipid-lowering medication, and diabetes mellitus revealed independent associations between log-transformed hsCRP and all modRF (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: exp(ß) = 1.55, p < 0.001; PA < 1.5 h/week: exp(ß) = 1.33, p < 0.001; MDS ≤ 12: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.018; smoking: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.019). Individual recalculation of hsCRP levels assuming optimisation of modRF identified 183 out of 483 (38%) patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l who could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l via lifestyle changes.

Conclusion: modRF are strongly and independently associated with CRP levels in patients with CAD. A relevant portion of CAD patients with high inflammatory burden could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l by lifestyle changes alone. This should be considered both in view of the cost and side-effects of pharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment and for the design of future clinical trials in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487319885458DOI Listing
April 2021

MR-proAdrenomedullin as a predictor of renal replacement therapy in a cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Biomarkers 2021 Jul 5;26(5):417-424. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: About 20% of ICU patients with COVID-19 require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) might be used for risk assessment. This study investigates MR-proADM for RRT prediction in ICU patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We analysed data of consecutive patients with COVID-19, requiring ICU admission at a university hospital in Germany between March and September 2020. Clinical characteristics, details on AKI, and RRT were assessed. MR-proADM was measured on admission.

Results: 64 patients were included (49 (77%) males). Median age was 62.5y (54-73). 47 (73%) patients were ventilated and 50 (78%) needed vasopressors. 25 (39%) patients had severe ARDS, and 10 patients needed veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 29 (45%) patients required RRT; median time from admission to RRT start was 2 (1-9) days. MR-proADM on admission was higher in the RRT group (2.491 vs. 1.23 nmol/l;  = 0.002) and showed the highest correlation with renalSOFA. ROC curve analysis showed that MR-proADM predicts RRT with an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.543-0.828;  = 0.019). In multivariable logistic regression MR-proADM was an independent predictor (OR: 3.813, 95% CI 1.110-13.102, <0.05) for RRT requirement.

Conclusion: AKI requiring RRT is frequent in ICU patients with COVID-19. MR-proADM on admission was able to predict RRT requirement, which may be of interest for risk stratification and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2021.1905067DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic impact of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with takotsubo syndrome: new insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 06 13;8(3):1924-1932. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Cardiology, Charité, Campus Rudolf Virchow, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Acute pulmonary disorders are known physical triggers of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This study aimed to investigate prevalence of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with TTS and their impact on outcomes.

Methods And Results: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry and screened for triggering factors and comorbidities. Patients were categorized into three groups (acute pulmonary trigger, chronic lung disease, and no lung disease) to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes. Of the 1670 included patients with TTS, 123 (7%) were identified with an acute pulmonary trigger, and 194 (12%) had a known history of chronic lung disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was highest in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger compared with those with chronic lung disease or without lung disease (17% vs. 10% vs. 9%, P = 0.017). In-hospital mortality was also higher in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger than in the other two groups, although not significantly (5.7% vs. 1.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.13). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with an acute pulmonary trigger had the worst long-term outcome (P = 0.002). The presence of an acute pulmonary trigger was independently associated with worse long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.38; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that TTS is related to acute pulmonary triggers in 7% of all TTS patients, which accounts for 21% of patients with physical triggers. The presence of acute pulmonary trigger is associated with a severe in-hospital course and a worse long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120351PMC
June 2021

Differences in measurement of high-sensitivity troponin in an on-demand and batch-wise setting.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Most studies assessing the diagnostic value of high-sensitivity troponin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction used batch-wise analyses of frozen samples for high-sensitivity troponin measurements. Whether the accuracy of these batch-wise high-sensitivity troponin measurements described in diagnostic studies is comparable to clinical routine is unknown.

Methods: We enrolled 937 patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction in this prospective cohort study. Measurements of high-sensitivity troponin I (Abbott Architect) and high-sensitivity troponin T (Roche) were performed in two settings: (a) on-demand in clinical routine using fresh blood samples; and (b) in batches using frozen blood samples from the same individuals at three timepoints (0 hours, 1 hour and 3 hours after presentation).

Results: Median troponin levels were not different between on-demand and batch-wise measurements. Troponin levels in the range of 0 to 40 ng/L showed a very high correlation between the on-demand and batch setting (Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was 0.92-0.95 for high-sensitivity troponin I and 0.96 for high-sensitivity troponin T). However, at very low troponin levels (0 to 10 ng/L) correlation between the two settings was moderate (r for high-sensitivity troponin I 0.59-0.66 and 0.65-0.69 for high-sensitivity troponin T). Application of guideline-recommended rapid diagnostic algorithms showed similar diagnostic performance with both methods.

Conclusions: Overall on-demand and batch-wise measurements of high-sensitivity troponin provided similar results, but their correlation was moderate, when focusing on very low troponin levels. The application of rapid diagnostic algorithms was safe in both settings.

Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872620924198DOI Listing
July 2020

Ventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular contractions, and mortality in unselected patients with lung, colon, or pancreatic cancer: a prospective study.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 01;23(1):145-153

Division of Cardiology and Metabolism, Department of Cardiology (CVK), Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Many cancer patients die due to cardiovascular disease and sudden death, but data on ventricular arrhythmia prevalence and prognostic importance are not known.

Methods And Results: Between 2005 and 2010, we prospectively enrolled 120 unselected patients with lung, colon, or pancreatic cancer due to one of three diagnoses: colorectal (n = 33), pancreatic (n = 54), or non-small cell lung cancer (n = 33). All were free of manifest cardiovascular disease. They were compared to 43 healthy controls similar in age and sex distribution. Each participant underwent 24 h electrocardiogram recording and cancer patients were followed for up to 12.5 years for survival (median 21 months). Ninety-six cancer patients (80%) died during follow-up [5-year survival: 27% (95% confidence interval 19-35%)]. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) was more frequent in cancer patients vs. controls (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.021). The number of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) over 24 h was not increased in cancer patients vs. controls (median 4 vs. 9, P = 0.2). In multivariable analysis, NSVT [hazard ratio (HR) 2.44, P = 0.047] and PVCs (per 100, HR 1.021, P = 0.047) were both significant predictors of mortality, independent of other univariable mortality predictors including tumour stage, cancer type, potassium concentration, prior surgery, prior cardiotoxic chemotherapy, and haemoglobin. In patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer, ≥50 PVCs/24 h predicted mortality (HR 2.30, P = 0.0024), and was identified in 18% and 26% of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia is more frequent in unselected patients with colorectal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer and together with PVCs predict long-term mortality. This raises the prospect of cardiovascular mortality being a target for future treatment interventions in selected cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2059DOI Listing
January 2021

The ACCOST-HH Trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 12;41(45):4296-4298

Department of Cardiology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Berlin.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa757DOI Listing
December 2020

Targeting Endothelial Dysfunction in Eight Extreme-Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 Using the Anti-Adrenomedullin Antibody Adrecizumab (HAM8101).

Biomolecules 2020 08 11;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Recently, the stabilization of the endothelium has been explicitly identified as a therapeutic goal in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adrecizumab (HAM8101) is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal anti-Adrenomedullin (anti-ADM) antibody, targeting the sepsis- and inflammation-based vascular and capillary leakage. Within a "treatment on a named-patient basis" approach, Adrecizumab was administered to eight extreme-critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patients received a single dose of Adrecizumab, which was administered between 1 and 3 days after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. The SOFA (median 12.5) and SAPS-II (median 39) scores clearly documented the population at highest risk. Moreover, six of the patients suffered from acute renal failure, of whom five needed renal replacement therapy. The length of follow-up ranged between 13 and 27 days. Following the Adrecizumab administration, one patient in the low-dose group died at day 4 due to fulminant pulmonary embolism, while four were in stable condition, and three were discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). Within 12 days, the SOFA score, as well as the disease severity score (range 0-16, mirroring critical resources in the ICU, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), decreased in five out of the seven surviving patients (in all high-dose patients). The PaO2/FiO2 increased within 12 days, while the inflammatory parameters C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 decreased. Importantly, the mortality was lower than expected and calculated by the SOFA score. In conclusion, in this preliminary uncontrolled case series of eight shock patients with life-threatening COVID-19 and ARDS, the administration of Adrecizumab was followed by a favorable outcome. Although the non-controlled design and the small sample size preclude any definitive statement about the potential efficacy of Adrecizumab in critically ill COVID-19 patients, the results of this case series are encouraging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10081171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465983PMC
August 2020

Differences in measurement of high-sensitivity troponin in an on-demand and batch-wise setting.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Jul 23:2048872620924198. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Most studies assessing the diagnostic value of high-sensitivity troponin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction used batch-wise analyses of frozen samples for high-sensitivity troponin measurements. Whether the accuracy of these batch-wise high-sensitivity troponin measurements described in diagnostic studies is comparable to clinical routine is unknown.

Methods: We enrolled 937 patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction in this prospective cohort study. Measurements of high-sensitivity troponin I (Abbott Architect) and high-sensitivity troponin T (Roche) were performed in two settings: (a) on-demand in clinical routine using fresh blood samples; and (b) in batches using frozen blood samples from the same individuals at three timepoints (0 hours, 1 hour and 3 hours after presentation).

Results: Median troponin levels were not different between on-demand and batch-wise measurements. Troponin levels in the range of 0 to 40 ng/L showed a very high correlation between the on-demand and batch setting (Pearson correlation coefficient () was 0.92-0.95 for high-sensitivity troponin I and 0.96 for high-sensitivity troponin T). However, at very low troponin levels (0 to 10 ng/L) correlation between the two settings was moderate ( for high-sensitivity troponin I 0.59-0.66 and 0.65-0.69 for high-sensitivity troponin T). Application of guideline-recommended rapid diagnostic algorithms showed similar diagnostic performance with both methods.

Conclusions: Overall on-demand and batch-wise measurements of high-sensitivity troponin provided similar results, but their correlation was moderate, when focusing on very low troponin levels. The application of rapid diagnostic algorithms was safe in both settings. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).
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July 2020

Coexistence and outcome of coronary artery disease in Takotsubo syndrome.

Eur Heart J 2020 09;41(34):3255-3268

Department of Cardiology, Kantonsspital Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland.

Aims: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS.

Methods And Results: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort.

Conclusions: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa210DOI Listing
September 2020

Age-Related Variations in Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(16):1869-1877

Krankenhaus "Maria Hilf" Medizinische Klinik, Stadtlohn, Germany.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups.

Results: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.057DOI Listing
April 2020

Iron Metabolism Contributes to Prognosis in Coronary Artery Disease: Prognostic Value of the Soluble Transferrin Receptor Within the AtheroGene Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 05 23;9(9):e015480. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of General and Interventional Cardiology University Heart Center Hamburg Hamburg Germany.

Background Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Iron deficiency, a frequent comorbidity of coronary heart disease, causes an increased expression of transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) levels, while iron repletion returns sTfR levels to the normal physiological range. Recently, sTfR levels were proposed as a potential new marker of iron metabolism in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of circulating sTfR levels in a large cohort of patients with coronary heart disease. Methods and Results The disease cohort comprised 3423 subjects who had angiographically documented coronary heart disease and who participated in the AtheroGene study. Serum levels of sTfR were determined at baseline using an automated immunoassay (Roche Cobas Integra 400). Two main outcomes were considered: a combined end point of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death and cardiovascular death alone. During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 10.3% of the patients experienced an end point. In Cox regression analyses for sTfR levels, the hazard ratio (HR) for future cardiovascular death and/or myocardial infarction was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.11-1.44, <0.001) after adjustment for sex and age. This association remained significant (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46, =0.02) after additional adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein, and surrogates of cardiac function, size of myocardial necrosis (hs-Tnl), and hemoglobin levels. Conclusions In this large cohort study, sTfR levels were strongly associated with future myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. This implicates a role for sTfR in secondary cardiovascular risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428563PMC
May 2020

Cardio-Renal Biomarker Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated With Cardiovascular Death and Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Independent of Troponin, C-Reactive Protein, and Renal Function.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 04 17;9(8):e015452. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Clinic of Cardiology University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg Hamburg Germany.

Background Risk stratification among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is of considerable interest due to the potential to guide secondary preventive therapies. Thus, we evaluated the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with CAD. Methods and Results Plasma levels of suPAR were measured in a cohort of 1703 patients with documented CAD as evidenced by coronary angiography-including 626 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 1077 patients with stable angina pectoris. Cardiovascular death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction were defined as main outcome measures. During a median follow-up of 3.5 years, suPAR levels reliably predicted cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction in CAD, evidenced by survival curves stratified for tertiles of suPAR levels. In Cox regression analyses, the hazard ratio for the prediction of cardiovascular death and/or myocardial infarction was 2.19 (<0.001) in the overall cohort and 2.56 in the acute coronary syndrome cohort (<0.001). Even after adjustment for common cardiovascular risk factors, renal function and the biomarkers C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin I suPAR still enabled a reliable prediction of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction with a hazard ratio of 1.61 (=0.022) in the overall cohort and 2.22 (=0.005) in the acute coronary syndrome cohort. Conclusions SuPAR has a strong and independent prognostic value in secondary prevention settings, and thereby might represent a valuable biomarker for risk estimation in CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428542PMC
April 2020

Iron deficiency is a common disorder in general population and independently predicts all-cause mortality: results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

Clin Res Cardiol 2020 Nov 25;109(11):1352-1357. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Iron deficiency is now accepted as an independent entity beyond anemia. Recently, a new functional definition of iron deficiency was proposed and proved strong efficacy in randomized cardiovascular clinical trials of intravenous iron supplementation. Here, we characterize the impact of iron deficiency on all-cause mortality in the non-anemic general population based on two distinct definitions.

Methods: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, prospective, single-center cohort study. The 5000 individuals between 35 and 74 years underwent baseline and a planned follow-up visit at year 5. Tested definitions of iron deficiency were (1) functional iron deficiency-ferritin levels below 100 µg/l, or ferritin levels between 100 and 299 µg/l and transferrin saturation below 20%, and (2) absolute iron deficiency-ferritin below 30 µg/l.

Results: At baseline, a total of 54.5% of participants showed functional iron deficiency at a mean hemoglobin of 14.3 g/dl; while, the rate of absolute iron deficiency was 11.8%, at a mean hemoglobin level of 13.4 g/dl. At year 5, proportion of newly diagnosed subjects was 18.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Rate of all-cause mortality was 7.2% (n = 361); while, median follow-up was 10.1 years. After adjustment for hemoglobin and major cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association of iron deficiency with mortality was 1.3 (1.0-1.6; p = 0.023) for the functional definition, and 1.9 (1.3-2.8; p = 0.002) for absolute iron deficiency.

Conclusions: Iron deficiency is very common in the apparently healthy general population and independently associated with all-cause mortality in the mid to long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-020-01631-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588396PMC
November 2020

Head-to-Head Comparison of the Incremental Predictive Value of The Three Established Risk Markers, Hs-troponin I, C-Reactive Protein, and NT-proBNP, in Coronary Artery Disease.

Biomolecules 2020 03 4;10(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Clinic of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Risk stratification among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is of considerable interest to potentially guide secondary preventive therapies. Cardiac troponins as well as C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and natriuretic peptides have emerged as biomarkers for risk stratification. The question remains if one of these biomarkers is superior in predicting adverse outcomes. Thus, we perform a head-to-head comparison between high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI), hsCRP, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with CAD. Plasma levels were measured in a cohort of 2193 patients with documented CAD. The main outcome measures were cardiovascular (CV) death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all three biomarkers were associated with cardiovascular death and/or MI. After adjustments for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) for the prediction of CV death and/or nonfatal MI was 1.39 [95% CI: 1.24-1.57, < 0.001] for hsTnI, 1.41 [95% CI: 1.24-1.60, < 0.001] for hsCRP, and 1.64 [95% CI: 1.39-1.92, < 0.001] for NT-proBNP. However, upon further adjustments for the other two biomarkers, only NT-proBNP was still associated with the combined endpoint with an HR of 1.47 [95% CI: 1.19-1.82, < 0.001]. Conclusively, NT-proBNP is reliably linked to CV death and MI in patients with CAD and provides incremental value beyond hsCRP and hsTnI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10030394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175104PMC
March 2020

Design and Rationale of the ERA-CVD Consortium PREMED-CAD-Precision Medicine in Coronary Artery Disease.

Biomolecules 2020 01 11;10(1). Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Clinic for Cardiology, University Medical Center Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise 45% of all deaths in Europe and causes 3.9 million deaths annually. Coronary artery disease (CAD) which includes myocardial infarction (MI) represents the most common form of CVD. A relevant proportion of MI cases seems preventable since reports claim that up to two-thirds of these patients exhibit symptoms suggestive for MI within 12 months prior to the acute MI event. An early identification of these at-risk subjects is necessary to manage an early and efficient treatment during the ischemic phase. The aim of the PRecision MEDicine in Coronary Artery Disease (PREMED-CAD) consortium is to apply a system medicine approach towards studying and identifying an ischemia specific 'biomarker signature' that improves the identification of individuals 'at-risk' for acute MI. The consortium will take an interdisciplinary and translational approach integrating knowledge from CAD epidemiology, imaging, bioinformatics, statistics and molecular biology, as well as existing phenotypic, blood-based and clinical biomarker data of distinct CAD and subclinical MI phenotypes. This biomarker signature will be validated through atherosclerosis-prone mouse models and human cohorts. The validated signature will be translated in a real-world clinical setting using an ongoing clinical trial comprising patients with subclinical ischemia. The aim of the knowledge obtained from this project is to aid in early MI detection and reduce the mortality and morbidity rate in these at-risk MI individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10010125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022893PMC
January 2020

Impact of aspirin on takotsubo syndrome: a propensity score-based analysis of the InterTAK Registry.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 02 20;22(2):330-337. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Heart Center University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of aspirin on prognosis in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: Patients from the International Takotsubo (InterTAK) Registry were categorized into two groups based on aspirin prescription at discharge. A comparison of clinical outcomes between groups was performed using an adjusted analysis with propensity score (PS) stratification; results from the unadjusted analysis were also reported to note the effect of the PS adjustment. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: a composite of death, myocardial infarction, TTS recurrence, stroke or transient ischaemic attack) were assessed at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. A total of 1533 TTS patients with known status regarding aspirin prescription at discharge were included. According to the adjusted analysis based on PS stratification, aspirin was not associated with a lower hazard of MACCE at 30-day [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-3.04, P = 0.64] or 5-year follow-up (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78-1.58, P = 0.58). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses performed with alternative PS-based methods, i.e. covariate adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Conclusion: In the present study, no association was found between aspirin use in TTS patients and a reduced risk of MACCE at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. These findings should be confirmed in adequately powered randomized controlled trials. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1698DOI Listing
February 2020

Intraventricular Thrombus Formation and Embolism in Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights From the International Takotsubo Registry.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 01 26;40(1):279-287. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Service de cardiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Switzerland (P. Meyer, J.D.A.).

Objective: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction, which can contribute to intraventricular thrombus and embolism. Still, prevalence and clinical impact of thrombus formation and embolic events on outcome of TTS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Additionally, factors associated with thrombus formation or embolism, as well as predictors for mortality, were identified. Approach and Results: TTS patients enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry at 28 centers in Australia, Europe, and the United States were dichotomized according to the occurrence/absence of intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Patients with intraventricular thrombus or embolism were defined as the ThrombEmb group. Of 1676 TTS patients, 56 (3.3%) patients developed intraventricular thrombus and/or embolism following TTS diagnosis (median time interval, 2.0 days [range, 0-38 days]). Patients in the ThrombEmb group had a different clinical profile including lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher prevalence of the apical type, elevated levels of troponin and inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of vascular disease. In a Firth bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression model apical type, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, previous vascular disease, and a white blood cell count on admission >10×10 cells/μL emerged as independent predictors for thrombus formation or embolism.

Conclusions: Intraventricular thrombus or embolism occur in 3.3% of patients in the acute phase of TTS. A simple risk score including clinical parameters associated with intraventricular thrombus formation or embolism identifies patients at increased risk.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313491DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical Predictors and Prognostic Impact of Recovery of Wall Motion Abnormalities in Takotsubo Syndrome: Results From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 11 1;8(21):e011194. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Cardiology Kantonsspital Lucerne Lucerne Switzerland.

Background Left ventricular (LV) recovery in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs over a wide-ranging interval, varying from hours to weeks. We sought to investigate the clinical predictors and prognostic impact of recovery time for TTS patients. Methods and Results TTS patients from the International Takotsubo Registry were included in this study. Cut-off for early LV recovery was determined to be 10 days after the acute event. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the absence of early recovery. In-hospital outcomes and 1-year mortality were compared for patients with versus without early recovery. We analyzed 406 patients with comprehensive and serial imaging data regarding time to recovery. Of these, 191 (47.0%) had early LV recovery and 215 (53.0%) demonstrated late LV improvement. Patients without early recovery were more often male (12.6% versus 5.2%; =0.011) and presented more frequently with typical TTS (76.3% versus 67.0%, =0.040). Cardiac and inflammatory markers were higher in patients without early recovery than in those with early recovery. Patients without early recovery showed unfavorable 1-year outcome compared with patients with early recovery (=0.003). On multiple logistic regression, male sex, LV ejection fraction <45%, and acute neurologic disorders were associated with the absence of early recovery. Conclusions TTS patients without early LV recovery have different clinical characteristics and less favorable 1-year outcome compared with patients with early recovery. The factors associated with the absence of early recovery included male sex, reduced LV ejection fraction, and acute neurologic events. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.011194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6898832PMC
November 2019

Association of Circulating Metabolites With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a European Population: Results From the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium.

JAMA Cardiol 2019 12;4(12):1270-1279

Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Importance: Risk stratification for coronary heart disease (CHD) remains challenging because of the complex causative mechanism of the disease. Metabolomic profiling offers the potential to detect new biomarkers and improve CHD risk assessment.

Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating metabolites and incident CHD in a large European cohort.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based study used the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) case-cohort to measure circulating metabolites using a targeted approach in serum samples from 10 741 individuals without prevalent CHD. The cohort consisted of a weighted, random subcohort of the original cohort of more than 70 000 individuals. The case-cohort design was applied to 6 European cohorts: FINRISK97 (Finland), Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (MONICA/KORA; Germany), MONICA-Brianza and Moli-sani (Italy), DanMONICA (Denmark), and the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (United Kingdom).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Associations with time to CHD onset were assessed individually by applying weighted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The association of metabolites with CHD onset was examined by C indices.

Results: In 10 741 individuals (4157 women [38.7%]; median [interquartile range] age, 56.5 [49.2-62.2] years), 2166 incident CHD events (20.2%) occurred over a median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 9.2 (4.5-15.0) years. Among the 141 metabolites analyzed, 24 were significantly associated with incident CHD at a nominal P value of .05, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), lysoPCs, amino acids, and sphingolipids. Five PCs remained significant after correction for multiple testing: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13 [95% CI, 1.07-1.18]), diacyl-PC C40:6 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]), acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]), diacyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]) and diacyl-PC C38:5 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]). Lower levels of these metabolites were associated with increased risk of incident CHD. The strength of the associations competes with those of classic risk factors (C statistics: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6, 0.756 [95% CI, 0.738-0.774], diacyl-PC C40:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772], acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6, 0.755 [95% CI, 0.736-0.773], diacyl-PC C38:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]), diacyl-PC C38:5, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]). Adding metabolites to a base risk model including classic risk factors high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity troponin I did not improve discrimination by C statistics.

Conclusions And Relevance: Five PCs were significantly associated with increased risk of incident CHD and showed comparable discrimination with individual classic risk factors. Although these metabolites do not improve CHD risk assessment beyond that of classic risk factors, these findings hold promise for an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822093PMC
December 2019
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