Publications by authors named "Mahendra Singh"

258 Publications

Challenges with the proposed approach in enhancing the accessibility of antimalarial activities during COVID 19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 6;14(8):1089-1094. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India. Electronic address:

COVID 19 has hardly left any part of the world untouched. Two hundred thirteen countries have been affected by this disease, with 17,208,324 cases and 670,626 deaths as of July 30, 2020. If we look at the death toll caused by Malaria, this year, it is closely nearing COVID 19 deaths, 5, 68,700 deaths. Malaria mostly occurs in poor, tropical, and subtropical regions across the globe. In 2018, Malaria was most rampant in Africa, followed by Southeast Asian Regions (SEAR). SEAR is at the greatest risk of both COVID 19 and malaria. Strategies for essential commodities and antimalarial activities are affected by COVID 19 when the rainy season registers the maximum malaria load. We searched the literature to explore the evidence regarding efficacious antimalarial activities and the gap created by the COVID 19 pandemic, responsible barriers, and challenges, with the possible approaches towards accomplishing a target for malaria control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257400PMC
July 2021

Involvement of Peroxiredoxin-3, Thioredoxin-2, and Protein Deglycase-1 in Cypermethrin-Induced Parkinsonism.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhawan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Owing to its lipophilic nature, cypermethrin makes entry into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and causes severe damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons after prolonged exposure. Following substantial accrual in the brain, cypermethrin induces the abnormal expression and accumulation of α-synuclein. Besides, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) causes free radical generation leading to lipid peroxidation in toxicant-induced parkinsonism. Conversely, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, is known to contribute to neuronal damage. The current investigation aimed to explicate the participation of endogenous redox-sensitive proteins in cypermethrin-induced cellular and animal models of parkinsonism. The qualitative and quantitative expressions of selected redox-sensitive proteins were evaluated employing the standard procedures. Cypermethrin reduced the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3), thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), and protein deglycase-1 (DJ-1). Knocking down of Prx3, Trx2, or DJ-1 further reduced the level of expression in the cypermethrin-treated group. Reduction in the expression of Prx3, Trx2, or DJ-1 was found to be associated with overexpression of α-synuclein and 4-HNE modification of proteins. Besides, cypermethrin increased the expression of CYP2E1, which was not altered after Prx3 or Trx2 knockdown. However, knocking down the DJ-1 augmented the level of CYP2E1 both in the cypermethrin-treated group and its respective control. The outcomes of the study demonstrate that cypermethrin reduces the level of Prx3, Trx2, and DJ-1 proteins. While the reduction in the expression of selected redox-sensitive proteins leads to α-synuclein overexpression and 4-HNE modification of proteins, DJ-1 attenuation is also linked with increased CYP2E1 expression, which in turn could lead to oxidative stress-mediated neuronal damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02456-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Ameliorative Role of Nutraceuticals on Neurodegenerative Diseases Using the as a Discovery Model to Define Bioefficacy.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Jun 14:1-29. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

Neurodegeneration is the destruction of neurons, and once the neurons degenerate they can't revive. This is one of the most concerned health conditions among aged population, more than ∼70% of the elderly people are suffering from neurodegeneration. Among all of the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Poly-glutamine disease (Poly-Q) are the major one and affecting most of the people around the world and posing excessive burden on the society. In order to understand this disease in non-human animal models it is pertinent to examine in model organism and various animal model are being used for such diseases like rat, mice and non-vertebrate model like Drosophila. is one of the best animal proven by several eminent scientist and had received several Nobel prizes for uncovering mechanism of human related genes and highly efficient model for studying neurodegenerative diseases due to its great affinity with human disease-related genes. Another factor is also employed to act as therapeutic or preventive method that is nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals are functional natural compounds with antioxidant properties and had extensively showed the neuroprotective effect in different organisms. These nutraceuticals having antioxidant properties act through scavenging free radicals or by increasing endogenous cellular antioxidant defense molecules. For the best benefit, we are trying to utilize these nutraceuticals, which will have no or negligible side effects. In this review, we are dealing with various types of such nutraceuticals which have potent value in the prevention and curing of the diseases related to neurodegeneration.HighlightsNeurodegeneration is the silently progressing disease which shows its symptoms when it is well rooted.Many chemical drugs (almost all) have only symptomatic relief with side effects.Potent mechanism of neurodegeneration and improvement effect by nutraceuticals is proposed.Based on the Indian Cuisine scientists are trying to find the medicine from the food or food components having antioxidant properties.The best model to study the neurodegenerative diseases is .Many nutraceuticals having antioxidant properties have been studied and attenuated various diseases are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2021.1904305DOI Listing
June 2021

Alleviation of heat stress by Chlorophytum borivilianum: impact on stress markers, antioxidant, and immune status in crossbred cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jun 8;53(3):351. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001, India.

Eighteen crossbred Karan Fries (KF) cows in mid-lactation (av. 130 days) were selected from the livestock herd of the institute. The treatment for the experimental cows was as follows: no supplement (control), a low dose of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) at a dose rate of 40 mg/kg BW/day (T1, n = 6), and a high dose of CB at a dose rate of 80 mg/kg BW/day (T2, n = 6) for a period of 90 days in hot-humid season. Physiological responses like respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded in the morning (8.00 A.M.) and afternoon (2.30 P.M.) at weekly intervals. The expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in PBMCs, the plasma level of antioxidants (SOD, catalase, TBARS, and TAC), hormones (cortisol, prolactin), and energy metabolites (glucose, NEFA, urea, and creatinine) were determined. Dry and wet bulb temperatures and minimum and maximum temperatures were recorded, and the THI was calculated. The values of PR and RT were decreased (p < 0.01) in the T2 group in comparison to T1. Plasma glucose level was lower, and NEFA, urea, and creatinine level were higher (p < 0.01) in the control group as compared to T2 and T1 groups, respectively. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the control group and were lower in T1 and T2 groups. Feeding of CB in high dose decreased (p < 0.01) plasma SOD, catalase, TBARS, and improved TAC levels in T2 over the T1 group. The dietary supplementation of CB at a dose rate of 80 mg/kg BW/day was more effective in lowering the stress level and augments the immunity by downregulating pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. Therefore, dietary CB supplementation could be used as an effective heat stress ameliorator in dairy cows.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02796-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Ocular cysticercosis at a teaching hospital in Northern India.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):8-13. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Background: Ocular cysticercosis (OC) is common in tropical countries. This study aimed to analyze the clinical presentation patterns, management and treatment outcomes of OC cases seen at a teaching hospital in North India.

Methods: This study took place between March 2014 and February 2019. A total of 36 patients with OC were analyzed to determine clinical presentation and outcomes.

Results: Of the 36 patients, 13 (36.11%) were male and 23 (63.89%) were female. The most frequently affected age group was 10-29 years (n = 22; 61.11%). All of the patients had unilateral lesions, with involvement of the left eye in 22 (61.11%) and the right in 14 (38.89%). The majority of cases were isolated to the ocular region; however, five (13.89%) demonstrated neural involvement as well. In terms of cyst location, 15 (41.67%) were orbital, 13 (36.11%) were subconjunctival and four each (11.11%) were intraocular or on the eyelid. The most common clinical presentations were subconjunctival masses or proptosis in 13 each (36.11%) and periorbital swelling in 12 (33.33%). Most patients received medical treatment (n - 23; 63.89%), while the others required surgical excision. Recurrence was noted in seven patients (19.44%), of which three underwent surgery while the rest were treated medically. Two patients (5.56%) developed phthisis.

Conclusions: In this study, OC cysts were more often orbital or subconjunctival compared to findings reported from Western countries. In addition, a female preponderance was noted in contrast to previously reported findings. Advanced radioimaging is crucial to ensure early diagnosis and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ojo.OJO_122_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095313PMC
February 2021

Primary to tertiary COVID-19 transmission in a hospital - A cluster outbreak analysis.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Mar 8;10(3):1489-1492. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine (Infectious Disease Division), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

The recent pandemic of SARS COV-2, a novel coronavirus requires research into understanding of its transmission dynamics and clinical presentations to help in understanding the spread of the disease, how to prevent it not only locally but also for national policy formulations. In this study, we described the transmission dynamics and clinical presentations of a cluster outbreak of SARS COV-2 in a tertiary level hospital. We also calculated the secondary attack rate for the primary, secondary, and tertiary transmissions. We conclude that symptomatic COVID-19 are primary and secondary contacts rather than tertiary contacts, hence, former to be quarantined. However, tertiary transmission is causing more COVID-19 compared to other transmissions in a hospital outbreak without further transmissibility. And overall secondary attack rate is very low in a hospital outbreak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2104_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140238PMC
March 2021

Minimally Invasive Thoracolumbar Corpectomy and Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation with Computer-Assisted Rod-Bending System in Single Lateral Position: Technical Note.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul 18;151:138-144. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kawasaki Medical University, Kurashiki, Japan.

Background: Thoracolumbar corpectomy and percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) fixation is becoming the standard method for correcting and stabilizing malalignment of spine, as is often seen in osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Nowadays, this procedure can be performed in a single lateral position with navigation. For an osteoporotic spine, accurate rod bending is necessary to prevent screw back-out. We describe a new technique using the spinal rod-bending system in a single lateral position.

Methods: A 71-year-old woman presented with severe back pain and impending paraplegia secondary to L1 osteoporotic vertebral fracture. We performed minimally invasive L1 corpectomy with an expandable vertebral cage and short-segment PPS with computer-assisted rod bending in a single lateral position under navigation guidance.

Results: The patient was successfully treated with surgery, and her low back pain improved. Her clinical outcomes improved; the Oswestry Disability Index went from 54% to 26%, and her low back pain visual analog scale score went from 78 mm to 19 mm at the 2-year final follow-up.

Conclusions: Minimally invasive surgery thoracolumbar corpectomy using a computer-assisted spinal rod-bending system is a valuable technique to reduce screw back-out for osteoporotic vertebrae. With this new technique, the rod bending becomes easy, even for long PPS fusion with the severe osteoporotic or deformity patient in a single lateral position.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.05.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Functional and aesthetic outcome after ventral spatulation of urethra in partial penectomy.

Urologia 2021 May 3:3915603211013170. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Introduction: Partial penectomy is one of the common organ preserving procedures for penile malignancies and certain benign conditions. Partial penectomy causes psychosexual morbidity to the patient. Dorsal spatulation of urethra is classically done while performing the procedure, it carries risk of meatal stenosis along with compromised cosmesis. Several complex neoglans reconstructive techniques exist to prevent stenosis and improve cosmetic outcomes. We hereby describe outcomes of a simple and reproducible modification of the procedure by ventral spatulation of the urethra.

Materials And Method: An analysis of 31 partial penectomies from May 2016 to June 2019 using a ventral spatulation technique was done. Patients were followed up for an average of 1 year to look for meatal stenosis, the morphological appearance of residual stump and psychosexual well-being.

Results: None of the patient had meatal stenosis on follow up. All patients had a satisfactory cosmetic outcome, scoring 6 or more on ANA scale. Seventeen patients reported "satisfied", six scored "highly satisfied "and eight were "harmonic" with the outcome. Out of 31, significant patients (20) were sexually active with most of them "equally satisfied or dissatisfied" or "very much satisfied."

Conclusion: Used uncommonly, ventral spatulation of urethra is a simple, reproducible and less time consuming alternative, which avoids the chances of meatal stenosis and gives goodcosmetic results with psychological benefits to patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03915603211013170DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of Chlorophytum borivilianum supplementation on milk production, composition and fatty acid profile in crossbred cows during hot-humid season.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 30;53(2):300. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132001, India.

The present investigation was carried out to test the efficacy of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) supplementation on milk production, composition, and fatty acid profile in crossbred (KF) cows. Eighteen crossbred cows were selected randomly from the institute herd and divided as control (n = 6), treatment 1 (T1, n = 6) and treatment 2 (T2, n = 6) based on body weight (av. 410.45, 424.47, 414.45 kg) and milk yield (av. 15.17, 15.80, 15.95 kg/d), respectively. The CB was supplemented at low dose at a dose rate of 40 mg/kg BW/day (T1) and high dose at a dose rate of 80 mg/kg BW/day (T2) during hot-humid (HH) season. The parameters like milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight were recorded and milk composition viz., milk fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, and fatty acid profile, somatic cell count (SCC), and plasminogen were estimated. Temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated to assess the level of heat stress on animals during hot-humid (HH) season. Body weight of crossbred cows did not vary between the groups during HH season. C. borivilianum supplementation in higher dose (80 mg/kg BW/day) increased DMI (per 100 kg BW) (p < 0.01) in T2 group KF cows in comparison to T1 and control group. The supplementation of CB in high dose increased milk yield, milk fat, protein, plasminogen and decreased SCC in comparison to low dose and control. Further, ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (SFAs:UFAs) was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) due to CB supplementation at higher dose in comparison to lower dose. It was concluded that supplementation of C. borivilianum at a dose rate of 80 mg/kg BW/day was found effective to augment milk production. The reduced saturated fatty acid, milk SCC, and the increase in unsaturated fatty acid content of milk, milk plasminogen suggest that its supplementation could be used in improving the mammary health and quality of milk production in dairy animals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02747-7DOI Listing
April 2021

A general overview of mucocele of appendix.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Dec 31;9(12):5867-5871. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Consultant Surgeon, Private Clinic, Katara, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Mucocele of the appendix is a very rare disease entity that often discovered incidentally during surgery. It can result from both non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions and histopathological examination is needed for confirmation. Failure to make an early preoperative diagnosis may results in its rapture and spillage of mucin contents into the peritoneal cavity leading to a disastrous complication of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) that has a very bad prognosis. A clear pathological terminology and management strategies of appendiceal mucocele (AM) is lacking. This literature review aims to derive detailed information related to clinical significance of AM to avoid complication of PMP and plan appropriately during surgery according to the current evidence. The relevant articles from scientific databases such as Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and extracted using the keywords "mucocele appendix" "cystadenoma%". Data based on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, complications, pathology, diagnostic work up and management were analyzed and summarized. A meticulous surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment and open surgical approach is still preferred over laparoscopy. Preoperative diagnosis of AM is very imperative as it may harbour neoplasm and can be made utilising the imaging tools like computed tomography and ultrasonography. Primary care physicians can have a crucial role in making early detection and timely referral for appropriate management in order to avoid complications. After appendectomy, 5-year survival rate for the simple AM is 91%-100% but it reduces to 25% for the malignant AM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1547_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928084PMC
December 2020

Right Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: A Large-Volume, Single-Center Experience.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Mar 19;19(3):217-223. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

From the Department of Urology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi, India.

Objectives: The right kidney is not commonly selected for donor nephrectomy compared with the left kidney. Most left donor nephrectomies are performed by laparoscopic approach, whereas open donor nephrectomies are preferred on the right side. We present our experience of right laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, which was a substantial percentage of all performed laparoscopic donor nephrectomies.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all the donor nephrectomies performed at a single center, including indicators for right side open donor nephrectomy, as well as the demographic details of donors and intraoperative events, complications, and hospital stay for right side laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Recipients were evaluated for outcome and complications.

Results: We performed 850 donor nephrectomies, including 640 left donor nephrectomies and 210 right donor nephrectomies. Of 210 right donor nephrectomies, 160 cases were performed laparoscopically, and 50 cases were open surgeries. Common indications for choice of right open donor nephrectomy were related to the donor. Factors related to the recipient included obesity, left iliac fossa transplant, and robotic transplant to the recipient. The surgical outcomes or complication rates in right side laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were not significantly different. Regarding recipients, we found that graft function, perioperative parameters, and vascular complications did not differ much in right side laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

Conclusions: The right side laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is as safe as left laparoscopic donor nephrectomy or right side open donor nephrectomy. Careful consideration of recipient factors is very important along with donor factors before opting for an open or laparoscopic approach on the right side. Slight modifications in technique may provide a few additional millimeters of length, which can significantly increase the incentive to choose laparoscopic donor nephrectomy on the right side.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2020.0346DOI Listing
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 and Glutamine: SARS-CoV-2 Triggered Pathogenesis Metabolic Reprograming of Glutamine in Host Cells.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 11;7:627842. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Life and Applied Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has killed more than a million people worldwide, and researchers are constantly working to develop therapeutics in the treatment and prevention of this new viral infection. To infect and induced pathogenesis as observed in other viral infections, we postulated that SARS-CoV-2 may also require an escalation in the anabolic metabolism, such as glucose and glutamine, to support its energy and biosynthetic requirements during the infection cycle. Recently, the requirement of altered glucose metabolism in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis was demonstrated, but the role of dysregulated glutamine metabolism is not yet mentioned for its infection. In this perspective, we have attempted to provide a summary of possible biochemical events on putative metabolic reprograming of glutamine in host cells upon SARS-CoV-2 infection by comparison to other viral infections/cancer metabolism and available clinical data or research on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This systematic hypothesis concluded the vital role of glutaminase-1 (GLS1), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), glutamine-fructose amidotransferase 1/2 (GFAT1/2), and transcription factor Myc as key cellular factors to mediate and promote the glutamine metabolic reprogramming in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. In absence of concrete data available for SARS-CoV-2 induced metabolic reprogramming of glutamine, this study efforts to connect the gaps with available clinical shreds of evidence in SARS-CoV-2 infection with altered glutamine metabolism and hopefully could be beneficial in the designing of strategic methods for therapeutic development with elucidation using or approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.627842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873863PMC
January 2021

Epidemiology and Clinicopathological Profile of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review from Tertiary Care Referral Centre.

J Kidney Cancer VHL 2021 20;8(1):1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radio-Therapy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3% of all adult cancers and 85% of all kidney tumours. Incidence of RCC is lower in Asian region, particularly in India, probably due to lack of reporting. Most of the data about RCC are from Western countries; and data from India are scarce, especially regarding para-neoplastic syndromes. We sought to determine the epidemiology, clinicopathological profile and management of RCC in a tertiary care centre in Western India. This was a retrospective study that involved data analysis of records of RCC patients who presented to our institution from April 2016 to February 2020. Laboratory investigations, including tests for paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS), and relevant radiologic investigations were performed and treatment was offered according to the stage, patient factors and available modalities. A total 142 RCC patients were included in the study. The median age of presentation was 58 years. Most of the patients (67%) were symptomatic, and 33% of the patients were asymptomatic, and the RCC was diagnosed incidentally. A large number of patients (56.3%) had PNS. The most common histopathologic type of RCC was clear cell carcinoma (68.8%), followed by papillary (20%) and chromophobe (8%) carcinoma. 40% of carcinomas with sarcomatoid differentiation were seen in patients under 50 years of age. Two cases of multicystic RCC were both seen in patients less than 50 years of age. 65.5% of the patients presented at Stage 1 and 2. Most surgeries (71.2%) were done in a minimally invasive manner. A significant number of patients were asymptomatic, in which RCC was detected incidentally. The age of presentation was earlier, yet the patients had a higher tumour stage. More than half of the patients had PNSs. Despite growing trend towards Western data, the significantly higher number of patients with PNSs and early age of presentation suggest inherent differences in tumour biology, possibly related to differences in genetic and environmental factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15586/jkcvhl.2021.154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827726PMC
January 2021

Clinicopathological Analysis and Demographic Features of Ocular Malignancies.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 29;15:357-365. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Centre for Experimental Medicine & Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinicopathological spectrum of ocular malignancies among patients presenting to a teaching hospital in Northern India.

Methods: A total of 246 histopathologically diagnosed patients with ocular malignancies were included in the study. Tumor type and size, primary origin and location of tumor, clinical staging, radiological findings, histopathological type, and treatment outcomes were assessed.

Results: Overall, males over 55 years of age were most commonly affected and the majority of cases were primary ocular or adnexal malignancies (n = 226; 91.87%). The eyelids and periocular structures (n = 92; 37.40%) were the most commonly involved site, followed by the orbit (n = 72; 29.27%), ocular surface (n = 46; 18.70%) and intraocular region (n = 36; 14.63%). The majority of the patients (n = 68; 27.64%) were managed by primary surgical excision and reconstruction. However, 46 patients (18.70%) with advanced lesions underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical excision and more extensive orbital lesions were treated by exenteration followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (n=48; 19.51%), while patients with metastatic tumor were given palliative chemotherapy/external beam radiation therapy (n= 46; 18.70%). Overall, 45.12% of patients were cured completely, 15.45% showed a partial response to the treatment, 13.04% had progressive disease and 16.67% demonstrated disease recurrence.

Conclusion: A clinicopathological analysis of ocular malignancies at a teaching hospital in Northern India indicated the preponderance of primary ocular malignancies, with eyelid sebaceous gland carcinomas being the most common pathological diagnosis. Most of our patients had advanced and extensive disease among them majority belonged to the rural background and poor socio-economic status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S287087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853408PMC
January 2021

Social taboos: a formidable challenge in cancer care.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 11;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Taboo surrounding cancer has continued to be a stubborn and refractory public health issue especially in South Asian countries. Disparities in cancer care remain ubiquitous. Differences in the manner in which cancer is perceived, addressed, and treated might partly be a result of varying cultural influences. This case report highlights the clinical course of a female patient with neurofibromatosis who later developed a large facial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. The case particularly addresses the catastrophic impact of the 'cancer-related social taboos' on various dimensions of cancer care ranging from primary and secondary prevention to definitive management. The financial issues in low-income to medium-income groups as potential deterrents to optimum treatment have also been highlighted. Approach to the common challenges faced by an oncologist practising in a society plagued by misconceptions about health and disease and potential remedial measures to debunk these myths have also been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802719PMC
January 2021

Treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients detected by active case finding under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme during 2018 in Haridwar district of Uttarakhand.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Oct 30;9(10):5132-5135. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: In India, the active case-finding (ACF) strategy began in 2017 under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme to find its missing tuberculosis (TB) cases. Few studies have been conducted in India to assess the treatment outcome of TB patients detected by ACF.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment outcomes of patients detected through ACF campaigns during the year 2018 in Haridwar district, Uttarakhand.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study which used the existing data and records.

Materials And Methods: The ACF campaign records of 2018 were extracted from six TB units of Haridwar district. Details of sociodemographic, clinical profile, and treatment outcome of 100 diagnosed patients were obtained and analyzed.

Results: Out of the total 100 TB patients detected, the site of disease was pulmonary in 98% of patients. Almost all (92%) the patients were diagnosed microbiologically and treatment was initiated by 78% of the patients. The proportion of successful treatment outcome was found in 64% of the patients. The median time interval from diagnosis to treatment was found to be 2 days.

Conclusion: In spite of these efforts of ACF, a high proportion of initial loss to follow-up (22%) and unsuccessful treatment outcome (18%) among ACF patients is a major concern. Findings of ACF campaign pose a concern for active follow-up after diagnosis and close monitoring during treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_623_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773101PMC
October 2020

Is Gut Dysbiosis an Epicenter of Parkinson's Disease?

Neurochem Res 2021 Mar 5;46(3):425-438. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhawan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Once recognized as one of the most esoteric diseases of the central nervous system, Parkinson's disease (PD) is now deemed to be a chronic illness contributed by the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Most likely, an accumulation of α-synuclein in the central and enteric nervous systems is the key that supports this viewpoint. Constipation, one of the non-motor hallmarks in roughly two-third of PD patients, is regulated by the composition of gut bacteria, which is assumed to set off the enteric α-synuclein accrual. Vagus nerve is suggested to direct the signal for α-synuclein over-expression and accumulation to the brain. While trillions of microorganisms reside in the intestinal tract, only one third of the proportion inhabits evenly in all individuals. Existence of an impaired gut-microbe-brain axis consonant with dysbiosis could be an epicenter of this inexplicable disorder. Any alteration in the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract owing to exposure of endogenous or exogenous chemicals or toxicants could lead to dysbiosis. However, inconsistency in the symptoms even after exposure to same chemical or toxicant in PD patients emphatically creates a conundrum. While the level of a few specific neurotransmitters and metabolites is influenced by microbes, implication of dysbiosis is still debatable. Nevertheless, the scientific literature is overflowing with the remarkable observations supporting the role of dysbiosis in PD. Lack of specificity to differentially diagnose PD with non-PD or PD-plus syndrome, to identify highly precise drug targets and to develop therapeutic stratagems to encounter the disease on the basis of this approach, causes us to be open-minded about the dysbiosis theory. The article reviews the facts supporting gut dysbiosis as the foremost trigger for PD onset along with disagreements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-020-03187-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in biopsy-proven type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis: comparative analysis with biopsy-proven type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

ANZ J Surg 2021 05 28;91(5):907-914. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Surgery, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Autoimmune processes are now an increasingly recognized cause of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare, benign pathology with two distinct clinicopathologic subtypes. The aim of this study was to compare the presentation, diagnostic considerations and outcomes of patients with biopsy-proven type 1 and 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).

Methods: A retrospective review of the Queensland Health pathology database of histologically proven AIP was conducted. Parameters compared included demographics, diagnostic criterion and post-treatment outcomes.

Results: Twenty-three patients had a confirmed histological diagnosis of AIP (type 1 = 13, type 2 = 10). Patients with type 2 AIP were younger (median age 49 versus 59 years, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in gender distribution of disease at presentation. Type 2 AIP presented with significant increased focal pancreatic changes on cross-sectional imaging (80% versus 54%, P < 0.05). Serum IgG4 levels were raised (>1.40 g/L) in 69% of patients with type 1 AIP and not detected in type 2 (P < 0.01). Concurrent underlying inflammatory bowel disease was present in a higher proportion of type 2 AIP (40% versus 15%, P < 0.05). A significantly increased proportion of patients with type 2 AIP underwent surgical resection (70% versus 30%, P < 0.05). Conservative management was utilized in more patients with type 1 disease (54% versus 30%). On follow-up, two patients have experienced symptomatic relapse at 6-18 months.

Conclusions: Diagnostic challenges do exist and clinicians must suspect 2 type AIP in young, serum IgG4-negative inflammatory bowel disease patients with recurrent pancreatitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16445DOI Listing
May 2021

Non-COVID area of a tertiary care hospital: A major source of nosocomial COVID-19 transmission.

J Family Community Med 2020 Sep-Dec;27(3):212-215. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

COVID-19 pandemic has spread to all corners of the world where infection control measures are being implemented. There is now a resurgence of the disease in health care facilities with documented in-hospital transmission and cases becoming positive in areas designated to cater for COVID-19 negative patients. We encountered such an event at our institution where fourteen patients (including health care workers) in the non-COVID zone were found to be COVID-19 positive. This highlights the loopholes in the system and the need for better and systematic infection control measures in hospitals that deal with infectious diseases with high infectivity. Findings also suggests the failure of government's criteria for suspected COVID-19 cases, and therefore needs a rethinking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_285_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745785PMC
September 2020

Epithelioid angiomyolipoma with tumor thrombus in IVC and right atrium.

Autops Case Rep 2020 Sep 2;10(4):e2020190. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology. Jodhpur, India.

Epithelioid angiomyolipoma is an uncommon subtype of renal angiomyolipoma associated with potentially malignant behavior and is considered a distinct entity by the World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. We present a case of an epithelioid variant of angiomyolipoma with extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava reaching up to the right atrium. Pre-operatively, a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma was considered based on imaging findings. Intra-operatively due to extensive adhesions, surgical resection was not performed and only tissue sampling was performed for histopathology. Microscopic examination revealed short fascicles of spindle cells and perivascular epithelioid cells. A differential diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation was considered. The immunohistochemical profile showed tumor cells that express Melan-A and smooth muscle actin, while they were negative for pan-cytokeratin, PAX8, CK7, CD117 and CD34. Therefore a diagnosis of epithelioid angiomyolipoma was rendered. The presence of intravascular thrombi on radiological investigation and carcinoma-like growth pattern on light microscopy may compound an erroneous diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Hence, it is prudent for the urologist to consider differential diagnosis other than renal cell carcinoma when confronted with a renal neoplasm presenting with intravascular thrombi. In these cases, a core biopsy should be planned pre-operatively and diagnosis should be made with aid of appropriate immunohistochemical markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/acr.2020.190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703439PMC
September 2020

Morin hydrate attenuates adenine-induced renal fibrosis via targeting cathepsin D signaling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 9;90:107234. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38453, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lysosomal proteases such as cathepsins B, D, L, and K can regulate the process of fibrosis in most of the organs. However, the role of cathepsin D (CATD) in kidney fibrosis and corresponding chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still unknown. We investigated whether CATD immunomodulation using morin hydrate (MH) can attenuate kidney fibrosis in CKD. Here, CKD was developed by an oral dosage of adenine (AD) in the mice model. Histopathological detection using H & E and Oil-Red-O staining revealed tissue deposition. An escalation in serum creatinine, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) revealed a failure in kidney function. An increase in fibrosis was determined using protein analysis and mRNA analysis of MMP-9 and MMP-2 respectively. Both immunoblot analysis and histological analysis indicated that MH immunomudulated CATD expression in AD treated kidneys. With docking analysis, we found MH can bind with the catalytic core of CATD with binding efficiency of -6.83 kcal/mol. Further, MH prevented AD mediated fibrosis by reducing collagen fragmentation as evidenced by the decrease in MMP-2 (P < 0.05) and MMP-9 (P < 0.001) protein levels. MH lowered the levels of inflammation by reducing the AD enhanced expression of MCP-1 and COX-2 nearly threefold. MH treatment increased body weight, enhance kidney function, and improved survival by nearly 150% compared to AD treated mice. CATD inactivation by MH after AD treatment resulted in decreased ECM degradation, fibrosis, and inflammation which resulted in improved renal function and survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107234DOI Listing
January 2021

Cypermethrin Induces the Activation of Rat Primary Microglia and Expression of Inflammatory Proteins.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jun 23;71(6):1275-1283. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Vishvigyan Bhawan, 31, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Cypermethrin activates microglia, which is found to be decisive in neurodegeneration in the experimental rats. While the involvement of microglial activation in toxicant-induced neurodegeneration is reported, the effect of low concentration of cypermethrin on the expression of inflammatory proteins from the rat primary microglia is not yet properly understood. The study intended to delineate the effect of low concentration of cypermethrin on the expression and release of proteins from the microglia. Rat primary microglial cells were treated with cypermethrin to check the expression of inflammatory proteins. Cypermethrin-treated microglia conditioned media and cells were collected to measure the expression and release of inflammatory proteins. Cypermethrin augmented the protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and p42/44, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and MMP-9 levels in the cell lysate and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in the microglia conditioned media. Pre-treatment with minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor or rottlerin, a PKC-δ inhibitor, notably reduced the release of TNF-α in the conditioned media and expression of iNOS protein in the microglia. Minocycline reduced the expression of PKC-δ, phosphorylated p38 and p42/44 MAPKs, MMP-3, and MMP-9 proteins in the microglia. While cypermethrin-treated conditioned media induced the toxicity in the rat primary neurons, minocycline or rottlerin reduced the cypermethrin treated microglia conditioned media-induced toxicity. The outcomes of the present study suggest that cypermethrin activates microglia and releases TNF-α and IL-1β as well as up-regulates the expression of PKC-δ, iNOS, phosphorylated p38 and p42/44 MAPKs, MMP-3, and MMP-9 proteins, which could contribute to neurodegeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01753-yDOI Listing
June 2021

A study to assess undernutrition and its sociodemographic correlates in under-five children in urban and rural areas of Rishikesh, Uttarakhand.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Sep 30;9(9):4980-4984. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Medical Officer, CHC Jawalapur, Haridwar, CHC, Jawalapur, Uttarakhand, India.

Context: Nutrition is one of the most important factors that affect a child's health. It plays a vital role in the prevention and control of disease morbidity and mortality. It is a major public health problem in a developing country like India.

Aims: To assess undernutrition in under-five children and various sociodemographic factors affecting it.

Settings And Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among under-five children of rural and urban Rishikesh. A total sample size of 400 under-five children was taken. Multistage sampling was done to select the areas and systematic random sampling was done for selection of households.

Subject And Methods: A predesigned, pretested, and semistructured questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic characteristics and status of undernutrition in study participants.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data was entered into excel sheets and analyzed using SPSS version 23 utilizing appropriate statistical methods.

Results: The prevalence of underweight was 37.3%, stunting 43.3% and wasting 24.5%. Underweight (40.5% v/s 35.0%), stunting (46.5% v/s 40.0%), and wasting (27.0% v/s 22.0%) was more prevalent in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Sociodemographic factors such as religion, caste, parental education, father's occupation, and family size emerged as significant predictors of under nutrition.

Conclusion: Undernutrition in under-five children was quite high. Since childhood malnutrition is multifactorial, there is no single cause big enough to blame but a multifaceted approach is required to combat malnutrition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_663_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652190PMC
September 2020

Air vs contrast pyelogram for initial puncture access in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

Urolithiasis 2021 Jun 7;49(3):261-267. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a standard procedure for large renal stones. Contrast (traditionally) as well as air is being used to delineate pelvi-calyceal system (PCS) to perform initial puncture. Contrast, when used has certain disadvantages including poor differentiation of anterior and posterior calyces. In this interim analysis of 122 patients of a prospective study subjects were stratified in two groups: in group 1, contrast was used while in group 2, air was used to delineate PCS. Out of 122,103 patients underwent puncture by contrast or air exclusively while 19 patients required mix of contrast and air (14 patients failed puncture using contrast while 5 using air). Mean dosage of radiation exposure (8.43 vs. 14.26 mGy), duration of radiation exposure (0.66 vs. 1.02 min), access time (3.72 vs. 5.84 min), were less in group 2 as compared to group 1. 84.5% of patients underwent puncture in single attempt in group 2 as compared to 56.25% in group 1. Five patients had post-operative fever and one had trans-pleural tract dilation. Complete stone clearance was seen in 94.8% of patients using air to only 75% of patients using contrast. Conclusion: Air pyelogram is a feasible, safe, cost effective and efficient access alternative to contrast pyelogram and in difficult situation a mixture of both is better than using one.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-020-01222-6DOI Listing
June 2021

The diagnostic role of microRNA 21 in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer: An exploratory study.

Lung India 2020 Nov-Dec;37(6):501-505

Department of Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: Although histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen is the gold standard for the diagnosis of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a blood-based noninvasive test (liquid biopsy) may prove to be helpful in patients with repeatedly negative biopsy or for response assessment following neoadjuvant therapy. The present study was conducted to explore the diagnostic value of circulating serum microRNA (miRNA) 21 in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: This case-control analytical study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Northern India. The study consisted of 30 cases of biopsy-proven NSCLC and 30 controls. Serum miRNA-21 expression levels were estimated by extracting total RNA from the serum sample, reverse transcribing it to cDNA and quantified in relation to U6 reference miRNA.

Results: A total of 30 patients with NSCLC and 30 controls were included in the study. The subjects were comparable in two groups with reference to age, gender, and smoking. Pathological types were adenocarcinoma in 19 (63.3%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 11 (36.6%) patients. Majority of the patients had advanced disease-AJCC stage III in 15 patients and AJCC Stage IV in 13 patients; two patients had stage II disease. There was a significant upregulation of serum miRNA 21 gene expression in the patients with lung cancer compared to controls (median fold change, 3.39 vs. -2.81, P = 0.00). A fourfold change in serum miRNA 21 is significantly associated with the diagnosis of NSCLC with a high specificity of 97% and area under curve of 0.84 (95% confidence interval of 0.74-0.94).

Conclusion: Estimation of serum miRNA 21 expression has potential to be used as liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of NSCLC. Further studies with large sample sizes are warranted to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of serum miRNA 21 expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_100_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879878PMC
November 2020

A study of morbidity profile among geriatric population in Uttarakhand: A community based cross-sectional study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Jul 30;9(7):3677-3681. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Urology, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Context: Population of elderly in India is growing day by day. Elderly population of India is 8.6% and in Uttarakhand it is 8.9%. Health needs of geriatric people differs from others. This study was an attempt to study the morbidity profile of geriatric people that may serve as a baseline data and also help in planning the health services.

Aims: To study Morbidity profile of geriatric population in Uttarakhand.

Settings And Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among geriatric people in rural and urban areas of Uttarakhand. Study participants aged 60 years and above were included in the study and a sample size of 400 was calculated.

Methods And Materials: Predesigned, pretested and semistructured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and morbidity status of study participants.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data was entered into excel sheets and analyzed using SPSS version 23 utilizing appropriate statistical methods.

Results: Among 400 elderly people most common organ system affected was musculoskeletal (77.20%). Other commonly affected health systems were psychological (75.90%), digestive (73.60%), eye (56.67%), endocrine (35.90%), cardiovascular (33.08%), general and unspecified health problems (32.05%), ear (24.62%) and respiratory system (19.74%). Very few elderlies had neurological (6.67%) and urological (1.28%) problems.

Conclusions: As shown in the present study very high percentage of morbidities were found in the study population. As a result, there is a need to further strengthen existing geriatric health care services at primary, secondary and tertiary level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_256_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567185PMC
July 2020

Determination of safe limit for arsenic contaminated irrigation water using solubility free ion activity model (FIAM) and Tobit Regression Model.

Chemosphere 2021 May 14;270:128630. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, 813210, India.

Irrigation water contaminated with arsenic acts as a potent source of contamination to humans through water-soil-crop-food transfer so quantification of safe limit for irrigation water is also critical. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the safe limit for As contaminated irrigation water with two soil types (alluvial and red) using ten levels of contaminated irrigation water (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25 mg L), applied 5 times in rice (Variety: Sushak Samrat),used as a test crop. The results reveal that the different fractions of arsenic in terms of its profusion followed the order F4 > F2 > F5 > F3 > F1 and F4 > F3 > F2 > F5 > F1 across all the doses of As for alluvial soil and red soil respectively. The safe limit of irrigation water in terms of risk assessment expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was at 0.75 mg L and the solubility FIAM can effectively predict the As content in rice grain in both the soils. The Tobit Regression Model in alluvial soil quantified the safe limit for As in irrigation water from 1.20 to 0.10 mg L for available soil As 0.25-3.0 mg kg and in red soil, the range was from 0.10 to 0.40 mg L for soil As 1.0 to 0.25 mg kg provided that the As content in rice grain is < 0.4 mg kg. This proved to be an effective protocol for estimation of safe limits after proper validation and calibration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128630DOI Listing
May 2021

Therapeutic nanoemulsions in ophthalmic drug administration: Concept in formulations and characterization techniques for ocular drug delivery.

J Control Release 2020 12 16;328:895-916. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Life and Applied Sciences, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The eye is the specialized part of the body and is comprised of numerous physiological ocular barriers that limit the drug absorption at the action site. Regardless of various efforts, efficient topical ophthalmic drug delivery remains unsolved, and thus, it is extremely necessary to advance the contemporary treatments of ocular disorders affecting the anterior and posterior cavities. Nowadays, the advent of nanotechnology-based multicomponent nanoemulsions for ophthalmic drug delivery has gained popularity due to the enhancement of ocular penetrability, improve bioavailability, increase solubility, and stability of lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulsions offer the sustained/controlled drug release and increase residence time which depend on viscosity, compositions, and stabilization process, etc.; hence, decrease the instillation frequency and improve patient compliance. Further, due to the nanosized of nanoemulsions, the sterilization process is easy as conventional solutions and cause no blur vision. The review aims to summarizes the various ocular barriers, manufacturing techniques, possible mechanisms to the retention and deep penetration into the eye, and appropriate excipients with their under-lying selection principles to prevent destabilization of nanoemulsions. This review also discusses the characterization parameters of ocular drug delivery to spike the interest of those contemplating a foray in this field. Here, in short, nanoemulsions are abridged with concepts to design clinically advantageous ocular drug delivery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.025DOI Listing
December 2020

Therapeutic nanoemulsions in ophthalmic drug administration: Concept in formulations and characterization techniques for ocular drug delivery.

J Control Release 2020 12 16;328:895-916. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Life and Applied Sciences, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The eye is the specialized part of the body and is comprised of numerous physiological ocular barriers that limit the drug absorption at the action site. Regardless of various efforts, efficient topical ophthalmic drug delivery remains unsolved, and thus, it is extremely necessary to advance the contemporary treatments of ocular disorders affecting the anterior and posterior cavities. Nowadays, the advent of nanotechnology-based multicomponent nanoemulsions for ophthalmic drug delivery has gained popularity due to the enhancement of ocular penetrability, improve bioavailability, increase solubility, and stability of lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulsions offer the sustained/controlled drug release and increase residence time which depend on viscosity, compositions, and stabilization process, etc.; hence, decrease the instillation frequency and improve patient compliance. Further, due to the nanosized of nanoemulsions, the sterilization process is easy as conventional solutions and cause no blur vision. The review aims to summarizes the various ocular barriers, manufacturing techniques, possible mechanisms to the retention and deep penetration into the eye, and appropriate excipients with their under-lying selection principles to prevent destabilization of nanoemulsions. This review also discusses the characterization parameters of ocular drug delivery to spike the interest of those contemplating a foray in this field. Here, in short, nanoemulsions are abridged with concepts to design clinically advantageous ocular drug delivery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.025DOI Listing
December 2020

Sequence Diversity in the Pore-Forming Motifs of the Membrane-Damaging Protein Toxins.

J Membr Biol 2020 10 21;253(5):469-478. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Centre for Protein Science, Design and Engineering, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli, Mohali, Punjab, 140306, India.

Pore-forming proteins/toxins (PFPs/PFTs) are the distinct class of membrane-damaging proteins. They act by forming oligomeric pores in the plasma membranes. PFTs and PFPs from diverse organisms share a common mechanism of action, in which the designated pore-forming motifs of the membrane-bound protein molecules insert into the membrane lipid bilayer to create the water-filled pores. One common characteristic of these pore-forming motifs is that they are amphipathic in nature. In general, the hydrophobic sidechains of the pore-forming motifs face toward the hydrophobic core of the membranes, while the hydrophilic residues create the lining of the water-filled pore lumen. Interestingly, pore-forming motifs of the distinct subclass of PFPs/PFTs share very little sequence similarity with each other. Therefore, the common guiding principle that governs the sequence-to-structure paradigm in the mechanism of action of these PFPs/PFTs still remains an enigma. In this article, we discuss this notion using the examples of diverse groups of membrane-damaging PFPs/PFTs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00232-020-00141-2DOI Listing
October 2020