Publications by authors named "Mahdi Vazirian"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Aqueous Extract Improves the Quality of Cryopreserved Human Spermatozoa Through Its Antioxidant Effects.

Biopreserv Biobank 2020 Aug 21;18(4):329-336. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during semen cryopreservation can induce structural and functional changes in spermatozoa. It is well known that antioxidants can mitigate the effect of ROS. Moreover, the application of antioxidants in freezing media is an appropriate strategy for protecting spermatozoa against deleterious effects of ROS during the cryopreservation process. As an example, oregano is a medicinal plant with important activities, with antiseptic, antibacterial, antithrombotic, and antioxidant properties. This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant effects of oregano extract on cryopreserved human spermatozoa. In the first phase, 13 semen samples with different concentrations of oregano extract (0.0, 50, 100, 150, 300, and 500 μg/mL) were cryopreserved to achieve an optimal dose of oregano extract. Then, motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. In the second phase, 20 samples were cryopreserved in freezing media supplemented with or without the optimal concentration of oregano (100 μg/mL). After thawing, motility, the levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) were evaluated. The results showed that 100 μg/mL oregano extract significantly increased the total motility in frozen-thawed spermatozoa in comparison with the control group (28.2 ± 4.3 vs. 42.4 ± 1.6,  < 0.05). This concentration significantly decreased the percentage of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-positive cells (25.53 ± 1.2 vs. 21.48 ± 1.2) and the malondialdehyde level (4.25 ± 0.7 vs. 0.82 ± 0.4 μM) ( < 0.05). In the oregano group, the percentage of vital spermatozoa without PS externalization was significantly higher than that in the control group (25.88 ± 1.6 vs. 16.8 ± 1.9,  < 0.001), while the percentage of dead spermatozoa with PS externalization spermatozoa was significantly lower than that in the control group (51.65 ± 1.4 vs. 60.36 ± 1.9,  < 0.05). In general, the addition of oregano extract to sperm freezing extender has protective effects against oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2020.0008DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of Monoterpenes of on the Viability of Spermatogonia Stem Cells In Vitro.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Mar 9;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1417614411 Tehran, Iran.

(Apiaceae) plants have several medicinal and condimentary applications and are considered an aphrodisiac agent in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of oil from Iranian plants on the viability of spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. The essential oil of fruits was extracted by hydrodistillation, and the amount of thymol was calculated by a gas-chromatography method. Spermatogonial stem cells were isolated from the testes of mice using enzyme digestion. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to assess the gene expressions of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (), DNA-binding protein inhibitor (), tyrosine-protein kinase (), B-cell lymphoma 2 () and Bcl2-associated X protein (). The number and diameter of colonies were also measured in the treated cells. The amount of thymol in the oil was 130.7 ± 7.6 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 92.8% of all cells expressed stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (), a spermatogonial stem cell marker. Expression of and ID-4 genes significantly increased in the treatment groups, while and decreased, and increased in the presence of essential oil. The numbers and diameters of cells were also improved by the application of the plant oil. These data indicated that monoterpenes from the oil of improved the quality and viability of spermatogonia cells in the cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9030343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154887PMC
March 2020

Natural activators of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and their pharmacological activities.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 2;122:69-79. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric enzyme which monitors cellular energy status and regulates metabolism with energy balance. AMPK activation, as a master regulator of metabolism, plays role in key tissues like liver, skeletal muscles, and heart as well as central nervous system (CNS). Activation of the enzyme by indirect activators attracts scientific attentions to treat diabetes, obesity, cancer, and other related metabolic disorders like physiological and pathophysiological states in CNS. A number of hormones and pharmacological agents have been reported to activate AMPK including paroxetine, metformin, thiazolidinediones, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, and etc. AMPK activity is prominent in regulation of glucose, lipid, and proteins metabolism as well as mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. Activation of AMPK in the liver decrease blood glucose and in skeletal muscles stimulates glucose uptake independently of insulin through modulation of activity of several downstream substrates. Activation of AMPK inhibits synthesis and induces oxidation of fatty acids, which may reduce ectopic lipid accumulation and improve insulin action. The enzyme activation promotes cardiovascular homeostasis by ensuring optimum redox balance of heart and vascular tissue. In addition, AMPK signaling may link to cancer development via regulation of checkpoints of cell cycle. Numerous of conventional drugs have been derived from natural resources, while the application of this fruitful source of chemical structures have not been explored in depth. A number of these compounds are discussed in this review that exhibit beneficial effects in metabolic disorders through AMPK activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.079DOI Listing
December 2018

Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil and Extract against Malaria Vector, .

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Mar 18;12(1):85-93. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Malaria, a mosquito-transmitted disease, is still a major human health problem all over the world. Larviciding is a component of comprehensive control program to overcome the disease. Negative aspects of synthetic insecticides application, such as environmental safety concerns, have favored use of natural insecticides.

Methods: Larvicidal activity of essential oil, extracts and fractions of a wild grown and a cultivated type of fruits against malaria vector was assessed according to the method described by WHO.

Results: showed remarkable potency against larvae. LC values for essential oil, total extract, petroleum ether fraction and methanol fraction were 27.4284, 64.9933, 85.9933 and 255.7486ppm for wild type, and 21.3823, 63.2580, 62.7814 and 152.6357ppm for cultivated one.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest as a valuable source of natural insecticides against malaria vector .
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046109PMC
March 2018

Bio-guided isolation of subsp. cytotoxic components.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Jun 19;33(11):1687-1690. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

d Department of Biotechnology , Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology , Tehran , Iran.

subsp was extracted by 80% ethanol. The total extract was then partitioned into four fractions including chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Cytotoxic effect of fractions was examined by MTT assay in K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia), AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and SW742 (colon adenocarcinoma) cell lines. The Chloroform fraction, with the lowest LC against K-562 cell lines, was partitioned into 14 subfractions and subjected to further purification by reversed-phase (C18) silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Three flavonoids including cirsimaritin, cirsilinelol and eupatilin were isolated for the first time from the species and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data. The high selectivity index of the purified flavonoids indicates valuable components with potential few side effects for normal cell lines. However, solubility tests for isolated components indicates the need for novel pharmaceutical dosage forms, in the case for using natural flavonoids as chemotherapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1428590DOI Listing
June 2019

The Effect of Rosa Damascena Extract on Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in the CA1 Neurons of Adult Rat Hippocampus Following Ischemia.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Dec;55(12):779-784

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ischemic stroke is an important cause of death and disability in the world. Brain ischemia causes damage to brain cell, and among brain neurons, pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region are more susceptive to ischemic injury. Recent findings suggest that neurotrophic factors protect against ischemic cell death. A dietary component of Rosa damascene extract possibly is associated with expression of neurotrophic factors mRNA following ischemia, so it can have therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. The present study attempts to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Rosa damascene extract on adult rat hippocampal neurons following ischemic brain injury. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats (weighing 250±20 gr and ages 10-12 weeks) used in this study, animals randomly were divided into 6 groups including Control, ischemia/ reperfusion (IR), vehicle and three treated groups (IR+0.5, 1, 2 mg/ml extract). Global ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion for 20 minutes. The treatment was done by different doses of Rosa damascena extract for 30 days. After 30 days cell death and gene expression in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus were evaluated by Nissl staining and real time PCR assay. We found a significant decrease in NGF, BDNF and NT3 mRNA expression in neurons of CA1 region of the hippocampus in ischemia group compared to control group (P<0.0001). Our results also revealed that the number of dark neurons significantly increases in ischemia group compared to control group (P<0.0001). Following treatment with Rosa damascene extract reduced the number of dark neurons that was associated with NGF, NT3, and BDNF mRNA expression. All doses level had positive effects, but the most effective dose of Rosa damascena extract was 1 mg/ml. Our results suggest that neuroprotective activity of Rosa damascena can enhance hippocampal CA1 neuronal survival after global ischemia.
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December 2017

A two-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Viola odorata, Echium amoenum and Physalis alkekengi mixture in symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) men.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1800-1805

d Recombinant Proteins Department , Breast Cancer Research Center ACECR , Tehran , Iran.

Context: As an alternative approach, administration of phytotherapeutic agents in management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), is rapidly growing each day. Different authors have indicated effectiveness of Viola odorata L. (Violaceae), Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (Boraginaceae) and Physalis alkekengi L. (Solanaceae) in treatment of BPH. However, none have reported the beneficial outcomes of the mixture yet.

Objective: This study evaluates the therapeutical effects of V. odorata, E. amoenum and P. alkekengi mixture on symptomatic BPH patients.

Materials And Methods: Eighty six symptomatic BPH patients with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of more than 13 and prostate volume of more than 30 cm were randomly allocated to receive a two-week course of placebo (control group) or 1 mL of mixed hydro-alcoholic solution of P. alkekengi, E. amoenum and V. odorata extracts (1.5, 1 and 1.5% respectively) (treatment group).

Results: IPSS score of incomplete urination (42.3 ± 2.04%), frequency of urination (20.08 ± 1.02%), intermittency (40.78 ± 2.16%), urgency (60.91 ± 3.14%), weak stream (50.58 ± 2.14%), straining (55.67 ± 2.53%) and nocturia (40.14 ± 1.89%) in treatment group were significantly decreased after treatment compare to placebo receiving group. Furthermore, the prostate volume (16.92 ± 0.89%) and extant urine volume (28.12 ± 1.36%) also significantly decreased in treatment group compared to control group. No significant side effects or abnormalities in biochemical tests and urinalysis were observed throughout the study.

Discussion And Conclusions: Based on results, mentioned mixture is safe and effective in improving life quality of patients suffering from BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1328445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130621PMC
December 2017

In vitro cholinesterase inhibitory activity of some plants used in Iranian traditional medicine.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Nov 6;31(22):2690-2694. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

b Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

In this study, in vitro evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory (ChEI) activity of various plants including betel nuts (Areca catechu L.), clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.), aerial parts of dodder (Cuscuta chinensis Lam.), common polypody rhizomes (Polypodium vulgare L.) and turpeth roots (Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.) which were recommended for the treatment of AD symptoms in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) is reported. Among them, aqueous extract of A. catechu L. was found as the most potent anti-AChE (IC = 32.00 μg/mL) and anti-BChE (IC = 48.81 ± 0.1200 μg/mL) agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1290620DOI Listing
November 2017

The arguments for and against cannabinoids application in glaucomatous retinopathy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Feb 24;86:620-627. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Glaucoma represents several optic neuropathies leading to irreversible blindness through progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) is known as the only modifiable factor in the treatment of this disorder. Application of exogenous cannabinoids to lower IOP has attracted attention of scientists as potential agents for the treatment of glaucoma. Accordingly, neuroprotective effect of these agents has been recently described through modulation of endocannabinoid system in the eye. In the present work, pertinent information regarding ocular endocannabinoid system, mechanism of exogenous cannabinoids interaction with the ocular endocannabinoid system to reduce IOP, and neuroprotection property of cannabinoids will be discussed according to current scientific literature. In addition to experimental studies, bioavailability of cannabinoids, clinical surveys, and adverse effects of application of cannabinoids in glaucoma will be reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.106DOI Listing
February 2017

Immunomodulation Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Artist's Conk Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma applanatum (Agaricomycetes), on the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2016 ;18(10):927-933

Depatment of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran.

It is well known that innate immunity in fish can be activated by many synthetic and natural immunos-timulants; several natural substances induced immunity in fish in previous surveys. This study discussed data regarding the effect of Ganoderma applanatum aqueous extract on the defense mechanisms of rainbow trout in feeding trials. Fish were fed 250, 500, and 1000 mg extract/kg diet 4 times daily. Growth, humoral parameters, lysozyme activity, and serum protein concentrations were assessed after a period of 45 days. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with the mushroom extract did not positively affect the growth of fish compared with the control group. The numbers/amounts of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells, monocytes, and neutrophils increased significantly in the treated fish. Other red cell indices, including mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values, indicated no significant differences among all groups. The values of immunologic parameters in the all treatment groups were elevated, especially with a concentration of 1000 mg mushroom extract/kg diet: lysozyme activity, 50.00 ± 1.15 U/mL; total protein, 4.40 ± 0.12 g/dL; albumin, 2.40 ± 0.23 mg/dL; total immunoglobulin, 23.50 ± 0.76 mg/dL. These findings suggested the potential ability of G. applanatum aqueous extract to activate immunologic parameters in rainbow trout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v18.i10.80DOI Listing
March 2017

Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

Pharmacogn Rev 2015 Jan-Jun;9(17):63-72

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Division of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, India.

Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.156353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441164PMC
May 2015

On the benefit of galls of Quercus brantii Lindl. in murine colitis: the role of free gallic acid.

Arch Med Sci 2014 Dec;10(6):1225-34

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In this study we investigated the effect of gall of Quercus brantii Lindl., a traditional Iranian medicine, in a murine model of experimental colitis induced in male rats by rectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS).

Material And Methods: Quantification of the main active components was done for estimation of total phenolic content and free gallic acid. Gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. in two forms (gall powder and gall hydro alcoholic extract) was gavaged for 10 days (500 mg/kg). Ten days after induction of colitis, colonic status was examined by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical analyses. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were analyzed as biomarkers of inflammatory condition. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in colitis, the levels of cellular lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in colon tissues.

Results: TNBS-induced colitis exhibited a significant increase in colon MPO activity and concentrations of cellular LPO, TNF-α and IL-1β, while TAP was significantly reduced. Microscopic evaluations of the colonic damage in the colitis group revealed multifocal degenerative changes in the epithelial lining and areas of necrosis, extensive mucosal and sub-mucosal damage with congested blood vessels, edema and hemorrhages along with extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells. Parameters including macroscopic and microscopic scores, TNF-α, IL-1β, LPO, TAP and MPO improved by both gall extract and gall powder of Quercus brantii Lindl. and reached close to normal levels. The level of total phenols (GAE/100 g of sample) and free gallic acid were estimated to be 88.43 ±7.23 (mean ± SD) and 3.74% of dry weight, respectively.

Conclusions: The present study indicates that the gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. is able to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the biochemical and pathological parameters of colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2014.47831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296077PMC
December 2014

Antimicrobial effect of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) and its main compounds.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2014 ;16(1):77-84

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mushrooms are considered one of the richest sources of natural antibiotics, and various species of them inhibit the growth of a wide diversity of microorganisms. Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom. has many pharmacological and biological activities including an antimicrobial effect, although few studies have investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of its purified compounds. The chemical structure of the purified compounds from the hexane fraction was elucidated as ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate, ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-yl acetate (isopyrocalciferol acetate), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol, and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (ergostrol). In addition, the structure of ganodermadiol was demonstrated after purification from the chloroform fraction. The fractions inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 6.25 mg/mL, but were ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria in the tested concentrations. The results were comparable for isolated compounds, whereas the mixture of ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate and isopyrocalciferol acetate was weakly effective against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration, 10 mg/mL). It could be assumed that the antimicrobial effect of crude fractions is the consequence of mixing triterpenoid and steroid compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushr.v16.i1.70DOI Listing
January 2015

Chemical constituents and cytotoxic effect of the main compounds of Lythrum salicaria L.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2013 Sep-Oct;68(9-10):367-75

Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), a herbaceous plant growing widely in Iran, has been well known for many centuries for its astringent and styptic properties. A phytochemical investigation of this plant, based on spectroscopic analysis, identified fourteen compounds: 5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one (1), umbelliferone-6-carboxylic acid (2), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-(2"-acetyl)-glucopyranoside (3), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), daucosterol (5), phytol (6), dodecanoic acid (7), oleanolic acid (8), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (9), corosolic acid (10), beta-sitosterol (11), peucedanin (12), buntansin (13), and erythrodiol (14). All compounds, except for 8 and 11, have been isolated from L. salicaria for the first time. Cytotoxic activities of the compounds were examined against three cancerous cell lines, colon carcinoma (HT-29), leukemia (K-562), and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and methotrexate as positive control. Compounds 5, 10, 11, and 14 were the most active against the HT-29 cell line with IC50 values of 192.7, 36.8, 38.2, and 12.8 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 14, 11, 5, and 10 were 6.4, 2.8, 2.6, and 1.4 times, respectively, more selective than methotrexate. Compound 5 was the most active against the K-562 cell line (IC50 = 50.2 microg/mL), with a selectivity exceeding that of methotrexate 13.3 times. The results of the cytotoxic assay confirmed that growth and proliferation of the cancer cell lines are predominantly influenced by triterpene derivatives and sterols of this plant.
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February 2014

A comparative study of anti-Candida activity and phenolic contents of the calluses from Lythrum salicaria L. in different treatments.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2013 May 14;170(1):176-84. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 14155-6451, Tehran 14174, Iran.

In the study, anti-Candida activity and phenol contents of Lythrum salicaria L. calli and wild species have been evaluated. The seeds of L. salicaria (Lythraceae), collected from Lahidjan City in the north of Iran, were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (MSM) with a supplement, gibberellin, to germinate. Callus inductions were performed from segments of seedling on MSM containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The activity of calluses extracts, wild plant, gallic acid, and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (TMEG) as the main phenolic compounds against Candida albicans was assessed using cup plate diffusion method. The total phenols contents of calli and wild plant extracts were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The callus formation in MSM supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP were 0-100 %. Anti-Candida activity of callus extract which obtained from MSM supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP (1 mgdm(-3)) was similar to the wild plant extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of gallic acid and TMEG were obtained as 0.312 and 2.5 mgcm(-3), respectively. Gallic acid equivalent values in all treatments were from 0 to 288 μg GAE mg(-1). Phenolic contents of plant aerial parts (331±3.7 μg GAE mg(-1)) and the callus, which developed in MSM including 1 mgdm(-3) of both 2,4-D and BAP, showed the same phenolic value and exhibited anti-Candida extract activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-013-0185-3DOI Listing
May 2013

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Anthemis altissima L. var. altissima.

Nat Prod Res 2012 19;26(20):1931-4. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The essential oil obtained from the flowering parts of Anthemis altissima L. var. altissima was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. In this study, 34 compounds representing 98.76% of the essential oil were identified. The main components were α-terpineol (26.42%), β-pinene (9.23%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (6.30%), globulol (5.36%), n-tricosane (4.41%), terpinen-4-ol (4.08%) and 1,8 cineole (3.84%). Antibacterial activities of the essential oil and its two major components (α-terpineol and β-pinene) were determined using microdilution method against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. The essential oil showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity (MICs ranged from 3.13 to 6.25 µL mL(-1)). It was found that α-terpineol with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the range 0.87-1.56 µL mL(-1) was a more potent antibacterial agent than β-pinene with MIC values of the range 1.56-6.25 µL mL(-1). All of them, the essential oil, β-pinene and α-terpineol, were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.617750DOI Listing
February 2013

Quantification of gallic acidin fruits of three medicinal plants.

Iran J Pharm Res 2011 ;10(2):233-6

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828909PMC
November 2013