Publications by authors named "Maher Alsaaod"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Arthroscopic approaches to and anatomy of the shoulder joint of cattle: a cadaver study.

BMC Vet Res 2020 May 24;16(1):150. Epub 2020 May 24.

Clinic for Ruminants, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne, CH-3001, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Arthroscopic surgery is described as a minimally invasive technique for diagnosis, exploration and treatment of joint disorders. It allows intraarticular structures to be assessed accurately, thereby improving the diagnostic capabilities, and it broadens the spectrum of surgical techniques feasible for treatment of articular pathologies in cattle. This study aimed to assess for cattle the described arthroscopic approaches to the shoulder joint of horses, and to describe the appearance of the corresponding intraarticular structures of the shoulder joint. Additionally, to perform histological examination where tissues were identified and assessed arthroscopically, but the tissue type was uncertain using cadaveric limbs from cattle of different age categories without any signs of orthopedic diseases of the front limbs.

Results: An anatomic and arthroscopic investigation with 34-cadaveric forelimbs from 20-cattle was performed. The arthroscope was inserted either immediately cranial or 1-cm caudal to the tendon of the infraspinatus muscle for the cranial and caudal approaches, respectively. The shoulder joints were examined with the limbs in either horizontal non-pulled position, abducted non-pulled position using a three-pod limb holder adjustable in height, or horizontal manually pulled position. Arthroscopy was performed using a rigid 30°arthroscope (18-cm length, 4-mm outer diameter) to view the synovial pouches with their synovial villi and the following structures: cranial rim of the glenoid, cranial portion of the humeral head, incisura-glenoidalis, caudal rim of the glenoid, caudal portion of the humeral head, and cranial and caudal cul-de-sac. Abduction of the limb allowed improved visualization of the lateral portion of the joint. Pulling the limb facilitated investigation of the medial portion of the joint. Generally, the distention range was higher in younger as compared to adult cattle, and visualization of the medial portion of the joint was, therefore, facilitated in younger animals. The main complications observed were subcutaneous fluid extravasations and partial-thickness articular cartilages wear-lines.

Conclusion: The described arthroscopic techniques allowed good overall visualization of the most relevant anatomical structures within the healthy cadaveric joint. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of these techniques and the prognosis of arthroscopic surgery as a tool for the treatment of joint lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02337-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245894PMC
May 2020

( Noguchi 1912) Brumpt 1922 sp. nov., nom. rev., isolated from bovine digital dermatitis.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Mar;70(3):2115-2123

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

'' was originally described in 1912 by Noguchi but the name was not validly published and no type strain was designated. The taxon was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and hence has no standing in nomenclature. Six strains positive in a '' phylogroup-specific PCR test were isolated from digital dermatitis (DD) lesions of cattle and further characterized and compared with the human strain '' ATCC 27087. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses including API ZYM, VITEK2, MALDI-TOF and electron microscopy, as well as whole genome sequence data, respectively, showed that they form a cluster of species identity. Moreover, this species identity was shared with ''-like strains reported in the literature to be regularly isolated from bovine DD. High average nucleotide identity values between the genomes of bovine and human '' were observed. Slight genomic as well as phenotypic variations allowed us to differentiate bovine from human isolates, indicating host adaptation. Based on the fact that this species is regularly isolated from bovine DD and that the name is well dispersed in the literature, we propose the species sp. nov., nom. rev. The species can phenotypically and genetically be identified and is clearly separated from other species. The valid species designation will allow to further explore its role in bovine DD. The type strain for sp. nov., nom. rev. is B43.1 (=DSM 110455=NCTC 14362) isolated from a bovine DD lesion in Switzerland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004027DOI Listing
March 2020

Use of validated objective methods of locomotion characteristics and weight distribution for evaluating the efficacy of ketoprofen for alleviating pain in cows with limb pathologies.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(6):e0218546. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

In veterinary practice pain alleviation plays a part in managing lameness. The aim of this randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a single administration of ketoprofen on locomotion characteristics and weight distribution in cattle with foot (located up to and including the fetlock; n = 31) and (proximal to the fetlock; n = 10) pathologies. Cattle were randomly allocated to either the ketoprofen (group K; intravenous 3 mg/kg of body weight; n = 21) or an equivalent volume of isotonic sterile saline solution (group P; n = 20). Two accelerometers (400 Hz; kinematic outcome = stance phase duration; kinetic outcome = foot load and toe-off), a 4-scale weighing platform (weight distribution and SD of the weight) and a subjective locomotion score were measured before (baseline) and after 1 h and 18 h of treatment. All variables were expressed as differences across contralateral limbs, and the measurements at 1 h and 18 h were compared to the baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the differences between groups K and P. A logistic regression model with a binary outcome (0 = no improvement and 1 = improvement of the differences across the contralateral limbs over time) was calculated. Mean (± SD) of locomotion scores at baseline were not significantly different (P = 0.102) in group K (3.10 ± 0.80) as compared to group P (3.48 ± 0.64). Cattle of group K showed significantly lower differences across contralateral limbs at 1 h as compared to group P for the relative stance phase and the weight distribution. Only the treatment (P versus K) remained a significant factor in the model for relative stance phase (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; 95% CI = 1.38-30.68) and weight distribution (OR = 6.36; 95% CI = 1.30-31.07). The effects of ketoprofen were evident in improving the differences across contralateral limbs-both for stance phase during walking and weight bearing during standing-after 1 h but not after 18 h of administration.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218546PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581267PMC
February 2020

Automatic lameness detection in cattle.

Vet J 2019 Apr 31;246:35-44. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland.

There is an increasing demand for health and welfare monitoring in modern dairy farming. The development of various innovative techniques aims at improving animal behaviour monitoring and thus animal welfare indicators on-farm. Automated lameness detection systems have to be valid, reliable and practicable to be applied in veterinary practice or under farm conditions. The objective of this literature review was to describe the current automated systems for detection of lameness in cattle, which have been recently developed and investigated for application in dairy research and practice. The automatic methods of lameness detection broadly fall into three categories: kinematic, kinetic and indirect methods. The performance of the methods were compared with the reference standard (locomotion score and/or lesion score) and evaluated based on level-based scheme defining the degree of development (level I, sensor technique; level II, validation of algorithm; level III, performance for detection of lameness and/or lesion; level IV, decision support with early warning system). Many scientific studies have been performed on levels I-III, but there are no studies of level IV technology. The adoption rate of automated lameness detection systems by herd managers mainly yields returns on investment by the early identification of lame cows. Long-term studies, using validated automated lameness detection systems aiming at early lameness detection, are still needed in order to improve welfare and production under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.01.005DOI Listing
April 2019

Validation of a noseband pressure sensor algorithm as a tool for evaluation of feeding behaviour in dairy Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis).

J Dairy Res 2019 Feb 7;86(1):40-42. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions,University of Napoli 'Federico II,' Via Delpino 1,80137 Napoli,Italy.

This research communication addresses the goal of validating an algorithm to monitor natural occurrence of feeding behaviours in dairy Mediterranean buffalo based on the output of a noseband pressure sensor (RumiWatch®, halter). Several characteristics of the feeding behaviour were detected with a very high (ruminating boluses), high (chews per bolus) and moderate degree of correlation (chews per minute) with video analyses (gold standard). All of them were associated with a low mean difference with the gold standard, and the mean relative measurement error ranged between low (ruminating boluses) and moderate (chews per bolus and chews per minute). The proportion of correctly detected events for the variables rumination and eating time was 98 and 99%, respectively. The collection of data and subsequent evaluation of the parameters investigated may provide objective information on Mediterranean Buffalo behaviours allowing for reliable studies of the animal welfare in this ruminant in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029919000074DOI Listing
February 2019

Objective assessment of lameness in cattle after foot surgery.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(12):e0209783. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Assessment of lameness in cattle after foot surgery is important to monitor the recovery period, to improve the long-term success and the cows` welfare. This longitudinal multicenter retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of automated tools of weight bearing and gait analysis following foot surgery to support the clinician to monitor lameness in cattle. For this purpose, the effect of involvement of different anatomical structures and the use of different surgery methods on gait parameters of post-operative recovery was assessed. The study consisted of 2 experiments and included cattle with unilateral foot pathologies located in the digital region which needed 1 (experiment 1; n = 30) or 2 (experiment 2; n = 4) surgical interventions. The surgical techniques were debridement, joint lavage, partial resection of bones, tendons or synovial structures, total resection of the sesamoid bone and digit amputation. Two accelerometers (400 Hz; kinematic outcome = stance phase duration; kinetic outcome = foot load and toe-off), a 4-scale weighing platform (difference of mean weight distribution across the limbs; Δweight) and a subjective locomotion score were used to evaluate gait parameters every 3 to 4 days after surgery. A repeated measures ANOVA was used in experiment 1 and a receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff values in experiment 2. Results showed that the differences across limbs for the pedogram variables of stance phases and peaks of foot load and toe-off, Δweight and the locomotion score were highest if joints or sesamoid bones were involved, suggesting that these cattle were more severely lame compared to cattle with more superficial foot pathologies. There was a significantly lower degree of lameness after surgical debridement and after digit amputation compared to partial and total resection of anatomical structures of the foot. The use of accelerometers and a 4-scale weighing platform represent promising objective tools for post-operative monitoring of lameness and can support the clinician in gait assessment to improve the long-term success of surgical interventions in the area of the foot.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209783PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310356PMC
June 2019

Validation of a pedometer algorithm as a tool for evaluation of locomotor behaviour in dairy Mediterranean buffalo.

J Dairy Res 2017 Nov;84(4):391-394

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions,University of Napoli 'Federico II,' Via Delpino 1,80137 Napoli,Italy.

This research communication validates an algorithm to monitor natural occurrence of locomotor behaviours in dairy Mediterranean buffalo based on the output of a 3-dimensional accelerometer (RumiWatch®, pedometer). Several characteristics of the locomotor behaviour were detected with a very high (up-right, lying and standing time) or high degree of correlation (walking time and number of strides) and a low mean difference with the video recording. The proportion of correctly detected events exceeded 99 % for the following variables: stand up and lie down events, as well as number of lying, standing or walking bouts. The mean relative measurement error was less than 10 % for the variables: lying, standing, up-right times and number of strides as compared with gold standard. This new algorithm may represent the base for a future early and real-time disease warning system aiming to gain higher health standard in these ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029917000668DOI Listing
November 2017

Prediction of calving time in dairy cattle.

Anim Reprod Sci 2017 Dec 5;187:37-46. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse-Faculty, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

This prospective study was carried out to predict the calving time in primiparous (n=11) and multiparous (n=22) Holstein-Friesian cows using the combination of data obtained from the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer. The animals included in the study were fitted with the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer at least 10days before the expected calving day. The calving event was defined as the time of the first appearance of the calves' feet outside the vulva, and this moment was determined by farm staff and/or confirmed by video monitor. As primiparous and multiparous cows behaved differently, two models including data of noseband-sensors and 3D-accelerometers were used to predict the calving time in each group. Lying bouts (LB) increased and rumination chews (RC) decreased similarly in both groups; besides that, boluses (B) decreased and other activities (OA) increased significantly in multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for prediction of the onset of calving within the next 3h were determined with the logistic regression and ROC analysis (Se=88.9%, 85% and Sp=93.3%, 74% for multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively). This pilot study revealed that the RumiWatch system is a useful tool to predict calving time under farm conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.003DOI Listing
December 2017

Assessment of foot health and animal welfare: clinical findings in 229 dairy Mediterranean Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) affected by foot disorders.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Jun 14;12(1):107. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Clinic for Ruminants, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne, 3012, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Lameness represents the third most important health-related cause of economic loss in the dairy industry after fertility and mastitis. Although, dairy Mediterranean Buffaloes (MB) and dairy cows share similar breeding systems predisposing to similar herd problems, published studies exploring its relevance and role in these ruminants are still rare and incomplete. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical findings of foot disorders (FDs) in dairy MB and their influence on animal welfare, determined by assessment of locomotion score (LS), body condition score (BCS) and cleanliness score (CS).

Results: Of 1297 multiparous MB submitted to routine trimming procedures, 229 buffaloes showed at least one FD. The prevalence of buffaloes affected by FDs was 17.7 %, while motility and lameness indexes were 84.1 % (1091/1297) and 15.9 % (206/1297), respectively. Overgrowth was present in 17.0 % (220/1297), corkscrew claw in 15.8 % (205/1297), interdigital phlegmon in 0.9 % (12/1297), white line abscess in 0.8 % (11/1297), digital dermatitis in 0.1 % (1/1297) and interdigital hyperplasia in 0.1 % (1/1297). Simultaneous presence of FDs was recorded in 17.0 % of MB (221/1297): overgrowth and corkscrew claw occurred together in 15.8 % of cases (205/1297), overgrowth and interdigital phlegmon in 0.3 % (4/1297), overgrowth and white line abscess in 0.8 % (11/1297), digital dermatitis and interdigital hyperplasia in 0.1 % (1/1297). The presence of FDs was always associated with lameness (LS > 2), except from 23 MB with simultaneous overgrowth and interdigital phlegmon occurrence. The majority of MB within the under-conditioned group (95.5 %, 43/45) and all those with CS > 2 (122/122) had a locomotion score above the threshold of normality (LS > 2). Furthermore, foot diseases such as interdigital hyperplasia, white line abscess and digital dermatitis or interdigital hyperplasia seemed to occur more frequently associated with decreased BCS and increased CS scores.

Conclusions: This study describes for the first time the involvement of white line disease, interdigital phlegmona, digital dermatitis and interdigital hyperplasia in foot disorders of dairy Mediterranean buffalo and shows their association with an impairment of animal welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0726-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906600PMC
June 2016

Use of Extended Characteristics of Locomotion and Feeding Behavior for Automated Identification of Lame Dairy Cows.

PLoS One 2016 17;11(5):e0155796. Epub 2016 May 17.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

This study was carried out to detect differences in locomotion and feeding behavior in lame (group L; n = 41; gait score ≥ 2.5) and non-lame (group C; n = 12; gait score ≤ 2) multiparous Holstein cows in a cross-sectional study design. A model for automatic lameness detection was created, using data from accelerometers attached to the hind limbs and noseband sensors attached to the head. Each cow's gait was videotaped and scored on a 5-point scale before and after a period of 3 consecutive days of behavioral data recording. The mean value of 3 independent experienced observers was taken as a definite gait score and considered to be the gold standard. For statistical analysis, data from the noseband sensor and one of two accelerometers per cow (randomly selected) of 2 out of 3 randomly selected days was used. For comparison between group L and group C, the T-test, the Aspin-Welch Test and the Wilcoxon Test were used. The sensitivity and specificity for lameness detection was determined with logistic regression and ROC-analysis. Group L compared to group C had significantly lower eating and ruminating time, fewer eating chews, ruminating chews and ruminating boluses, longer lying time and lying bout duration, lower standing time, fewer standing and walking bouts, fewer, slower and shorter strides and a lower walking speed. The model considering the number of standing bouts and walking speed was the best predictor of cows being lame with a sensitivity of 90.2% and specificity of 91.7%. Sensitivity and specificity of the lameness detection model were considered to be very high, even without the use of halter data. It was concluded that under the conditions of the study farm, accelerometer data were suitable for accurately distinguishing between lame and non-lame dairy cows, even in cases of slight lameness with a gait score of 2.5.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155796PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871330PMC
July 2017

The Role of Infrared Thermography as a Non-Invasive Tool for the Detection of Lameness in Cattle.

Sensors (Basel) 2015 Jun 18;15(6):14513-25. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3001, Switzerland.

The use of infrared thermography for the identification of lameness in cattle has increased in recent years largely because of its non-invasive properties, ease of automation and continued cost reductions. Thermography can be used to identify and determine thermal abnormalities in animals by characterizing an increase or decrease in the surface temperature of their skin. The variation in superficial thermal patterns resulting from changes in blood flow in particular can be used to detect inflammation or injury associated with conditions such as foot lesions. Thermography has been used not only as a diagnostic tool, but also to evaluate routine farm management. Since 2000, 14 peer reviewed papers which discuss the assessment of thermography to identify and manage lameness in cattle have been published. There was a large difference in thermography performance in these reported studies. However, thermography was demonstrated to have utility for the detection of contralateral temperature difference and maximum foot temperature on areas of interest. Also apparent in these publications was that a controlled environment is an important issue that should be considered before image scanning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s150614513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507600PMC
June 2015

Experience with the delegation of anaesthesia for disbudding and castration to trained and certified livestock owners.

BMC Vet Res 2014 Feb 4;10:35. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Berne 3012, Switzerland.

Background: Anaesthesia is mandatory for disbudding and castrating calves and lambs of any age, in Switzerland. According to the "anaesthesia delegation model" (ADM), anaesthesia for disbudding calves <3 weeks of age and castrating calves and lambs <2 weeks of age may be administered by certified farmers. Experience with this unique model is not available. The aim was to evaluate the experience of the veterinary practitioners with the ADM. The response rate was 42%. The survey consisted of one questionnaire for each procedure. Procedure I was the delegation of anaesthesia for disbudding calves and procedures II and III were anaesthesia for castrating calves and lambs.

Results: Procedure I was performed with local anaesthesia in all farms of 51.8% of the veterinary practices, while this was only 39.3% and 7.6% for procedures II and III (p < 0.001). Anaesthesia for procedure I was administered technically correctly by farmers in at least 66% of the farms of 58.3% of the practitioners, while this was 45.4% and only 23.6% for procedures II and III (p < 0.001). The ADM was assessed as a moderate to very good model to reinforce the legal obligations for procedures I, II, or III by 74.8%, 76.5% and 62.0% of the veterinary practitioners (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: The delegation of anaesthesia to certified farmers may be a promising model to reinforce the obligation to provide local anaesthesia for disbudding and castrating calves, but to a lesser extent for castrating lambs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-10-35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922627PMC
February 2014