Publications by authors named "Mahdi Sepidarkish"

97 Publications

Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on adipokines: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 17:1-15. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Nutritional Science, School of Nutritional Science and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Although a large body of literature reported the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) consumption on adipokines levels, but recent findings from clinical trials are not univocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 FAs supplements on adipokines.

Methods: We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to August 2020 without any particular language limitations. Outcomes were summarized as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated from Hedge's g and random effects modeling.

Results: Fifty-two trials involving 4,568 participants were included. Omega-3 FAs intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels ( = 43; 3,434 participants; SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.37;  = 0.01; = 80.14%). This meta-analysis indicates that supplementing participants with omega-3 fatty acids more than 2000 mg daily and more than 10 weeks resulted in a significant and more favorable improvement in plasma adiponectin levels. However, omega-3 FAs intake had no significant effect on leptin levels (SMD: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.20, 0.17, = 54.13%).

Conclusion: The evidence supports a beneficial effect of omega-3 FAs intake on serum adiponectin levels but does not appear to impact on leptin concentrations. Larger well-designed RCTs are still required to evaluate the effect of omega-3 FAs on leptin in specific diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1915743DOI Listing
May 2021

Linkage of Lambda Interferons in Protection Against Severe COVID-19.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2021 04;41(4):149-152

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

The most recently discovered interferon (IFN) family, type III IFNs or lambda IFNs (IFN-λs) are caused by viral infection and act in mucosal barriers, such as the respiratory tract. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of IFN-λs in new coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-four COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study. All cases were divided into the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups according to their symptoms. Fourteen samples of healthy controls were also included. The serum levels of IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2 were analyzed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The concentrations of IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2 induced in the serum of non-ICU patients (836.7 ± 284.6 and 798.8 ± 301.5 pg/mL, respectively) were higher than found in ICU patients (81.57 ± 34.25 and 48.32 ± 28.13 pg/mL, respectively) ( = 0.004 and  = 0.006, respectively) and healthy controls (85.57 ± 33.63 and 65.82 ± 21.26 pg/mL, respectively) ( = 0.03 and  = 0.04, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant differences were found in the concentration of both cytokines between the ICU patients and healthy controls. We conclude that higher levels of IFN-λs are associated with decreased clinical manifestations in COVID-19 patients. These cytokines could be a promising therapeutic agent to avoid the overwhelming consequences of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2020.0187DOI Listing
April 2021

Diabetes, Age, and Duration of Supplementation Subgroup Analysis for the Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Complement Med Res 2021 Apr 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been known as ubiquinone or ubidecarenone, which is a kind of lipid-soluble and vitamin-like antioxidant. It has a potent antioxidant effect against oxidation status via various mechanisms, including its ability to regenerate other antioxidants, such as vitamin E and vitamin C, and to increase antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, CoQ10 can quench free radicals and prevent lipid peroxidation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on oxidative stress variables.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic database search in Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Medline was performed to identify eligible randomized clinical trials. A meta-analysis of included studies was performed on selected variables using a random-effects model. Quality assessment was conducted by means of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool.

Results: To evaluate the effect of CoQ10 supplementation, 17 trials and 972 participants were included for the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis of primary studies showed that CoQ10 increased serum total antioxidant capacity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.62 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.18-1.05, I2 = 76.1%, p ˂ 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SMD 0.40 U/mg, 95% CI 0.12-0.67, I2 = 9.6%, p ˂ 0.345) levels and decreased malondialdehyde (SMD -1.02 mmol/L, 95% CI -1.60 to -0.44, I2 = 88.2%, p ˂ 0.001) level significantly compared to the placebo group. Although the effect of CoQ10 on nitric oxide (SMD 1.01 µmol/L, 95% CI -1.53 to 3.54, p ˂ 0.001, I2 = 97.8%) and glutathione peroxidase (SMD -0.01 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.84, p ˂ 0.001, I2 = 88.6%) was not significant, CoQ10 can be mentioned as an improvement in antioxidant defense status against reactive oxygen species.

Conclusion: These supplements have positive effects on antioxidant defense against oxidizing agents and elevate antioxidant enzyme levels in the body. However, due to limited research the results should be taken with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515249DOI Listing
April 2021

Burden of Tracheal, Bronchus, and Lung Cancer and Its Attributable Risk Factors in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990 to 2019.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Jun 15;16(6):945-959. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Understanding trends in the annual incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer globally is important to enable appropriate targeting of resources for prevention, clinical practice improvement, and research. The aim of this study was to determine the global, regional, and national burdens of TBL cancer in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019 by age, sex, and sociodemographic index.

Methods: Estimates were produced through various data inputs including the following: cancer registries (n = 5318), vital registration (n = 22,553), vital registration-sample (n = 825), and verbal autopsies (n = 516). Annual incidence, mortality, and DALYs were estimated and presented as counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000 population.

Results: There were 2.3 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 2.1-2.5) incident cases of TBL cancer, with an age-standardized annual incidence rate of 27.7 (95% UI: 25.3-30), which decreased by 2.6% (95% UI: -12.4 to 6.5) between 1990 and 2019. TBL cancer was responsible for 2 million (95% UI: 1.9-2.2) deaths globally with an age-standardized death rate of 25.2 (95% UI: 23.2-27), a decrease of 7.8% (95% UI: -15.9 to 0.2) between 1990 and 2019. Moreover, TBL accounted for 45.9 million (95% UI: 42.3-49.3) DALYs at the global level, with an age-standardized rate of 551.6 (95% UI: 509-593.1) DALYs per 100,000 population. The standardized DALY rate declined by 16.2% (95% UI: -24 to -8.2) from 1990 to 2019. Greenland (77.7 [95% UI: 64.4-90.6]), Monaco (75.6 [95% UI: 61.4-90.8]), and Montenegro (56.7 [95% UI: 46.5-68.9]) had the three highest age-standardized annual incidence rates. The aforementioned three countries also had the three highest age-standardized death and DALY rates of TBL cancer. Honduras (68% [95% UI: 14.5-137.7]), Cabo Verde (62.2% [95% UI: 24.1-101.3]), and Monaco (58.2% [95% UI: 19.2-109.7]) had the largest increase in age-standardized annual incidence rates for TBL cancer during 1990 to 2019. The largest increases were found in age-standardized death rates of TBL cancer in Honduras (67.1% [95% UI: 14.7-133.1]), Cabo Verde (64.4% [95% UI: 25-103.4]), and Mozambique (49.9% [95% UI: 7.9 -101.3]). Age-standardized annual incidence and death rates were higher in male than female individuals and increased with population aging. There were nonlinear but generally positive associations between age-standardized DALY rates with corresponding sociodemographic index of countries. Globally, smoking (62.4%), ambient particulate matter (15.3%), and high fasting plasma glucose (9.9%) had the top three highest percent of attributable DALYs owing to TBL cancer in 2019 for both sexes.

Conclusions: This study found a decline in burden globally but with some countries having an increase. These results are crucial to set priorities for prevention and treatment of TBL cancer and would be beneficial for policymakers, government officials, clinicians, and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.03.030DOI Listing
June 2021

Mothers and their children's health (MATCH): a study protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 12;21(1):297. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: The quality of prenatal care is critical for the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), only 64 % of women worldwide have access to over four sessions of prenatal care throughout their pregnancy. Thus, studies that address factors affecting maternal and child health status before and after pregnancy are of immense importance. The primary aim of the mothers and their children's health (MATCH) cohort study is to evaluate the effect of nutrition, sleep quality, and lifestyle on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: A prospective cohort of > 2500 pregnant women in the first trimester (before 12 weeks' gestation) will be recruited at Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran between February 2020 and August 2021. All eligible pregnant women will be followed from their first trimester of pregnancy until delivery at four time points and assessed through a series of in-person visits with interviewer-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Detailed data will be collected on maternal demographics, lifestyle, medical history, reproductive history, obstetric history, dietary intake, sleep pattern, blood specimens, and anthropometric measurements, alongside paternal demographics, lifestyle, and family history. The outcomes will include antenatal, peripartum, and postnatal maternal complications and infant growth and neurodevelopment.

Discussion: The results of the MATCH cohort study will support the development of contextual interventions that can enhance antenatal, peripartum, and postnatal status, neonatal outcomes, and longevity mother and child.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03732-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042918PMC
April 2021

Reduced frequency of T helper 17 and T helper 1 cells and their association with critical coronavirus disease 2019.

APMIS 2021 May 31;129(5):271-279. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

There is very little knowledge about the immune responses, particularly cellular immunity to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of T helper (Th) cell subtypes, including Th1, Th17, and Treg cells, in moderate-to-severe and critical COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine moderate-to-severe and 13 critical patients confirmed for COVID-19, and 15 healthy subjects were included in this study. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing Th1 and interleukin-17A-producing Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood were measured with flow cytometry. The frequency of Th1 and Th17 was significantly decreased in critical patients compared to healthy subjects (aMD: -2.76 and - 2.34) and moderate-to-severe patients (aMD: -1.89 and - 1.89), respectively (p < 0.05). Differences were not significant between moderate-to-severe patients and healthy subjects for both Th1 (p = 0.358) and Th17 (p = 0.535), respectively. In contrast, significant difference was not observed between study subjects regarding the frequency of Treg cells. Patients with critical COVID-19 had a markedly lower Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios compared with the controls and moderate-to-severe cases. Our study showed a dysregulated balance of Th1 and Th17 cells and its relation to the severity of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.13129DOI Listing
May 2021

Pronounce expression of Tim-3 and CD39 but not PD1 defines CD8 T cells in critical Covid-19 patients.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 4;153:104779. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: During viral infection, inhibitory receptors play a key role in regulating CD8 T-cell activity. The objective of this research was to investigate programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein-3 (TIM-3), and CD39 exhaustion markers in CD8 T cells of new coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: A total of 44 patients with COVID-19 (17 subjects in a critical group and 27 patients in a non-critical group) and 14 healthy controls, who were admitted to Hospitals in Babol, were recruited to the study. In subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we compared the phenotype of CD8 T lymphocytes, expressing PD-1, TIM-3, or CD39, both alone and in various combinations.

Results: The findings showed that the percentage of CD8 cells was significantly lower in patients. Critical and non-critical patients were more likely than healthy controls to have an escalated frequency of CD8 TIM-3, CD8 CD39, and CD8 TIM-3 CD39 cells. No significant differences were observed between all groups in the CD8 PD-1 cell counts. There was also no difference between three groups regarding the counts of CD8 TIM-3 PD-1, CD8 PD-1 CD39, and CD8 TIM-3 PD-1 CD39 cells. The counts of non-exhausted cells were significantly lower in critical and non-critical individuals compared to the healthy individuals' value.

Conclusion: Patients, infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), altered exhausted CD8 T lymphocytes with CD39 and TIM-3 exhaustion markers, which may account the dysregulated immune response found in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857983PMC
April 2021

Effect of soy products and isoflavones on oxidative stress parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Food Res Int 2020 11 21;137:109578. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Nutritional Science, School of Nutritional Science and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Soy products and isoflavones intake have been shown to exert antioxidant effects. There are several randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of soy products intake on oxidative stress (OS) parameters. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the results of RCTs evaluating the effect of soy products and isoflavones intake on OS parameters. Randomized trials that assessed the effect of soy products and isoflavones intake on OS parameters in adults were identified through searching in electronic databases: Cochrane clinical trial center, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences up to April 2020. Random effects model was used to calculate the effects sizes of soy intake on OS parameters. Twenty-four trials with 1,852 participants were eligible and were included in the meta-analysis which measured OS parameters. Soy intake compared to control group significantly reduced MDA levels (SMD: -0.53; 95% CI: -0.86, -0.19; I = 88.3%), increased GSH levels (SMD: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.88; I = 72.4%), SOD activity (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.99; I = 84.1%), TAC (SMD: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.82; I = 49.3%) and TRAP (SMD: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.82, 2.65; I = 81.3%) significantly compared to control group. Soy products and isoflavones intake are effective in improving OS parameters in adults compared with controls; thus, it could be a valuable advise to control OS progress in chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109578DOI Listing
November 2020

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Mar 24;27(3):331-340. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: COVID-19 has been arguably the most important public health concern worldwide in 2020, and efforts are now escalating to suppress or eliminate its spread. In this study we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the global and regional seroprevalence rates in humans of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and to assess whether seroprevalence is associated with geographical, climatic and/or sociodemographic factors.

Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Scopus, Embase, medRxiv and bioRxiv databases for preprints or peer-reviewed articles (up to 14 August 2020). Study eligibility criteria were population-based studies describing the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 (IgG and/or IgM) serum antibodies. Participants were people from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds (from the general population), whose prior COVID-19 status was unknown and who were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. We used a random-effects model to estimate pooled seroprevalence, and then extrapolated the findings to the global population (for 2020). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses explored potential sources of heterogeneity in the data, and relationships between seroprevalence and sociodemographic, geographical and/or climatic factors.

Results: In total, 47 studies involving 399 265 people from 23 countries met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity (I = 99.4%, p < 0.001) was seen among studies; SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the general population varied from 0.37% to 22.1%, with a pooled estimate of 3.38% (95%CI 3.05-3.72%; 15 879/399 265). On a regional level, seroprevalence varied from 1.45% (0.95-1.94%, South America) to 5.27% (3.97-6.57%, Northern Europe), although some variation appeared to relate to the serological assay used. The findings suggested an association of seroprevalence with income levels, human development indices, geographic latitudes and/or climate. Extrapolating to the 2020 world population, we estimated that 263.5 million individuals had been exposed or infected at the time of this study.

Conclusions: This study showed that SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence varied markedly among geographic regions, as might be expected early in a pandemic. Longitudinal surveys to continually monitor seroprevalence around the globe will be critical to support prevention and control efforts, and might indicate levels of endemic stability or instability in particular countries and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584920PMC
March 2021

A diagnostic profile on the PartoSure test.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2020 12 16;20(12):1163-1170. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences , Babol, Iran.

: Preterm birth (PTB) is common, occurring in over 10% of all live births globally, and is increasing worldwide. The limitations of traditional biomarkers of PTB, such as fetal fibronectin (fFN) and phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1) have been well demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, augmenting clinical assessment with newer biomarkers, such as placental alpha macroglobulin-1 (PAMG-1); PartoSure, has the potential to improve disease monitoring and the best interventions. : The present expert opinion evaluates the utility and limitations of PAMG-1; PartoSure as a biomarker for PTB in light of the current literature. : Although fFN, phIGFBP-1 and PAMG-1; PartoSure test had similar negative predictive value (NPV) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-), the PAMG-1; PartoSure test had the highest specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) across all at-risk pregnant women. Although findings of this review may be encouraging, the PartoSure test should not be interpreted as absolute evidence for prediction of PTB. The PartoSure test result should always be used in conjunction with information available from the clinical evaluation of the pregnant woman and other diagnostic procedures such as cervical examination, assessment of uterine activity, and evaluation of other risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737159.2020.1848549DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparison of the Number of Spindle Cells in Peritoneal Washings between Laparoscopic Myomectomy with Morcellation and Open Myomectomy without Morcellation.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Pathology, Arash Women's Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Dr. Seifollahi).

Study Objective: This study evaluated peritoneal washings for the detection of spindle cells (SCs) in laparoscopic and open myomectomies.

Design: Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial.

Setting: An academic tertiary referral center.

Patients: Women suspected of having benign uterine myoma undergoing laparoscopic or open myomectomy from October 2016 to April 2018.

Interventions: Washing of the peritoneal cavity to detect SCs was performed twice during the laparoscopic myomectomy. The first washing was after the closure of the myometrial incision and before morcellation. The second one was performed after morcellation. The procedure was also performed once during the open myomectomy, after the completion of the myomectomy and the closure of the incision. After a peritoneal washing with 200 mL normal saline, 30 mL liquid was collected and sent to the laboratory for SC detection. Surgical parameters such as operating time, mean change in serum hemoglobin level, complications, length of hospital stay, and readmission were compared between the 2 groups.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 150 participants were included in the analysis: 78 in the laparoscopic group and 72 in the open myomectomy group. After morcellation, the incidence of SCs was 2.6% (n = 2) and 6.9% (n = 5) in the laparoscopic and open myomectomy groups, respectively (p = .204).

Conclusion: SCs were observed in both the laparoscopic and open myomectomy groups. Thus, morcellation alone could not be the cause for SC dissemination, which might also be triggered by the manipulation of myoma(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2020.10.024DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence, Deaths, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years Due to Musculoskeletal Disorders for 195 Countries and Territories 1990-2017.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 04 22;73(4):702-714. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Cabrini Institute and School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To report the levels and trends of prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to musculoskeletal disorders, categorized as low back pain, neck pain, osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gout, and other musculoskeletal disorders, across 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 according to age, sex, and Sociodemographic Index (SDI; a composite of sociodemographic factors).

Methods: Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The fatal and nonfatal burdens of musculoskeletal disorders were estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and Bayesian meta-regression tool, respectively. Estimates were provided for all musculoskeletal disorders and the corresponding 6 categories at global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2017. Counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000 population along with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs) were reported for prevalence, deaths, and DALYs.

Results: Globally, there were ~1.3 billion prevalent cases (95% UI 1.2 billion, 1.4 billion), 121.3 thousand deaths (95% UI 105.6 thousand, 126.2 thousand), and 138.7 million DALYs (95% UI 101.9 million, 182.6 million) due to musculoskeletal disorders in 2017. Age-standardized prevalence, death, and DALY rates per 100,000 population were 16,276.2 (95% UI 15,495.5, 17,145.8), 1.6 (95% UI 1.4, 1.6), and 1,720 (95% UI 1,264.4, 2,259.2), respectively. Age-standardized prevalence (-1.6% [95% UI -2.4, -0.8]) and DALY rates (-3.5% [95% UI -4.7, -2.3]) decreased slightly from 1990. The global point prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders in 2017 was higher in women than in men and increased with age up to the oldest age group. Globally, the proportion of prevalent cases according to category of musculoskeletal disorders in 2017 was greatest for low back pain (36.8%), followed by other musculoskeletal disorders (21.5%), OA (19.3%), neck pain (18.4%), gout (2.6%), and RA (1.3%). These proportions did not change appreciably compared with 1990. The burden due to musculoskeletal conditions was higher in developed countries. The countries with the highest age-standardized prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorders in 2017 were Switzerland (23,346.0 [95% UI 22,392.6, 24,329.8]), Chile (23,007.9 [95% UI 21,746.5, 24,165.8]), and Denmark (22,166.1 [95% UI 20,817.2, 23,542.1]). The greatest increases from 1990 were found in Chile (10.8% [95% UI 6.6, 15.4]), Benin (8.8% [95% UI 6.7, 11.1]), and El Salvador (8.5% [95% UI 5.5, 11.9]).

Conclusion: There is a large burden of musculoskeletal disorders globally, with some notable inter-country variation. Some countries have twice the burden of other countries. Increasing population awareness regarding risk factors, consequences, and evidence-informed treatment strategies for musculoskeletal disorders with a focus on the older female population in developed countries is needed, particularly for low back and neck pain and OA, which contribute a large burden among this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41571DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, insulin resistance and androgens in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jan 22;80:153395. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Curcumin is a biologically active phytochemical ingredient found in turmeric. It has several pharmacologic effects that might benefit patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Objective: We hypothesized curcumin to be effective in improving blood sugar levels, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in individuals with PCOS.

Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, individuals with PCOS were treated with curcumin (500 mg three times daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), sex hormone levels, and hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey [mFG] score). Secondary outcomes included anthropometric measurements.

Results: Of 72 randomized individuals, 67 completed the trial. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At the end of the study, FPG and Dehydroepiandrosterone levels had decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to control (difference of change (post-pre) between intervention and placebo groups: -4.11 mg/dL; 95% CI: -8.35, -0.35 mg/dL; p = 0.033 and -26.53 microg/dL; 95% CI: -47.99, -4.34 µg/dL; p = 0.035, respectively). We also observed a statistically non-significant increase (p = 0.082) in Estradiol levels in the intervention group compared to control. No serious adverse events were reported throughout the trial.

Conclusions: Curcumin might be a safe and useful supplement to ameliorate PCOS-associated hyperandrogenemia and hyperglycemia. However, longer trials investigating different dosages in longer durations are needed to underpin these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153395DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic control in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jan 27;45(1):e13543. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Several clinical trials have identified glycemic-lowering effects of cinnamon, while other studies have reported conflicting findings. A comprehensive systematic search on Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library was conducted using defined keywords in any language through June 2020. Studies that compared the effect of cinnamon with placebo on insulin resistance (IR) indices, as the primary outcome, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were considered eligible. Standard Mean difference (SMD) (with 95% confidence intervals) for endpoints were calculated using the random-effects model. Finally, five RCTs which met the criteria were included in the meta-analysis. After pooling data, cinnamon supplementation significantly reduced homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores in women with PCOS (SMD: -0.84, 95% CI: -1.52, -0.16, p = .010). Cinnamon supplementation likely improves certain IR markers in patients with PCOS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: There are controversies reports for cinnamon intake, which animal models have suggested that it decreases IR via promotion of insulin action, stimulating insulin signaling pathways, and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This study provides comprehensive information about the effect of cinnamon on insulin resistance (IR) indices in women with PCOS. In this regard, our results indicated that cinnamon supplementation significantly reduced homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores in women with PCOS. Therefore, consumption of cinnamon can be safe and this can be a useful recommendation for improving IR and promotion of healthy life which indeed are the potential or actual uses of this research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13543DOI Listing
January 2021

The Four-item Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression: A Validation Study in Infertile Patients.

Int J Fertil Steril 2020 Oct 12;14(3):234-239. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran. Electronic

Background: The most common mental disorders in infertile patients are depression and anxiety. The four-item Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is a widely used tool that consists of the PHQ-2 depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) scales. Given that PHQ-4 has not been validated in infertile patients, this study aimed to examine its reliability and validity in this population.

Materials And Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 539 infertile patients from a referral fertility centre in Tehran, Iran. The PHQ-4, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), World Health Organisation- Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and demographic/infertility questionnaires were administered to all participants. Factor structure and internal consistency of PHQ-4 were evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The convergent validity of this scale was examined by its relationship with HADS, WHO-5 and PSWQ.

Results: CFA results provided support for a two-factor model of PHQ-4. Internal consistency of the PHQ-4 and its subscales both were elevated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.767 (PHQ-4), 0.780 (PHQ-2) and 0.814 (GAD-2). Inter-item correlations were between 0.386 and 0.639, and corrected item-total correlations were between 0.576 and 0.687. PHQ-4, PHQ-2 and GAD-2 showed positive correlations with measures of HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and PSWQ and negative correlations with WHO-5, which confirmed convergent validity. Among demographic/fertility variables, we observed that gender, infertility duration, and failure in previous treatment were correlated with PHQ-4 and its subscales scores.

Conclusion: The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid ultra-brief screening instrument for measuring both anxiety and depressive symptoms in infertile patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2020.44412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604697PMC
October 2020

Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on anthropometric indices in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Med 2020 09 26;53:102487. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Student Research Committee, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102487DOI Listing
September 2020

The effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory factors in HIV-infected patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Cytokine 2020 12 22;136:155298. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Nutritional Science, School of Nutritional Science and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

High concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory markers are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and are associated with non-HIV related comorbidity and mortality. Data on the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3 FA) supplementation for improving inflammation status in HIV-infected patients are controversial. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the beneficial effects of omega-3 FAs on controlling inflammation in HIV-infected patients. We conducted a comprehensive search of the major biomedical databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane library, for all potentially relevant studies published without restriction from the beginning of time to June 2020. Overall, nine RCTs were included comprising a total of 427 participants. A random-effects model was used to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the effect was measured as standardized mean difference (SMD). Supplementation of omega-3 FAs showed a significant reduction of CRP (SMD: -0.27, 95% CI: -0.48 to -0.07, P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in levels of TNF-α (SMD: 0.03, 95% CI: -0.79 to 0.85, P = 0.94, I = 87%) and IL-6 (SMD: -0.13, 95% CI: -0.59 to 0.32, P = 0.57, I = 73%, Fig. 3). The results indicate that the supplementation of omega-3 FAs in HIV-infected patients significantly decreases serum CRP levels when compared to the control group, however has no significant effect on IL-6 and TNF-α levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155298DOI Listing
December 2020

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 infected pregnancies: a prospective cohort study.

J Travel Med 2020 Nov;27(7)

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Despite the large number of pregnant women with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is not enough analytical study to compare maternal and fetal consequences of COVID-19 infected with non-infected pregnancies. This cohort study aimed to compare maternal and fetal consequences of COVID-19 infected with non-infected pregnancies.

Methods: We included pregnant women with and without COVID-19 who were admitted to Arash Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 1 March to 1 September 2020. Clinical features, treatments, and maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed.

Results: A total of 199 women enrolled, including 66 COVID-19 infected and 133 non-infected pregnant women prospectively. Caesarean section was carried out in total 105 women (52.76%). A significant difference was found in term of delivery type between COVID-19 infected and non-infected pregnant women [adjusted risk ratio (aRR): 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.65, P = 0.024]. No significant association was found between COVID-19 infection and preterm birth (aRR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.54, 2.48, P = 0.689), low birth weight (aRR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.55, 2.31, P = 0.723), gestational diabetes (aRR: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.81, 3.42, P = 0.160), pre-eclampsia (aRR: 2.02, 95% CI: 0.42, 6.78, P = 0.315), intrauterine growth restriction (aRR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.86, P = 0.145), preterm rupture of membrane (aRR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.02, 2.20, P = 0.186), stillbirth (aRR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.08, 18.37, P = 0.614), postpartum haemorrhage (aRR: 1.84, 95% CI: 0.39, 8.63, P = 0.185), neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aRR: 1.84, 95% CI: 0.77, 4.39, P = 0.168) and neonatal sepsis (aRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.48, P = 0.568). The percentage of patients (4/66, 6.06%) being admitted to the ICU was significantly higher than the control group (0%) (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Basically, although pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different, the need for ICU care for pregnant women with COVID-19 was significantly higher compared with those without COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499693PMC
November 2020

Global, regional, and national burden of other musculoskeletal disorders 1990-2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 02;60(2):855-865

Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: To describe the level and trends of point prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for other musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, i.e. those not covered by specific estimates generated for RA, OA, low back pain, neck pain and gout, from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and sociodemographic index.

Methods: Publicly available modelled estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study were extracted and reported as counts and age-standardized rates per 100 000 population for 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017.

Results: Globally, the age-standardized point prevalence estimates and deaths rates of other MSK disorders in 2017 were 4151.1 and 1.0 per 100 000. This was an increase of 3.4% and 7.2%, respectively. The age-standardized DALY rate in 2017 was 380.2, an increase of 3.4%. The point prevalence estimate was higher among females and increased with age. This peaked in the 65-69 year age group for both females and males in 2017, followed by a decreasing trend for both sexes. At the national level, the highest age-standardized point prevalence estimates in 2017 were seen in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The largest increases in age-standardized point prevalence estimates were observed in Romania, Croatia and Armenia.

Conclusion: The burden of other MSK disorders is proven to be substantial and increasing worldwide, with a notable intercountry variation. Data pertaining to specific diseases within this overarching category are required for future GBD MSK estimates. This would enable policymakers to better allocate resources and provide interventions appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa315DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence, Incidence, and Years Lived With Disability Due to Gout and Its Attributable Risk Factors for 195 Countries and Territories 1990-2017: A Systematic Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2020 11 10;72(11):1916-1927. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Institute of Bone and Joint Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To describe the levels and trends of point prevalence, annual incidence, and years lived with disability (YLD) for gout and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 according to age, sex, and Sociodemographic Index (SDI; a composite of sociodemographic factors).

Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. A comprehensive systematic review of databases and the disease-modeled analysis were performed by the GBD team at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, in collaboration with researchers and experts worldwide, to provide estimates at global, regional, and national levels during 1990 and 2017. Counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000 population, along with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs), were reported for point prevalence, annual incidence, and YLD.

Results: Globally, there were ~41.2 million (95% UI 36.7 million, 46.1 million) prevalent cases of gout, with 7.4 million incident cases per year (95% UI 6.6 million, 8.5 million) and almost 1.3 million YLD (95% UI 0.87 million, 1.8 million) in 2017. The global age-standardized point prevalence estimates and annual incidence rates in 2017 were 510.6 (95% UI 455.6, 570.3) and 91.8 (95% UI 81.3, 104.1) cases per 100,000 population, respectively, an increase of 7.2% (95% UI 6.4%, 8.1%) and 5.5% (95% UI 4.8%, 6.3%) from 1990. The corresponding age-standardized YLD rate was 15.9 (95% UI 10.7, 21.8) cases per 100,000 persons, a 7.2% increase (95% UI 5.9%, 8.6%) from 1990. In 2017, the global point prevalence estimates for gout were higher in males, and higher prevalence was seen in older age groups and increased with age for both males and females. The burden of gout was generally highest in developed regions and countries. The 3 countries with the highest age-standardized point prevalence estimates of gout in 2017 were New Zealand (1,394.0 cases [95% UI 1,290.1, 1,500.9]), Australia (1,171.4 cases [95% UI 1,038.1, 1,322.9]), and the US (996.0 cases [95% UI 923.1, 1,076.8]). The countries with the highest increases in age-standardized point prevalence estimates of gout from 1990 to 2017 were the US (34.7% [95% UI 27.7%, 43.1%]), Canada (28.5% [95% UI 21.9%, 35.4%]), and Oman (28.0% [95% UI 21.5%, 34.8%]). Globally, high body mass index and impaired kidney function accounted for 32.4% (95% UI 18.7%, 49.2%) and 15.3% (95% UI 13.5%, 17.1%), respectively, of YLD due to gout in the 2017 estimates. The YLD attributable to these risk factors were higher in males.

Conclusion: The burden of gout increased across the world from 1990 to 2017, with variations in point prevalence, annual incidence, and YLD between countries and territories. Besides improving the clinical management of disease, prevention and health promotion in communities to provide basic knowledge of the disease, risk factors, consequences, and effective treatment options (tailoring to high-risk groups such as the middle-aged male population) are crucial to avoid disease onset and hence to decrease the global disease burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41404DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) on cardio-metabolic outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 2;34(12):3113-3123. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of Melissa officinalis (MO) intake on several chronic diseases. However, the effects of MO intake have not yet been systematically reviewed. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of MO intake and focused on several cardiometabolic outcomes. MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for MO-RCTs evaluating cardiometabolic outcomes. Random-effects meta-analyses estimated the pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) between intervention and control groups. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias in RCTs. Seven RCTs were finally deemed eligible. MO intake was associated with a reduced total cholesterol (TC) (SMD: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.01; I = 13.7%; k = 6) and a reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (SMD: -0.56; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.27; I = 00.0%; k = 3). MO intake was not associated with statistically significant changes in triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, high sensitivity c-reactive protein levels, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, insulin or high-density lipoprotein levels. No serious adverse events were reported. The risk of bias was high in a considerable amount of studies. Our study suggests that MO is a safe supplement with beneficial effects on TC and SBP. However, the findings of our study must be seen in the light of major limitations such as a low number of included studies and a serious risk of bias. High-quality RCTs are needed for firm conclusions concerning the effects of MO on cardiometabolic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6744DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of hydroxychloroquine on prevention of COVID-19 virus infection among healthcare professionals: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 3;21(1):467. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Comparison of the effect of hydroxychloroquine with placebo to prevent infection from the COVID -19 virus among healthcare professionals TRIAL DESIGN: Single centre, 2-arm, double-blind randomised (ratio 1:1) placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Treatment staff who are in contact with patients and have at least 3 shifts a week in Arash hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in Iran and who consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria include: History of COVID -19 virus infection, clinical symptoms such as fever, nausea, dyspnea and myalgia in the past two months, history of underlying diseases hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine and G6PD enzyme deficiency.

Intervention And Comparator: Intervention group: Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet of Amin Pharmaceutical.

Control Group: placebo which is completely similar in form and taste to 200 mg hydroxychloroquine tablet and is manufactured by the same factory (Amin Pharmacy). The dosage is two tablets daily, once a week for one to three months (based on the duration of the Coronavirus epidemic in Tehran).

Main Outcomes: Confirmed COVID-19 virus infection using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is the primary outcome. The time period for measuring the primary outcome is any infection within the trial period up to one month after taking the last dose.

Randomisation: The randomized block allocation method was developed using Stata version 15 software by an independent researcher, using a block size of six. Allocation to the two treatment groups will be conducted by this researcher using paper labels (random 10-digit codes) in a 1:1 ratio t The labels will be attached to the drug packages in order of randomization. Drug packages will be arranged in a box according to the randomization list.

Blinding (masking): Participants and caregivers are blinded to group assignment and the data will be analyzed by an independent statistical expert who is unaware of the treatment allocation.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): A total of 282 participants will be randomised with 141 participants the Hydroxychloroquineeach intervention group and 141 participants to the placebo control group TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 99-1-101-47091 and the approval ID is IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.001 and recruitment began April 7, 2020, and is anticipated to be complete by August 7, 2020.

Trial Registration: The name of the trial register is Iranian registry of clinical trial (IRCT), registration number is IRCT20120826010664N6, date of trial registration is April 7, 2020, FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04439-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267750PMC
June 2020

Global, regional and national burden of osteoarthritis 1990-2017: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 06 12;79(6):819-828. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Objectives: To report the level and trends of prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs) for osteoarthritis (OA) in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 by age, sex and Socio-demographic index (SDI; a composite of sociodemographic factors).

Methods: Publicly available modelled data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 were used. The burden of OA was estimated for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017, through a systematic analysis of prevalence and incidence modelled data using the methods reported in the GBD 2017 Study. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population, with uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: Globally, the age-standardised point prevalence and annual incidence rate of OA in 2017 were 3754.2 (95% UI 3389.4 to 4187.6) and 181.2 (95% UI 162.6 to 202.4) per 100 000, an increase of 9.3% (95% UI 8% to 10.7%) and 8.2% (95% UI 7.1% to 9.4%) from 1990, respectively. In addition, global age-standardised YLD rate in 2017 was 118.8 (95% UI 59.5 to 236.2), an increase of 9.6% (95% UI 8.3% to 11.1%) from 1990. The global prevalence was higher in women and increased with age, peaking at the >95 age group among women and men in 2017. Generally, a positive association was found between the age-standardised YLD rate and SDI at the regional and national levels. Age-standardised prevalence of OA in 2017 ranged from 2090.3 to 6128.1 cases per 100 000 population. United States (6128.1 (95% UI 5729.3 to 6582.9)), American Samoa (5281 (95% UI 4688 to 5965.9)) and Kuwait (5234.6 (95% UI 4643.2 to 5953.6)) had the three highest levels of age-standardised prevalence. Oman (29.6% (95% UI 24.8% to 34.9%)), Equatorial Guinea (28.6% (95% UI 24.4% to 33.7%)) and the United States 23.2% (95% UI 16.4% to 30.5%)) showed the highest increase in the age-standardised prevalence during 1990-2017.

Conclusions: OA is a major public health challenge. While there is remarkable international variation in the prevalence, incidence and YLDs due to OA, the burden is increasing in most countries. It is expected to continue with increased life expectancy and ageing of the global population. Improving population and policy maker awareness of risk factors, including overweight and injury, and the importance and benefits of management of OA, together with providing health services for an increasing number of people living with OA, are recommended for management of the future burden of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216515DOI Listing
June 2020

Clinical and laboratory findings from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Babol North of Iran: a retrospective cohort study.

Rom J Intern Med 2020 Sep;58(3):161-167

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran.

Background: In December 2019, China has experienced an outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronavirus has now spread to all of the continents. We aimed to consider clinical characteristics, laboratory data of COVID-19 that provided more information for the research of this novel virus.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of a series of the 100 confirmed patients with COVID-19. These patients were admitted to the hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences (Ayatollah Rohani, Shahid Beheshti and Yahyanejad hospitals) form 25 February 2020 to 12 March 2020.

Results: Nineteen patients died during hospitalization and 81 were discharged. Non-survivor patients had a significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (MD: 46.37, 95% CI: 20.84, 71.90; P = 0.001), white blood cells (WBCs) (MD: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.67; P < 0.001) and lower lymphocyte (MD: -8.75, 95% CI: -12.62, -4.87; P < 0.001) compared to survivor patients Data analysis showed that comorbid conditions (aRR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.09, 8.21, P = 0.034), higher CRP levels (aRR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, P = 0.044), and lower lymphocyte (aRR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.93, P = 0.003) were associated with increased risk of death.

Conclusions: Based on our findings, most non-survivors are elderly with comorbidities. Lymphopenia and increased levels of WBCs along with elevated CRP were associated with increased risk of death. Therefore, it is best to be regularly assessed these markers during treatment of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/rjim-2020-0013DOI Listing
September 2020

Global prevalence of Toxocara infection in cats.

Adv Parasitol 2020 25;109:615-639. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Zoonotic parasites, including Toxocara species, of pet and stray cats are of public health importance. Justification for, and the design and implementation of prevention and control of human toxocariasis may benefit from an understanding of the zoonotic potential and prevalence of parasites in this definitive host species. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxocara infection(s) in cats by geographical location, type (rural vs urban and stray vs pet), gender and age. Pooled data were assessed using a random effects-model as well as several meta-regression and stratified analyses conducted. Of 1733 peer-reviewed articles, 143 were included in this review and represented 2,158,069 cats from 51 countries. The global pooled (95% CI) prevalence of Toxocara infection in cats was 17.0% (16.1-17.8%), being highest in African (43.3%, 28.3-58.4%) and lowest in South American (12.6%, 8.2-17.0%) countries. In other WHO regions, prevalence rates of Toxocara were as follows: Eastern Mediterranean (21.6%, 15.1-28.1%), North America (18.3%, 15.4-21.2%), Europe (17.8%, 15.9-19.7%), Western Pacific (17.3%, 14.7-19.9%), and South-East Asia (14.9%, 9.8-20.1%). Prevalence of Toxocara was higher in low-income tropical countries and also in stray (28.6%, 25.1-32.1%) and young (≤12 months of age) (27.7%, 23.4-32.0%) cats than in pet (11.6%, 10.7-12.5%) and older cats (>12 months of age) (23.8%, 14.8-32.7%). This review indicates that ~118-150 million cats worldwide serve as definitive hosts of Toxocara, shedding eggs and thus contributing to the public health risk of human infection. Prevention and control of this zoonosis in cats should receive greater attention by health officials and cat owners, particularly in countries where risk factors and prevalence are highest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Response to Letter to the Editor Entitled: Concerning the Article by Arezoo Maleki-Hajiagha et al. Entitled Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Level in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Horm Metab Res 2020 04 8;52(4):252. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Dear Editor,We thank Kunicki et al. 1 for their interest in our paper 2 and for taking the time to give relevant and important comments regarding the inclusion of hirsutism or hyperandrogenism cases in our study. We agree with Kunicki et al. that the title is not appropriate, and it was better if the title of the article was: Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Level in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hyperandrogenism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Also, we should make some minor editing in the manuscript text.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1089-7970DOI Listing
April 2020

The effect of synbiotics supplementation on anthropometric indicators and lipid profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Apr 6;19(1):60. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Different therapies have been suggested for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but changes in lifestyle and diet have been considered. Diet and dietary factors can be very effective in modifying the disease. The positive effects of probiotic and synbiotics supplementation on improving lipid profiles and anthropometric indices have been examined in various diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of synbiotics supplementation on lipid and anthropometric profiles in infertile women with PCOS.

Methods: PCOS patients aged 19-37 years old were randomized to receive either synbiotics supplement (n = 50) or placebo (n = 49) for 12 weeks.

Results: Consumption of synbiotics compared to the placebo, resulted in a significant decrease in Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) value (Change Mean Difference (CMD): 4.66, 95%CI: 0.20, 9.13) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (CMD: 1.80, 95%CI: 0.34, 3.26). Although we failed to find a significant effect of synbiotics consumption on total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels. We did not find differences in anthropometric indices between groups.

Conclusions: Overall, 12 weeks of synbiotics supplementation among PCOS women resulted in beneficial effects on LDL and HDL, although it is not yet clear how much our findings are clinically significant and more clinical studies with larger sample sizes are still needed.

Trial Registration: Iranian Registry of clinical Trial, IRCT.ir, ID: IRCT2014110515536N2. Registered on 19 December 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01244-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132870PMC
April 2020

Global, regional, and national burden of neck pain in the general population, 1990-2017: systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

BMJ 2020 03 26;368:m791. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Institute of Bone and Joint Research, The Kolling Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To use data from the Global Burden of Disease Study between 1990 and 2017 to report the rates and trends of point prevalence, annual incidence, and years lived with disability for neck pain in the general population of 195 countries.

Design: Systematic analysis.

Data Source: Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017.

Main Outcome Measures: Numbers and age standardised rates per 100 000 population of neck pain point prevalence, annual incidence, and years lived with disability were compared across regions and countries by age, sex, and sociodemographic index. Estimates were reported with uncertainty intervals.

Results: Globally in 2017 the age standardised rates for point prevalence of neck pain per 100 000 population was 3551.1 (95% uncertainty interval 3139.5 to 3977.9), for incidence of neck pain per 100 000 population was 806.6 (713.7 to 912.5), and for years lived with disability from neck pain per 100 000 population was 352.0 (245.6 to 493.3). These estimates did not change significantly between 1990 and 2017. The global point prevalence of neck pain in 2017 was higher in females compared with males, although this was not significant at the 0.05 level. Prevalence increased with age up to 70-74 years and then decreased. Norway (6151.2 (95% uncertainty interval 5382.3 to 6959.8)), Finland (5750.3 (5058.4 to 6518.3)), and Denmark (5316 (4674 to 6030.1)) had the three highest age standardised point prevalence estimates in 2017. The largest increases in age standardised point prevalence estimates from 1990 to 2017 were in the United Kingdom (14.6% (10.6% to 18.8%)), Sweden (10.4% (6.0% to 15.4%)), and Kuwait (2.6% (2.0% to 3.2%)). In general, positive associations, but with fluctuations, were found between age standardised years lived with disability for neck pain and sociodemographic index at the global level and for all Global Burden of Disease regions, suggesting the burden is higher at higher sociodemographic indices.

Conclusions: Neck pain is a serious public health problem in the general population, with the highest burden in Norway, Finland, and Denmark. Increasing population awareness about risk factors and preventive strategies for neck pain is warranted to reduce the future burden of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249252PMC
March 2020

Effect of Cashew Nut on Lipid Profile: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Complement Med Res 2020 11;27(5):348-356. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Nutritional Science, School of Nutritional Science and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran,

Introduction: Nuts are one of the dietary components which appear to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease biomarkers. Studies demonstrate beneficial effects of cash-ews on serum lipids concentration, but results in the literature remain inconclusive. We conducted a review to examine the effects of cashew nut supplementation on serum lipid profile.

Methods: Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE electronic databases from inception until June 2019 without language limitation. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CI) for studies.

Results: Six randomized clinical trials comprising 531 participants were included in this systematic review. Three studies were included in the meta-analysis model. There were no significant changes for total cholesterol (TC) (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.32, 0.28), triglycerides (TG) (SMD: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.22, 0.20), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (SMD: 0.09, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.34), or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (SMD: -0.18, 95% CI: -0.75, 0.39).

Conclusion: The results of this analysis demonstrate that treatment with cashew nut supplementation alone did not significantly change serum levels of LDL, HDL, TC, or TG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506348DOI Listing
May 2021