Publications by authors named "Magali Herrant"

12 Publications

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Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 07;10(7):e989-e1002

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients' conditions.

Methods: In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures were harmonised across all centres, with first-line testing was done on samples taken at inclusion and results delivered within 24 h of inclusion for main treatable causes of disease and second-line testing was done thereafter for mostly non-treatable causes. An independent expert medical panel reviewed the charts and attribution of causes of all the included children. Using multivariate analyses, we assessed risk factors associated with unfavourable outcomes (ie, severe neurological sequelae and death) at discharge using data from baseline and day 2 after inclusion. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04089436, and is now complete.

Findings: Between July 28, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017, 664 children with encephalitis were enrolled. Median age was 4·3 years (1·8-8·8), 295 (44%) children were female, and 369 (56%) were male. A confirmed or probable cause of encephalitis was identified in 425 (64%) patients: 216 (33%) of 664 cases were due to Japanese encephalitis virus, 27 (4%) were due to dengue virus, 26 (4%) were due to influenza virus, 24 (4%) were due to herpes simplex virus 1, 18 (3%) were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 17 (3%) were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (3%) were due to enterovirus A71, 74 (9%) were due to other pathogens, and six (1%) were due to autoimmune encephalitis. Diagnosis was made within 24 h of admission to hospital for 83 (13%) of 664 children. 119 (18%) children had treatable conditions and 276 (42%) had conditions that could have been preventable by vaccination. At time of discharge, 153 (23%) of 664 children had severe neurological sequelae and 83 (13%) had died. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for unfavourable outcome were diagnosis of M tuberculosis infection upon admission (odds ratio 3·23 [95% CI 1·04-10·03]), coma on day 2 (2·90 [1·78-4·72]), supplementary oxygen requirement (1·89 [1·25-2·86]), and more than 1 week duration between symptom onset and admission to hospital (3·03 [1·68-5·48]). At 1 year after inclusion, of 432 children who were discharged alive from hospital with follow-up data, 24 (5%) had died, 129 (30%) had neurological sequelae, and 279 (65%) had completely recovered.

Interpretation: In southeast Asia, most causes of childhood encephalitis are either preventable or treatable, with Japanese encephalitis virus being the most common cause. We provide crucial information that could guide public health policy to improve diagnostic, vaccination, and early therapeutic guidelines on childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region.

Funding: Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur International Network, Fondation Merieux, Aviesan Sud, INSERM, Wellcome Trust, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), and Fondation Total.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00174-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210261PMC
July 2022

Impact of Introducing Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccines into the Infant Immunization Program in Burkina Faso: Study Protocol for a Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial (NéoVac Study).

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Unité d'Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.

To achieve global hepatitis elimination by 2030, it is critical to prevent the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Since 2009, the WHO has recommended administering hepatitis B vaccine to all neonates within 24 h of birth to prevent MTCT. However, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa only provide hepatitis B immunization at the age of 6, 10, and 14 weeks or 8, 12, and 16 weeks using a combined vaccine. To accelerate the introduction of the hepatitis B birth dose vaccine (HepB-BD) into sub-Saharan Africa, it is critical to establish to what extent the addition of HepB-BD can further reduce HBV transmission in areas where three-dose infant vaccination has been implemented. We therefore designed a study to evaluate the impact, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of incorporating the HepB-BD into the routine immunization program in a real-life field condition in Burkina Faso, where the hepatitis B vaccination is currently scheduled at 8-12-16 weeks. Through a multidisciplinary approach combining epidemiology, anthropology, and health economics, the Neonatal Vaccination against Hepatitis B in Africa (NéoVac) study conducts a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in rural areas of the Hauts-Bassins Region. The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04029454). A health center is designated as a cluster, and the introduction of HepB-BD will be rolled out sequentially in 24 centers. Following an initial period in which no health center administers HepB-BD, one center will be randomly allocated to incorporate HepB-BD. Then, at a regular interval, another center will be randomized to cross from the control to the intervention period, until all 24 centers integrate HepB-BD. Pregnant women attending antenatal care will be systematically invited to participate. Infants born during the control period will follow the conventional immunization schedule (8-12-16 weeks), while those born in the interventional period will receive HepB-BD in addition to the routine vaccines (0-8-12-16 weeks). The primary outcome, the proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity in infants aged at 9 months, will be compared between children born before and after HepB-BD introduction. The study will generate data that may assist governments and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa to make evidence-based decisions about whether to add HepB-BD into the national immunization programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227098PMC
June 2021

Risk factors associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinoconjunctivitis in a rural Senegalese cohort.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2015 25;11(1):24. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Institut Pasteur, Unité de la Génétique Fonctionnelle des Maladies Infectieuses, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

Background: The World Allergy Organization estimates that 40 % of the world's population is affected by allergic diseases. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood has completed Phase III and it has now become clear that these diseases have increased in developing countries, especially Africa, where prevalence rates were formerly low. Despite an increase in studies in Africa, few sub-Saharan West African countries are represented; the focus has remained on urban populations and little attention has been paid to rural sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We performed an allergy survey in a birth cohort of children aged less than 15 years in rural Senegal and implemented an ISAAC questionnaire. We carried out a complete blood count and serological analyses for IgE levels against common allergens and mosquito saliva.

Results: The prevalence rates of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis (RC) and atopic dermatitis (AD) were 12.8, 12.5 and 12.2 % respectively. Specific IgE (sIgE) levels against mosquito spp. salivary gland antigens were significantly associated with AD; sIgE levels against selected true grasses (Poaceae) were significantly associated with RC. sIgE levels against house dust mite spp. were not associated with asthma, but were significantly correlated with mosquito IgE levels. Such cross-reactivity may blur the association between HDM sIgE and asthma. Consumption of seafood, storing whey cream, using plant fibre bedding and presence of carpet were significantly associated with increased risk of RC. The association of seafood may be the result of histamine intoxication from molluscs prepared by putrefaction. Cat presence and dog contact were associated with increased risk of asthma. Cow contact was associated with increased risk of AD.

Conclusions: Our allergy study in rural West Africa revealed lower prevalence rates than the majority of African urban settings. Although several associated known risk factors were identified, there were associations specific to the region. The identification of probable artefactual dietary phenomena is a challenge for robust diagnosis of allergic disease. The association AD with mosquito saliva, a common allergen in rural settings, warrants specific attention. Further studies in rural Africa are needed to address the aetiology of allergy in a non-urban environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-015-0090-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4547418PMC
August 2015

Asthma and atopic dermatitis are associated with increased risk of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

BMJ Open 2013 24;3(7). Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Institut Pasteur, Unité de la Génétique Fonctionnelle des Maladies Infectieuses, CNRS URA3012,  Paris, France.

Objectives: To assess the impact of atopy and allergy on the risk of clinical malaria.

Design: A clinical and immunological allergy cross-sectional survey in a birth cohort of 175 children from 1 month to 14 years of age followed for up to 15 years in a longitudinal open cohort study of malaria in Senegal. Malaria incidence data were available for 143 of these children (aged 4 months to 14 years of age) for up to 15 years. Mixed-model regression analysis was used to determine the impact of allergy status on malaria incidence, adjusting for age, gender, sickle-cell trait and force of infection.

Main Outcome Measures: Asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis status, the number of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes since birth and associated parasite density.

Results: 12% of the children were classified as asthmatic and 10% as having atopic dermatitis. These groups had respectively a twofold (OR 2.12 95%; CI 1.46 to 3.08; p=8×10(-5)) and threefold (OR 3.15; 1.56 to 6.33; p=1.3×10(-3)) increase in the risk of clinical P falciparum malaria once older than the age of peak incidence of clinical malaria (3-4 years of age). They also presented with higher P falciparum parasite densities (asthma: mean 105.3 parasites/μL±SE 41.0 vs 51.3±9.7; p=6.2×10(-3). Atopic dermatitis: 135.4±70.7 vs 52.3±11.0; p=0.014). There was no effect of allergy on the number of non-malaria clinical presentations. Individuals with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis did not have an increased risk of clinical malaria nor any difference in parasite densities.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that asthma and atopic dermatitis delay the development of clinical immunity to P falciparum. Despite the encouraging decrease in malaria incidence rates in Africa, a significant concern is the extent to which the increase in allergy will exacerbate the burden of malaria. Given the demonstrated antiparasitic effect of antihistamines, administration to atopic children will likely reduce the burden of clinical malaria in these children, increase the efficacy of first-line treatment antimalarials and alleviate the non-infectious consequences of atopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3731724PMC
July 2013

Caspase-3-derived C-terminal product of synphilin-1 displays antiapoptotic function via modulation of the p53-dependent cell death pathway.

J Biol Chem 2006 Apr 22;281(17):11515-22. Epub 2006 Feb 22.

Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, UMR6097/Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Equipe Labellisée Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, 660 Route des Lucioles, 06560, Valbonne, France.

Parkinson disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease. A subset of genetic forms of Parkinson disease has been attributed to alpha-synuclein, a synaptic protein with remarkable chaperone properties. Synphilin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein that has been identified as a partner of alpha-synuclein (Engelender, S., Kaminsky, Z., Guo, X., Sharp, A. H., Amaravi, R. K., Kleiderlein, J. J., Margolis, R. L., Troncoso, J. C., Lanahan, A. A., Worley, P. F., Dawson, V. L., Dawson, T. M., and Ross, C. A. (1999) Nat. Gen. 22, 110-114), but its function remains totally unknown. We show here for the first time that synphilin-1 displays an antiapoptotic function in the control of cell death. We have established transient and stable transfectants overexpressing wild-type synphilin-1 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, telecephalon-specific murine 1 neurons, and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and we show that both cell systems display lower responsiveness to staurosporine and 6-hydroxydopamine. Thus, synphilin-1 reduces procaspase-3 hydrolysis and thereby caspase-3 activity and decreases poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, two main indicators of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, we establish that synphilin-1 drastically reduces p53 transcriptional activity and expression and lowers p53 promoter transactivation and mRNA levels. Interestingly, we demonstrate that synphilin-1 catabolism is enhanced by staurosporine and blocked by caspase-3 inhibitors. Accordingly, we show by transcription/translation assay that recombinant caspase-3 and, to a lesser extent, caspase-6 but not caspase-7 hydrolyze synphilin-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mutated synphilin-1, in which a consensus caspase-3 target sequence has been disrupted, resists proteolysis by cellular and recombinant caspases and displays drastically reduced antiapoptotic phenotype. We further show that the caspase-3-derived C-terminal fragment of synphilin-1 was probably responsible for the antiapoptotic phenotype elicited by the parent wild-type protein. Altogether, our study is the first demonstration that synphilin-1 harbors a protective function that is controlled by the C-terminal fragment generated by its proteolysis by caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M508619200DOI Listing
April 2006

Increased rate of apoptosis and diminished phagocytic ability of human neutrophils infected with Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains.

Infect Immun 2004 Oct;72(10):5741-9

INSERM 0215, Faculté de Médecine, Nice, France.

The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5alpha strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.10.5741-5749.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC517549PMC
October 2004

Cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspases impaired its ability to counteract Bim-induced apoptosis.

Oncogene 2004 Oct;23(47):7863-73

INSERM U526, Physiopathologie de la Survie et de la Mort Cellulaires et Infections Virales, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, IFR50, Faculté de Médecine, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice Cedex 2, France.

Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that can promote cell viability. We report here that Mcl-1 is a new substrate for caspases during induction of apoptosis. Mcl-1 cleavage occurs after Asp127 and Asp157 and generates four fragments of 24, 19, 17 and 12 kDa in both intact cells and in vitro, an effect prevented by selective caspase inhibitors. As a consequence, the resulting protein that lacks the first 127 or 157 amino acids contains only the BH1-BH3 domains of Bcl-2 family members. Mutation of Asp127 and Asp157 abolishes the generation of the 24 and 12 kDa fragments and that of the 19 and 17 kDa fragments, respectively. Interestingly, when expressed in HeLa cells Mcl-1 wt and Mcl-1 Delta127 showed a markedly different intracellular distribution. Mcl-1 wt colocalized with alpha-Tubulin near the internal face of the plasma membrane, while Mcl-1 Delta127 coassociated with Bim-EL at the mitochondrial level. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments also demonstrated that Mcl1 Delta127 exhibited increased binding to Bim when compared to Mcl-1 wt. Finally, Mcl-1 wt unlike Mcl-1 Delta127 inhibited Bim-EL-induced caspase activation. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspases modifies its subcellular localization, increases its association with Bim and inhibits its antiapoptotic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208069DOI Listing
October 2004

Imatinib induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of the Bcr-Abl-positive K562 cell line and its differentiation toward the erythroid lineage.

FASEB J 2003 Nov;17(14):2160-2

INSERM U526, Physiopathologie de la Survie et de la Mort Cellulaires et Infections Virales Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Nice, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0322DOI Listing
November 2003

Phosphorylation of Bim-EL by Erk1/2 on serine 69 promotes its degradation via the proteasome pathway and regulates its proapoptotic function.

Oncogene 2003 Oct;22(43):6785-93

INSERM Unit 526, LNC Label, Faculté de Médecine, 28 Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice Cedex 02, France.

Bim is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that shares only the BH3 domain with this family. Three Bim proteins Bim-EL, Bim-L and Bim-S are synthesized from the same transcript. We report here that Bim-EL when phosphorylated by Erk1/2 is rapidly degraded via the proteasome pathway. Using different cellular models we evidence that serine 69 is both necessary and sufficient for Erk1/2-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of Bim-EL. In K562 cells, Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate activates Erk1/2 and consequently increases Bim-EL phosphorylation and degradation by the proteasome, resulting in cell survival, while the Bcr-Abl inhibitor imatinib abrogates Bim-EL phosphorylation and degradation and induces caspase activation and apoptosis. We also show that Bim-EL(S69G) promotes apoptosis more efficiently than Bim-EL-WT in K562 cells. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of Bim-EL by Erk1/2 on serine 69 selectively leads to its proteasomal degradation and therefore represents a new and important mechanism of Bim regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1206792DOI Listing
October 2003

The p54 cleaved form of the tyrosine kinase Lyn generated by caspases during BCR-induced cell death in B lymphoma acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis.

FASEB J 2003 Apr 5;17(6):711-3. Epub 2003 Feb 5.

INSERM U526 Activation des Cellules Hematopoietiques, Physiopathologie de la Survie et de la Mort Cellulaires et Infections Virales, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, IFR50, Faculté de Médecine, 06107 Nice-Cédex 2, France.

Engagement of the B cell receptor antigen (BCR) triggers apoptosis on immature B cell lines. We report here that BCR triggering leads to caspase activation followed by Lyn cleavage and induction of apoptosis. The cleavage process is mitochondrion-dependent and involves caspases 9 and 7. Stable expression of the cleaved form of Lyn (Lyn-Delta-N) in Ramos B cells impairs BCR-mediated apoptosis as judged by loss of Delta(psi)m, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Activation of the main survival pathways upon BCR-triggering was unaltered in both cell variants. However, the PI3-K inhibitor Ly294002 resensitizes Lyn-Delta-N cells to apoptosis. Selected cDNA expression arrays revealed that anti-IgM modulates the expression of approximately 20 genes in both cell variants. Among them, only c-Myc was found to be differentially regulated, which suggests a role for c-Myc in the B cell apoptotic response. Interestingly, c-Myc expression decreased more rapidly in Lyn-Delta-N compared with Lyn-WT cells during the first hours of anti-IgM stimulation. Nevertheless, rapid down-regulation of c-Myc following BCR engagement seems to correlate with the resistance of B cells to apoptosis. Thus, the soluble form of Lyn generated by caspases following BCR triggering acts as an inhibitor of B lymphocyte death likely through the modulation of c-Myc expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.02-0716fjeDOI Listing
April 2003

The protective effect of phorbol esters on Fas-mediated apoptosis in T cells. Transcriptional and postranscriptional regulation.

Oncogene 2002 Jul;21(32):4957-68

INSERM U 526, Equipe labellisée par la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, IFR 50, Faculté de Médecine, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice Cedex 2, France.

Phorbol esters are tumor promoters that bind and activate both conventional and new Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. In various circumstances, PKC-dependent signaling pathways can promote cell survival and protect against cell death. This was first analysed in Jurkat T cells where Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA) was found to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis as judged by DiOC6(3) staining, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that PMA exerts its protective effect upstream or at the mitochondrial level in these cells. PMA activated most of the main kinase pathways in T cells such as PKCs, p42/44MAPK, p38MAPK and p90Rsk but not JNK and Akt. A pharmacological approach allowed us to identify that nPKCs are both necessary and likely sufficient to promote T cell survival. Besides this post-transcriptional regulation, nPKCs may also regulate apoptosis at the transcriptional level. cDNA arrays were used to identify a set of genes whose expression was modulated in death versus survival conditions. Following PMA treatment, expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-x increased while that of c-Myc was significantly reduced. Moreover, survivin expression decreased upon CH11 or PMA treatment. c-Myc, survivin and Bcl-x modulation seems to be regulated at the transcriptional level while decrease in Mcl-1 protein in CH11-treated cells resulted especially from a caspase-dependent proteolysis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PMA-mediated inhibition of apoptosis is a complex process that is integrated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level and point out to the potential role of Mcl-1, Bcl-x, c-Myc and survivin in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1205689DOI Listing
July 2002

RelB reduces thymocyte apoptosis and regulates terminal thymocyte maturation.

Eur J Immunol 2002 01;32(1):1-9

Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, CNRS-INSERM-Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

Thymocyte maturation is controlled by successive developmental checkpoints connected to the acquisition of a functional T cell receptor (TCR). During thymocyte selection, engagement of the TCR regulates the fine balance between death and survival signals. At the final stages of single-positive (SP) thymocyte maturation, the coupling of the TCR changes from death- to proliferation-inducing signals, a competence required for optimal effector functions in the periphery. We show here that in RelB mutant thymuses, thymocyte differentiation of CD24(-) SP cells is partially impaired. Competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments show that this defect is constitutive to the lymphoid compartment. This is accompanied by an increased proportion of apoptotic thymocytes and a drastically reduced proliferation upon activation with anti-CD3 antibody/PMA stimulation. Thus, the RelB protein contributes to the quality of cell signaling in thymocytes by providing anti-apoptotic signals. These results suggest that in addition to its major role on the activation of antigen-presenting cell function, the RelB protein is intrinsically required for terminal thymocyte differentiation and activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200201)32:1<1::AID-IMMU1>3.0.CO;2-SDOI Listing
January 2002
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