Publications by authors named "Maharishi Tomar"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spraying of dsRNA molecules derived from Phytophthora infestans, along with nano clay carriers as a proof of concept for developing novel protection strategy for Potato late blight.

Pest Manag Sci 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, 171001. H.P., India.

Background: Phytophthora. infestans is a late blight-causing oomycetes pathogen. It evolves and adapts to the host background and new fungicide molecules rapidly within a few years of their release, most likely due to the predominance of transposable elements in its genome. Frequent applications of fungicides cause environmental concerns. Here we developed to target specific RNA interference-based molecules, along with nano clay carriers, that when sprayed on plants are capable of effectively reducing the late blight infection.

Results: Targeted the genes which are unique to sporulation, early-stage infection, and metabolism pathway, based on our microarray expression data. Used nano clay as a carrier for the SDH, EF-1α, GPI-HAM344, PLD-3, and HSP-90 double-stranded molecule (dsRNA), which were assessed by culture bioassay, detached leaf assay, and spray methods, revealed the reduction in growth, sporulation, and symptom expression. The multiple genes targeted dsRNA nano clay sprayed plants showed enhanced disease resistance (4% disease severity) and least sporulation (<1x10 ), compared to naked dsRNA spray.

Conclusion: The use of nano clay with multi-gene targeted dsRNA was assumed to be involved in the effective delivery, protection and boosting the action of RNAi as Spray induced gene silencing approach (SIGS). A significant reduction in growth, sporulation, disease severity, and decreased expression of the genes authenticates the effects of SIGS on late blight progression. This study demonstrated as a proof of concept of the dsRNA nano clay SIGS approach, which could be an alternative to chemical fungicides and transgenic approaches, for developing a novel plant protection strategy for late blight in an environmentally friendly manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6949DOI Listing
April 2022

Interactome of millet-based food matrices: A review.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 5;385:132636. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Division of Biochemistry, ICAR - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India. Electronic address:

Millets are recently being recognized as emerging food ingredients with multifaceted applications. Whole grain flours made from millets, exhibit diverse chemical compositions, starch digestibility and physicochemical properties. A food matrix can be viewed as a section of food microstructure, commonly coinciding with a physical spatial domain that interacts or imparts specific functionalities to a particular food constituent. The complex millet-based food matrices can help individuals to attain nutritional benefits due to the intricate and unique digestive properties of these foods. This review helps to fundamentally understand the binary and ternary interactions of millet-based foods. Nutritional bioavailability and bioaccessibility are also discussed based on additive, synergistic, masking, the antagonistic or neutralizing effect of different food matrix components on each other and the surrounding medium. The molecular basis of these interactions and their effect on important functional attributes like starch retrogradation, gelling, pasting, water, and oil holding capacity is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132636DOI Listing
August 2022

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) seed: A low-volume, high-value byproduct for human health and the food industry.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 12;386:132694. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia. Electronic address:

Guava processing industries generate peel and seeds as primary waste fractions. Guava seeds obtained after fruit processing possess untapped potential in the field of food science due to the presence of a diversity of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Along with offering a detailed understanding of the nutritional attributes of guava seeds, the present review comprehensively elaborates on the therapeutic activities of their bioactive compounds, their techno-functional properties, and their other edible and nonedible applications. The limited molecular and biochemical mechanistic studies outlining the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and antidiabetic activities of guava seeds available in the literature are also extensively discussed in this review. The use of guava seed constituents as food additives and food functional and structural modulators, primarily as fat reducers, emulsifiers, water and oil holding agents, is also conceptually explained. Additional human intervention and molecular mechanistic studies deciphering the effects of guava seeds on various diseases and human health are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132694DOI Listing
August 2022

In Vitro Method for Synthesis of Large-Scale dsRNA Molecule as a Novel Plant Protection Strategy.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2408:211-226

Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNAs) molecules are the precursors and effective triggers of RNAi in most organisms. RNAi can be induced by the direct introduction of dsRNAs in plants, fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now RNAi is usually established by transformation of the plant with a construct that produces hairpin RNAs. Alternatively, advances in RNA biology demonstrated efficiently the in vitro method of large-scale synthesis of dsRNA molecule. Here we describe the de novo synthesis of dsRNA molecule targeting the specific gene of interest for functional application. Selection of off-target effective siRNA regions, flanking of T7 promoter sequences, T7 polymerase reaction, and maintenance of the stability of dsRNA molecules are the main criteria of this method to obtain pure and effective yield for functional applications. IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) induced, T7 express E. coli cells, could be used for large scale synthesis of dsRNA molecule are also described in this method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1875-2_14DOI Listing
March 2022

Recent developments in cold plasma-based enzyme activity (browning, cell wall degradation, and antioxidant) in fruits and vegetables.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2022 03 26;21(2):1958-1978. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Division of Crop Physiology, Biochemistry and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, India.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations reports, approximately half of the total harvested fruits and vegetables vanish before they reach the end consumer due to their perishable nature. Enzymatic browning is one of the most common problems faced by fruit and vegetable processing. The perishability of fruits and vegetables is contributed by the various browning enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and ripening or cell wall degrading enzyme (pectin methyl-esterase). In contrast, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) assist in reversing the damage caused by reactive oxygen species or free radicals. The cold plasma technique has emerged as a novel, economic, and environmentally friendly approach that reduces the expression of ripening and browning enzymes while increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes; microorganisms are significantly inhibited, therefore improving the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This review narrates the mechanism and principle involved in the use of cold plasma technique as a nonthermal agent and its application in impeding the activity of browning and ripening enzymes and increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes for improving the shelf life and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables and preventing spoilage and pathogenic germs from growing. An overview of hurdles and sustainability advantages of cold plasma technology is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12895DOI Listing
March 2022

Onion (Allium cepa L.) peels: A review on bioactive compounds and biomedical activities.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Feb 22;146:112498. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Huge quantities of byproducts/wastes generated in onion processing are usually discarded, but they are excellent sources of bioactive compounds and phytochemicals. However, with growing interest in the sustainable use of resources and the circular economy to reduce adverse impacts on the environment, food processing wastes such as onion peel/skin can be extracted and employed as inputs in developing or reformulating nutrient supplements, and pharmacological drugs. This review highlights major bioactive components, especially total phenolics, total flavonoid, quercetin and its derivatives present in onion peel/skin and their therapeutic applications as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, anticancer and antimicrobial agents. The present review emphasized that onion peel is one of the important agricultural by-products which is rich in bioactive compounds and can be utilized as health promoting ingredient especially in pharmacological and biomedical fields. Thus, with increasing burden of life style disorders/non-communicable diseases, finding suitable natural alternative for their treatment is one major concern of the researchers and onion peel and its extract can be exploited as a prime ingredient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112498DOI Listing
February 2022

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed: A review on bioactives and biomedical activities.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 25;142:112018. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

The processing of tomato fruit into puree, juices, ketchup, sauces, and dried powders generates a significant amount of waste in the form of tomato pomace, which includes seeds and skin. Tomato processing by-products, particularly seeds, are reservoirs of health-promoting macromolecules, such as proteins (bioactive peptides), carotenoids (lycopene), polysaccharides (pectin), phytochemicals (flavonoids), and vitamins (α-tocopherol). Health-promoting properties make these bioactive components suitable candidates for the development of novel food and nutraceutical products. This review comprehensively demonstrates the bioactive compounds of tomato seeds along with diverse biomedical activities of tomato seed extract (TSE) for treating cardiovascular ailments, neurological disorders, and act as antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial agent. Utilization of bioactive components can improve the economic feasibility of the tomato processing industry and may help to reduce the environmental pollution generated by tomato by-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112018DOI Listing
October 2021

Delineating the inherent functional descriptors and biofunctionalities of pectic polysaccharides.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 9;269:118319. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chembiotech Laboratories, Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Kyrewood House, Tenbury Wells, Worcs WR15 8FF, UK.

Pectin is a plant-based heteropolysaccharide macromolecule predominantly found in the cell wall of plants. Pectin is commercially extracted from apple pomace, citrus peels and sugar beet pulp and is widely used in the food industry as a stabilizer, emulsifier, encapsulant, and gelling agent. This review highlights various parameters considered important for describing the inherent properties and biofunctionalities of pectins in food systems. These inherent descriptors include monosaccharide composition, galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, molecular weight, structural morphology, functional group analysis, and functional properties, such as water and oil holding capacity, emulsification, foaming capacity, foam stability, and viscosity. In this study, we also delineate their potential as a nutraceutical, prebiotic, and carrier for bioactive compounds. The biofunctionalities of pectin as an anticancer, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic agent are also conceptually elaborated in the current review. The multidimensional characteristics of pectin make it a potential candidate for use in food and biomedical science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118319DOI Listing
October 2021

Nutritional and Phytochemical Traits of Apricots ( L.) for Application in Nutraceutical and Health Industry.

Foods 2021 Jun 10;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Apricot ( L.) is a nutritious fruit, rich in bioactive compounds, known for their health benefits. The present study attempts to evaluate nutritional (sugars, organic acids, minerals) and nutraceutical traits (total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, antioxidant activity) of six commercial apricot genotypes grown in India. Antioxidant activity was determined using three in-vitro assays, namely CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl). Significant ( < 0.05) differences were observed in the genotypes concerning nutritional and nutraceutical traits. Sucrose accounted for more than 60% of total sugars in most genotypes, followed by glucose and fructose. Citric acid accounted for more than 50% of the total organic acids present, followed by malic and succinic acids. Apricot is a good source of potassium (1430.07 to 2202.69 mg/100 g dwb) and iron (2.69 to 6.97 mg/100 g dwb) owing to its mineral composition. Total carotenoids content ranged from 0.44 to 3.55 mg/100 g, with β-carotene accounting for 33-84% of the total content. The results strongly suggest that genotypes 'CITH-A-1' and 'CITH-A-2', which have high dry matter and carotenoids content, are well suited for drying. 'Roxana' and 'CITH-A-3' are great for fresh consumption, while 'Shakarpara' and 'Gold Cot' are excellent for juice processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230439PMC
June 2021

Custard Apple ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities.

Biomolecules 2021 04 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143160PMC
April 2021

Guava ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Ginning Training Centre, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Nagpur 440023, India.

(L.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and it is an important fruit in tropical areas like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and South America. The leaves of the guava plant have been studied for their health benefits which are attributed to their plethora of phytochemicals, such as quercetin, avicularin, apigenin, guaijaverin, kaempferol, hyperin, myricetin, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeic acid. Extracts from guava leaves (GLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotection activities. In the present review, we comprehensively present the nutritional profile and phytochemical profile of GLs. Further, various bioactivities of the GL extracts are also discussed critically. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of GLs, they can potentially be used as an ingredient in the development of functional foods and pharmaceuticals. More detailed clinical trials need to be conducted to establish the efficacy of the GL extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066327PMC
April 2021

Recent trends in extraction of plant bioactives using green technologies: A review.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;353:129431. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Food Science and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India. Electronic address:

Phenolic compounds from plant sources have significant health-promoting properties and are known to be an integral part of folk and herbal medicines. Consumption of phenolics is known to alleviate the risk of various lifestyle diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's. In this context, numerous plant crops have been explored and characterized based on phenolic compounds for their use as supplements, nutraceutical, and pharmaceuticals. The present review highlights some important source of bioactive phenolic compounds and novel technologies for their efficient extraction. These techniques include the use of microwave, ultrasound, and supercritical methods. Besides, the review will also highlight the use of response surface methodology (RSM) as a statistical tool for optimizing the recoveries of the phenolic bioactives from plant-based matrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129431DOI Listing
August 2021

Mango ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae and is an important fruit from South and Southeast Asia. India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the Philippines are among the top mango producer countries. Leaves of the mango plant have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a plethora of phytochemicals such as mangiferin, followed by phenolic acids, benzophenones, and other antioxidants such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The extracts from mango leaves (MLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, lipid-lowering, hepato-protection, and anti-diarrheal. In the present review, we have elaborated on the nutritional and phytochemical profile of the MLs. Further, various bioactivities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of the MLs, they can be used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs. However, more detailed clinical trials still needed to be conducted for establishing the actual efficacy of the ML extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920260PMC
February 2021

Validation of molecular response of tuberization in response to elevated temperature by using a transient Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in potato.

Funct Integr Genomics 2021 Mar 21;21(2):215-229. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144411, India.

Temperature plays an important role in potato tuberization. The ideal night temperature for tuber formation is ~17 °C while temperature beyond 22 °C drastically reduces the tuber yield. Moreover, high temperature has several undesirable effects on the plant and tubers. Investigation of the genes involved in tuberization under heat stress can be helpful in the generation of heat-tolerant potato varieties. Five genes, including StSSH2 (succinic semialdehyde reductase isoform 2), StWTF (WRKY transcription factor), StUGT (UDP-glucosyltransferase), StBHP (Bel1 homeotic protein), and StFLTP (FLOWERING LOCUS T protein), involved in tuberization and heat stress in potato were investigated. The results of our microarray analysis suggested that these genes regulate and function as transcriptional factors, hormonal signaling, cellular homeostasis, and mobile tuberization signals under elevated temperature in contrasting KS (Kufri Surya) and KCM (Kufri Chandramukhi) potato cultivars. However, no detailed report is available which establishes functions of these genes in tuberization under heat stress. Thus, the present study was designed to validate the functions of these genes in tuber signaling and heat tolerance using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Results indicated that VIGS transformed plants had a consequential reduction in StSSH2, StWTF, StUGT, StBHP, and StFLTP transcripts compared to the control plants. Phenotypic observations suggest an increase in plant senescence, reductions to both number and size of tubers, and a decrease in plant dry matter compared to the control plants. We also establish the potency of VIGS as a high-throughput technique for functional validation of genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-021-00771-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of Cellulolytic Enzyme-Assisted Microwave Extraction of Punica granatum Peel Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2020 Dec 1;75(4):614-620. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Division of Food Science and Post-harvest Technology, ICAR - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Conventional techniques for phenolics extraction from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel (PP) have several insufficiencies like longer time duration, bioactive degradation, excess use of harmful chemicals and solvents. In the present study, we established the synergistic use of two non-conventional extraction strategies i.e., enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) using a cellulolytic enzyme preparation (Viscozyme) followed by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for efficient recovery of phenolics from PP. This optimized method was individually compared with EAE, MAE, and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) methods for recovering PP phenolics with maximum antioxidant activity (AOA). Extracts were analyzed for AOA using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing AOA (CUPRAC) methods. Response surface methodology (RSM), was used as an optimization tool to achieve maximum yield of phenolics and with highest AOA at power 443.5 W, time 131.0 min, and solvent-to-solid ratio 23.6:1. The predicted values for maximum phenolics and AOA obtained through RSM were 305 mg GAE/g, 1788 μmol TE/g (FRAP) and 2641 μmol TE/g (CUPRAC), respectively. Phenolic contents of only 94.6, 165.46, and 197.6 mg GAE/g were achieved through CSE, EAE and MAE, respectively. Here we substantiate the auxiliary role of Viscozyme and microwave treatment in achieving high phenolic content and AOA from PPs. Phenolic rich extracts are known to act as multi-target ligands that inhibit various enzymes involved in diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes mellitus. The extract can be commercially exploited for the development of functional foods, supplements, and natural preservatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-020-00859-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Ultrasound-assisted development of stable grapefruit peel polyphenolic nano-emulsion: Optimization and application in improving oxidative stability of mustard oil.

Food Chem 2021 Jan 18;334:127561. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India. Electronic address:

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel (GP) is rich in flavonoids and phenolics which have several proven pharmacological effects. However, their chemical instability towards oxygen, light and heat limits its applications in food industries. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of fabricating grapefruit-peel-phenolic (GPP) nano-emulsion in mustard oil using ultrasonication. Response surface methodology (RSM) optimization revealed that sonication time of 9.5 min at 30% amplitude and 0.52% Span-80 produced the stable GPP nano-emulsion with a droplet size of 29.73 ± 1.62 nm. Results indicate that both ultrasonication and Span-80 can assist the fabrication of a stabilized nano-emulsion. This study is one of its kind where nano-encapsulation of GPP into W/O emulsion was done to stabilize the active compound inside mustard oil and then the nano-emulsion was used to extend oxidative stability of mustard oil. Findings provide a basic guideline to formulate stable nano-emulsions for their use in active food packaging, oils, and pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127561DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhancing the functionality of chitosan- and alginate-based active edible coatings/films for the preservation of fruits and vegetables: A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 16;164:304-320. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

A number of studies have established the potential of chitosan and alginate-based edible film/coatings for preserving the quality attributes of fruits and vegetables. Findings demonstrate that these films/coatings act as a barrier on the surface of fruits and vegetables which causes higher moisture and water retention, create favourable micro-environments by optimizing the concentration of gases and delays ripening. Sincere efforts are being further made to improve the efficiency of edible films using functional additives such as phenolics, essential oils (EOs) and nano-forms. These additives have unlocked a new dimension for enhancing functional properties of alginate/chitosan-based films. These functional compounds are now emerging as an important component of edible films/coatings for prolonging shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. The present review comprehensively elaborates recent studies on functional additives and their mechanism of action. Here we also establish their proficiency in extending quality and shelf-life of various fruits including guava, pear, blueberries and vegetables like cucumber, capsicum and mushroom. Principles behind antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of additives in preventing the food spoilage are also reviewed. Competency of phenolics, EOs and nano-forms in extending the shelf-life without affecting the nutritional properties and safety aspects of the fruits and vegetables still require further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.083DOI Listing
December 2020
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