Publications by authors named "Madia Russillo"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effect of losing federal coverage through the Affordable Care Act on ear tube placements at an urban children's hospital.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Oct 26;113:164-167. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, 8915 W Connell Ct P.O. Box 1997, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: 15-31% of the population in a large Mid-western city is between 100 and 400% of the Federal Poverty Level, thus qualifying for health care coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Coverage for their children would potentially be available under Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) or Medicaid programs. Loss of funding for these programs could be devastating for this community.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1162 charts of pediatric patients with tympanostomy tube (TT) placement pre-ACA from November 2012 to December 2013 and 1606 charts post-ACA from January 2014 to July 2015. We filtered demographics by health insurance (Medicaid/CHIP/Other), residential zip codes, identified race/ethnicity within those zip codes as well as gender and age of patients getting TT during these periods.

Results: Bivariate analysis of these demographics between the two periods showed statistical significance (p = 0.0098) between White Hispanic/Latino children receiving ear tubes (pre-ACA = 3.8%, post-ACA = 6.4%). However, there was no statistical significance for insurance enrollment (Medicaid or non-Medicaid) and other races (White-not Hispanic/Latino (nHL), African American, Other/Unknown/Refused) with respect to TT placement. Using pre-ACA period and White nHL females as arbitrary reference, a multivariate logistic regression showed that patients requiring TT surgery were equally likely to be covered on Medicaid either before or after ACA.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that the pre and post ACA Medicaid coverage for TT surgery did not change. Underserved children did not obtain other forms of insurance during this time. This demonstrates a potentially catastrophic loss of coverage for children should Medicaid/CHIP benefits be lost to sole coverage under the ACA.
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October 2018

Assessing the Accuracy of Foveal Avascular Zone Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Segmentation and Scaling.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2017 Jun 9;6(3):16. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Purpose: The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is altered in numerous diseases. We assessed factors (axial length, segmentation method, age, sex) impacting FAZ measurements from optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography images.

Methods: We recruited 116 Caucasian subjects without ocular disease, and acquired two 3 × 3 mm AngioVue scans per each right eye (232 total scans). In images of the superficial plexus, the FAZ was segmented using the AngioVue semiautomatic nonflow measurement tool and ImageJ manual segmentation. In images from the full retinal thickness, the FAZ was segmented using the AngioAnalytics automatic FAZ tool. Repeatability, reliability, and reproducibility were calculated for FAZ measurements (acircularity, area).

Results: FAZ area (mean ± SD) for manual segmentation was 0.240 ± 0.0965 mm, greater than both semiautomatic (0.216 ± 0.0873 mm) and automatic (0.218 ± 0.0869 mm) segmentation ( < 0.05). Not correcting for axial length introduced errors up to 25% in FAZ area. Manual area segmentation had better repeatability (0.020 mm) than semiautomatic (0.043 mm) or automatic (0.056 mm). FAZ acircularity had better repeatability with automatic than manual segmentation (0.086 vs. 0.114). Reliability of all area measurements was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.994 manual, 0.969 semiautomatic, 0.948 automatic). Reliability of acircularity measurements was 0.879 for manual and 0.606 for automatic.

Conclusion: We identified numerous factors affecting FAZ measurements. These errors confound comparisons across studies and studies examining factors that may correlate with FAZ measures.

Translational Relevance: Using FAZ measurements as biomarkers for disease progression requires assessing and controlling for different sources of error. Not correcting for ocular magnification can result in significant inaccuracy in FAZ measurements, while choice of segmentation method affects both repeatability and accuracy.
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June 2017

Assessing Photoreceptor Structure in Retinitis Pigmentosa and Usher Syndrome.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016 05;57(6):2428-42

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States 2Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ma.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptor structure in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Usher syndrome using confocal and nonconfocal split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO).

Methods: Nineteen subjects (11 RP, 8 Usher syndrome) underwent ophthalmic and genetic testing, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and AOSLO imaging. Split-detector images obtained in 11 subjects (7 RP, 4 Usher syndrome) were used to assess remnant cone structure in areas of altered cone reflectivity on confocal AOSLO.

Results: Despite normal interdigitation zone and ellipsoid zone appearance on OCT, foveal and parafoveal cone densities derived from confocal AOSLO images were significantly lower in Usher syndrome compared with RP. This was due in large part to an increased prevalence of non-waveguiding cones in the Usher syndrome retina. Although significantly correlated to best-corrected visual acuity and foveal sensitivity, cone density can decrease by nearly 38% before visual acuity becomes abnormal. Aberrantly waveguiding cones were noted within the transition zone of all eyes and corresponded to intact inner segment structures. These remnant cones decreased in density and increased in diameter across the transition zone and disappeared with external limiting membrane collapse.

Conclusions: Foveal cone density can be decreased in RP and Usher syndrome before visible changes on OCT or a decline in visual function. Thus, AOSLO imaging may allow more sensitive monitoring of disease than current methods. However, confocal AOSLO is limited by dependence on cone waveguiding, whereas split-detector AOSLO offers unambiguous and quantifiable visualization of remnant cone inner segment structure. Confocal and split-detector thus offer complementary insights into retinal pathology.
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May 2016