Publications by authors named "Mahamadou Faty"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rif1 maintains telomeres and mediates DNA repair by encasing DNA ends.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2017 Jul 12;24(7):588-595. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

In yeast, Rif1 is part of the telosome, where it inhibits telomerase and checkpoint signaling at chromosome ends. In mammalian cells, Rif1 is not telomeric, but it suppresses DNA end resection at chromosomal breaks, promoting repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we describe crystal structures for the uncharacterized and conserved ∼125-kDa N-terminal domain of Rif1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Rif1-NTD), revealing an α-helical fold shaped like a shepherd's crook. We identify a high-affinity DNA-binding site in the Rif1-NTD that fully encases DNA as a head-to-tail dimer. Engagement of the Rif1-NTD with telomeres proved essential for checkpoint control and telomere length regulation. Unexpectedly, Rif1-NTD also promoted NHEJ at DNA breaks in yeast, revealing a conserved role of Rif1 in DNA repair. We propose that tight associations between the Rif1-NTD and DNA gate access of processing factors to DNA ends, enabling Rif1 to mediate diverse telomere maintenance and DNA repair functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.3420DOI Listing
July 2017

Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase regulation by the COP9 signalosome.

Nature 2016 Mar;531(7596):598-603

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.

The cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase (CRL) family comprises over 200 members in humans. The COP9 signalosome complex (CSN) regulates CRLs by removing their ubiquitin-like activator NEDD8. The CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DDB2 complex (CRL4A(DDB2)) monitors the genome for ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage. CRL4A(DBB2) is inactive in the absence of damaged DNA and requires CSN to regulate the repair process. The structural basis of CSN binding to CRL4A(DDB2) and the principles of CSN activation are poorly understood. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures for CSN in complex with neddylated CRL4A ligases to 6.4 Å resolution. The CSN conformers defined by cryo-electron microscopy and a novel apo-CSN crystal structure indicate an induced-fit mechanism that drives CSN activation by neddylated CRLs. We find that CSN and a substrate cannot bind simultaneously to CRL4A, favouring a deneddylated, inactive state for substrate-free CRL4 complexes. These architectural and regulatory principles appear conserved across CRL families, allowing global regulation by CSN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17416DOI Listing
March 2016

Structural and mechanistic insight into Holliday-junction dissolution by topoisomerase IIIα and RMI1.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2014 Mar 9;21(3):261-8. Epub 2014 Feb 9.

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Repair of DNA double-strand breaks via homologous recombination can produce double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that require enzymatic separation. Topoisomerase IIIα (TopIIIα) together with RMI1 disentangles the final hemicatenane intermediate obtained once dHJs have converged. How binding of RMI1 to TopIIIα influences it to behave as a hemicatenane dissolvase, rather than as an enzyme that relaxes DNA topology, is unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of human TopIIIα complexed to the first oligonucleotide-binding domain (OB fold) of RMI1. TopIII assumes a toroidal type 1A topoisomerase fold. RMI1 attaches to the edge of the gate in TopIIIα through which DNA passes. RMI1 projects a 23-residue loop into the TopIIIα gate, thereby influencing the dynamics of its opening and closing. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for how RMI1 stabilizes TopIIIα-gate opening to enable dissolution and illustrate how binding partners modulate topoisomerase function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292918PMC
March 2014

Rif1 and Rif2 shape telomere function and architecture through multivalent Rap1 interactions.

Cell 2013 Jun;153(6):1340-53

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.

Yeast telomeres comprise irregular TG₁₋₃ DNA repeats bound by the general transcription factor Rap1. Rif1 and Rif2, along with Rap1, form the telosome, a protective cap that inhibits telomerase, counteracts SIR-mediated transcriptional silencing, and prevents inadvertent recognition of telomeres as DNA double-strand breaks. We provide a molecular, biochemical, and functional dissection of the protein backbone at the core of the yeast telosome. The X-ray structures of Rif1 and Rif2 bound to the Rap1 C-terminal domain and that of the Rif1 C terminus are presented. Both Rif1 and Rif2 have separable and independent Rap1-binding epitopes, allowing Rap1 binding over large distances (42-110 Å). We identify tetramerization (Rif1) and polymerization (Rif2) modules that, in conjunction with the long-range binding, give rise to a higher-order architecture that interlinks Rap1 units. This molecular Velcro relies on Rif1 and Rif2 to recruit and stabilize Rap1 on telomeric arrays and is required for telomere homeostasis in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.007DOI Listing
June 2013

The molecular basis of CRL4DDB2/CSA ubiquitin ligase architecture, targeting, and activation.

Cell 2011 Nov;147(5):1024-39

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland.

The DDB1-CUL4-RBX1 (CRL4) ubiquitin ligase family regulates a diverse set of cellular pathways through dedicated substrate receptors (DCAFs). The DCAF DDB2 detects UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the genome and facilitates nucleotide excision repair. We provide the molecular basis for DDB2 receptor-mediated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer recognition in chromatin. The structures of the fully assembled DDB1-DDB2-CUL4A/B-RBX1 (CRL4(DDB2)) ligases reveal that the mobility of the ligase arm creates a defined ubiquitination zone around the damage, which precludes direct ligase activation by DNA lesions. Instead, the COP9 signalosome (CSN) mediates the CRL4(DDB2) inhibition in a CSN5 independent, nonenzymatic, fashion. In turn, CSN inhibition is relieved upon DNA damage binding to the DDB2 module within CSN-CRL4(DDB2). The Cockayne syndrome A DCAF complex crystal structure shows that CRL4(DCAF(WD40)) ligases share common architectural features. Our data support a general mechanism of ligase activation, which is induced by CSN displacement from CRL4(DCAF) on substrate binding to the DCAF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.035DOI Listing
November 2011

Histone methylation by PRC2 is inhibited by active chromatin marks.

Mol Cell 2011 May;42(3):330-41

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland.

The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) confers transcriptional repression through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Here, we examined how PRC2 is modulated by histone modifications associated with transcriptionally active chromatin. We provide the molecular basis of histone H3 N terminus recognition by the PRC2 Nurf55-Su(z)12 submodule. Binding of H3 is lost if lysine 4 in H3 is trimethylated. We find that H3K4me3 inhibits PRC2 activity in an allosteric fashion assisted by the Su(z)12 C terminus. In addition to H3K4me3, PRC2 is inhibited by H3K36me2/3 (i.e., both H3K36me2 and H3K36me3). Direct PRC2 inhibition by H3K4me3 and H3K36me2/3 active marks is conserved in humans, mouse, and fly, rendering transcriptionally active chromatin refractory to PRC2 H3K27 trimethylation. While inhibition is present in plant PRC2, it can be modulated through exchange of the Su(z)12 subunit. Inhibition by active chromatin marks, coupled to stimulation by transcriptionally repressive H3K27me3, enables PRC2 to autonomously template repressive H3K27me3 without overwriting active chromatin domains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2011.03.025DOI Listing
May 2011

A role for codon order in translation dynamics.

Cell 2010 Apr;141(2):355-67

Institute of Computational Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

The genetic code is degenerate. Each amino acid is encoded by up to six synonymous codons; the choice between these codons influences gene expression. Here, we show that in coding sequences, once a particular codon has been used, subsequent occurrences of the same amino acid do not use codons randomly, but favor codons that use the same tRNA. The effect is pronounced in rapidly induced genes, involves both frequent and rare codons and diminishes only slowly as a function of the distance between subsequent synonymous codons. Furthermore, we found that in S. cerevisiae codon correlation accelerates translation relative to the translation of synonymous yet anticorrelated sequences. The data suggest that tRNA diffusion away from the ribosome is slower than translation, and that some tRNA channeling takes place at the ribosome. They also establish that the dynamics of translation leave a significant signature at the level of the genome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.036DOI Listing
April 2010

Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information.

BMC Syst Biol 2008 Jan 14;2. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Institute of Plant Science, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstr, 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size.

Results: We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W) as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example.

Conclusion: We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-0509-2-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258006PMC
January 2008

The Caenorhabditis elegans septin complex is nonpolar.

EMBO J 2007 Jul 28;26(14):3296-307. Epub 2007 Jun 28.

Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Septins are conserved GTPases that form heteromultimeric complexes and assemble into filaments that play a critical role in cell division and polarity. Results from budding and fission yeast indicate that septin complexes form around a tetrameric core. However, the molecular structure of the core and its influence on the polarity of septin complexes and filaments is poorly defined. The septin complex of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is formed entirely by the core septins UNC-59 and UNC-61. We show that UNC-59 and UNC-61 form a dimer of coiled-coil-mediated heterodimers. By electron microscopy, this heterotetramer appears as a linear arrangement of four densities representing the four septin subunits. Fusion of GFP to the N termini of UNC-59 and UNC-61 and subsequent electron microscopic visualization suggests that the sequence of septin subunits is UNC-59/UNC-61/UNC-61/UNC-59. Visualization of GFP extensions fused to the extremity of the C-terminal coiled coils indicates that these extend laterally from the heterotetrameric core. Together, our study establishes that the septin core complex is symmetric, and suggests that septins form nonpolar filaments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7601775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1933406PMC
July 2007

Asymmetric recruitment of dynein to spindle poles and microtubules promotes proper spindle orientation in yeast.

Dev Cell 2006 Apr;10(4):425-39

Institute of Biochemistry, Biology Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a key role in determining whether a polarized cell will divide symmetrically or asymmetrically. In most cell types, cytoplasmic dynein plays a critical role in spindle orientation. However, how dynein directs opposite spindle poles toward distinct and predetermined cell ends is poorly understood. Here, we show that dynein distributes preferentially to the spindle pole bodies (SPB) and astral microtubules (MTs) proximal to the bud in metaphase yeast cells. Dynein asymmetry depended on the bud neck kinases Elm1, Hsl1, and Gin4, on the spindle pole components Cnm67 and Cdk1, and on the B-type cyclins Clb1 and Clb2. Furthermore, phenotypic and genetic studies both indicated that dynein is unable to orient the spindle when it localizes to both poles and associated microtubules. Together, our data indicate that proper orientation of the spindle requires dynein to act on a single spindle pole.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2006.02.018DOI Listing
April 2006

Septins: a ring to part mother and daughter.

Curr Genet 2002 Jun 19;41(3):123-31. Epub 2002 Jun 19.

Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.

The septins are well conserved GTPases found in animals and fungi. In yeast, they are required for the formation of 10-nm filaments, with which they co-localize at the bud neck. Therefore, septins have been proposed to be components of the neck filaments and to have polymerization properties. In support of this hypothesis, septin complexes purified from yeast and flies form filaments in vitro. However, recent studies have questioned the relevance of septin filament formation for septin function. Particularly, septin polymerization may not be required for their function in cytokinesis. New septin functions have also been recently uncovered: in budding yeast, the septin ring is required for the maintenance of cell polarity. It forms a cortical barrier that prevents lateral diffusion of membrane-associated proteins through the bud neck. Here, we review the most recent functional and biochemical data, to discuss whether there is a link between septin polymerization properties and septin function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-002-0304-0DOI Listing
June 2002