Publications by authors named "Madhusudan R Nandineni"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The genetic affinities of Gujjar and Ladakhi populations of India.

Sci Rep 2020 02 6;10(1):2055. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Uppal, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

The Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh in North India owing to their unique geographic location offer a wide variety of landscape from plains to high altitudes and is a congruence of many languages and cultural practices. Here, we present the genetic diversity studies of Gujjars from Jammu region of J&K and Ladakhi population based on a battery of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), Y-chromosomal STRs and the control region of the mitochondrial genome. These two populations were observed to be genetically distant to each other as well as to other populations from India. Interestingly, Y-STR analyses showed a closer affinity of Gujjars to other nomadic populations of Pashtuns from Baghlans and Kunduz provinces of Afghanistan and Pashtuns and Sindhis of Pakistan. Gujjars exhibited lesser genetic diversity as compared to Ladakhi population. M30f and M9 were the most abundant mitochondrial haplogroups observed among Gujjars and Ladakhis, respectively. A lower matrilineal to patrilineal diversity was observed for both these populations. The current study presents the first comprehensive analysis of Gujjars and Ladakhis and reveals their unique genetic affiliations with other populations of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59061-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005309PMC
February 2020

The Landscape of Repetitive Elements in the Refined Genome of Chilli Anthracnose Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2018 4;9:2367. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India.

The ascomycete fungus is a major phytopathogen with a broad host range which causes anthracnose disease of chilli. The genome sequencing of this fungus led to the discovery of functional categories of genes that may play important roles in fungal pathogenicity. However, the presence of gaps in draft assembly prevented the accurate prediction of repetitive elements, which are the key players to determine the genome architecture and drive evolution and host adaptation. We re-sequenced its genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology to obtain a refined assembly with lesser and smaller gaps and ambiguities. This enabled us to study its genome architecture by characterising the repetitive sequences like transposable elements (TEs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), which constituted 4.9 and 0.38% of the assembled genome, respectively. The comparative analysis among different species revealed the extensive repeat rich regions, dominated by Gypsy superfamily of long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the differential composition of SSRs in their genomes. Our study revealed a recent burst of LTR amplification in , , and . TEs in were significantly associated with secretome, effectors and genes in secondary metabolism clusters. Some of the TE families in showed cytosine to thymine transitions indicative of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). and showed strong signatures of RIP across their genomes and "two-speed" genomes with extensive AT-rich and gene-sparse regions. Comparative genomic analyses of species provided an insight into the species-specific SSR profiles. The SSRs in the coding and non-coding regions of the genome revealed the composition of trinucleotide repeat motifs in exons with potential to alter the translated protein structure through amino acid repeats. This is the first genome-wide study of TEs and SSRs in and their comparative analysis with six other species, which would serve as a useful resource for future research to get insights into the potential role of TEs in genome expansion and evolution of fungi and for development of SSR-based molecular markers for population genomic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180176PMC
October 2018

A comprehensive portrait of Y-STR diversity of Indian populations and comparison with 129 worldwide populations.

Sci Rep 2018 10 18;8(1):15421. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Uppal, Hyderabad, Telangana State, 500039, India.

India, known for its rich cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity, has attracted the attention of population geneticists to understand its genetic diversity employing autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA markers. Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are useful in understanding population substructures and reveal the patrilineal affinities among populations. Previous studies on Indian populations based on Y-STR markers were either limited to restricted number of markers or focused on few selected populations. In this study we genotyped 407 unrelated male individuals from 12 states in India employing the suite of Y-STRs present in PowerPlex Y23 (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). These populations clustered genetically close to each other irrespective of their geographic co-ordinates and were characterized primarily by R1a, H and L haplogroups. Interestingly, comparison with 129 worldwide populations showed genetic affinity of the Indian populations with few populations from Europe and Levantine. This study presents the first pan-Indian landscape of 23 Y-STRs and serves as a useful resource for construction of an Indian Y-STR database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33714-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194109PMC
October 2018

Association of common genetic variants with human skin color variation in Indian populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 01 6;30(1). Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, Telangana, 500001, India.

Objectives: Human skin color is one of the most conspicuously variable physical traits that has attracted the attention of physical anthropologists, social scientists and human geneticists. Although several studies have established the underlying genes and their variants affecting human skin color, they were mostly confined to Europeans and Africans and similar studies in Indian populations have been scanty. Studying the association between candidate genetic variants and skin color will help to validate previous findings and to better understand the molecular mechanism of skin color variation.

Methods: In this study, 22 candidate SNPs from 12 genes were tested for association with skin color in 299 unrelated samples sourced from nine geographical locations in India.

Results: Our study establishes the association of 9 SNPs with the phenotype in Indian populations and could explain ∼31% of the variance in skin color. Haplotype analysis of chromosome 15 revealed a significant association of alleles G, A and C of SNPs rs1426654, rs11070627, and rs12913316, respectively, to the phenotype, and accounted for 17% of the variance. Latitude of the sampling location was also a significant factor, contributing to ∼19% of the variation observed in the samples.

Conclusions: These observations support the findings that rs1426654 and rs4775730 located in SLC24A5, and rs11070627 and rs12913316 located in MYEF2 and CTXN2 genes respectively, are major contributors toward skin pigmentation and would aid in further unraveling the genotype-phenotype association in Indian populations. These findings can be utilized in forensic DNA applications for criminal investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23068DOI Listing
January 2018

Unraveling the human salivary microbiome diversity in Indian populations.

PLoS One 2017 8;12(9):e0184515. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, Telangana. India.

The importance of studying the salivary microbiome has been highlighted for its connection to health and disease and as a potential tool for supplementing human genetic diversity studies. While the salivary microbiome has been studied in various world populations, Indian populations have not been examined. We therefore analyzed microbiome diversity in saliva samples from 92 volunteers from eight different sampling locations in India by amplifying and sequencing variable regions (V1 and V2) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed immense bacterial richness in Indian populations; we identified 165 bacterial genera and 785 unique Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), with substantial sharing among the populations. There were small, but significant correlations in the abundance of bacterial genera in sampling locations from the same geographic region. Most of the core OTUs detected were also observed previously in other populations, but Solobacterium spp., Lachnoanaerobaculum spp. and Alloprevotella spp. were observed to be a component of the saliva microbiome unique to Indian populations. Importantly, nine bacterial genera were observed that were not listed in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD). These results highlight the importance of analyzing underrepresented populations like those of India.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184515PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590957PMC
October 2017

Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(8):e0183567. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183567PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573122PMC
October 2017

Population genetic analyses and evaluation of 22 autosomal STRs in Indian populations.

Int J Legal Med 2017 Jul 6;131(4):971-973. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500001, India.

The allele frequencies and forensically relevant parameters for the 22 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) present in PowerPlex® Fusion (Promega, Madison, WI) were determined for 357 unrelated individuals from 11 states across India. The combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999999999999875 and 0.999999997200846, respectively. The panel was found to be informative for Indian populations and generated a total of 275 alleles. Further, analyses with these loci did not show any noticeable clustering among the Indian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-016-1525-yDOI Listing
July 2017

Development of a SNP-based panel for human identification for Indian populations.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2017 03 5;27:58-66. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Laboratory of DNA Fingerprinting Services, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, Telengana, 500001, India; Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, Telengana, 500001, India. Electronic address:

The widely employed short tandem repeat (STR)-based panels for forensic human identification (HID) have limitations while dealing with challenging forensic samples involving DNA degradation, resulting in dropping-out of higher molecular weight alleles/loci. To address this issue, bialleic markers like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletions (indels), which can be scored even when the template DNA is heavily degraded (<100bp), have been suggested as alternative markers for HID testing. Recent studies have highlighted their utility in forensic HID and several panels based on biallelic markers have been described for worldwide populations. However, there has been very little information about the behavior of such DNA markers in Indian populations, which is known to possess great genetic diversity. This study describes a two-step approach for designing a SNP-based panel consisting of 70 SNPs for HID testing in Indian populations. In the first step, candidate SNPs were shortlisted from public databases by screening them for several criteria including allelic distribution, genomic location, potential phenotypic expression or functionality and species specificity. The second step involved genotyping the shortlisted SNPs in various Indian populations followed by shortlisting of the best performers for identity-testing. Starting with 592,652 SNPs listed in Human660W-Quad Beadchip (Illumina Inc.), we shortlisted 275 candidate SNPs for identity-testing and genotyped them in 462 unrelated individuals from different population groups in India. Post genotyping and statistical analyses based on biogeographic regions, 206 SNPs demonstrated desired allelic distribution (Heterozygosity≥0.4 and F≤0.02), from which 2-4 widely separated (>20 Mb apart) SNPs from each chromosome were finally selected to construct a panel of 70 SNPs. This panel on average possessed match probability 10e-29 and probability of paternity of 0.99999997, which was orders of magnitude higher than most of the currently employed STR-based chemistries and SNP-based panels that were proposed previously for HID testing. For comparison purpose, genotyping previously reported SNPs for HID in our samples led us to conclude that the panel developed in this study is much more efficient and robust and better suited for the Indian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.12.002DOI Listing
March 2017

Selective enrichment of STRs for applications in forensic human identification.

Electrophoresis 2015 Aug 23;36(15):1768-74. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Laboratory of DNA Fingerprinting Services, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, India.

Forensic human identification (HID) is currently based on determining repeat length polymorphisms located in short tandem repeat regions in the human genome. Despite the great progress made in the area of multiplex PCR-based approaches, limitations associated with challenging forensic samples such as DNA degradation, cooccurrence of inhabited microbial DNA and PCR inhibitors significantly affect the success rate of human DNA profiling. We have developed a sequence-specific pre-PCR STR enrichment method and evaluated its efficacy using DNA samples doped with various contaminants in view of its application on compromised forensic samples. This strategy has enabled us to generate complete and reproducible DNA profiles from samples doped with fivefold excess of nonhuman DNA and three to fourfold excess of various potent PCR inhibitors than that is claimed to be tolerated by some of the widely used commercial multiplex STR kits, from as little as two nanograms of degraded human DNA. The "hybrid capture"-based STR enrichment strategy described in this study is easily adaptable and offers a sensitive, efficient, and economical approach for successful human DNA profiling from compromised and recalcitrant forensic samples that are usually encountered in mass disaster incidents and missing persons' identifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201400490DOI Listing
August 2015

Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Apr 17;73:10-7. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Laboratory of DNA Fingerprinting Services, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Nampally, Hyderabad 500001, India; Laboratory of Genomics and Profiling Applications, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Nampally, Hyderabad 500001, India. Electronic address:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.01.003DOI Listing
April 2014

Analysis of the WISP3 gene in Indian families with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia.

Am J Med Genet A 2012 Nov 17;158A(11):2820-8. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Diagnostics Division, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a progressive skeletal syndrome characterized by stiffness, swelling and pain in multiple joints with associated osteoporosis in affected patients. Radiographically, the predominant features resemble a spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Mutations in the WISP3 gene are known to cause this autosomal recessive condition. To date, only a limited number of studies have looked into the spectrum of mutations causing PPD. We report on clinical features and WISP3 mutations in a large series of Indian patients with this rare skeletal dysplasia. Families with at least one member showing clinical and radiologic features of PPD were recruited for the study. Symptoms, signs and radiographic findings were documented in 35 patients from 25 unrelated families. Swelling of small joints of hands and contractures are the most common presenting features. Mutation analysis was carried out by bidirectional sequencing of the WISP3 gene in all 35 patients. We summarize the clinical features of 35 patients with PPD and report on 11 different homozygous mutations and one instance of compound heterozygosity. Eight (c.233G>A, c.340T>C, c.348C>A, c.433T>C, c.682T>C, c.802T>G, c.947_951delAATTT, and c.1010G>A) are novel mutations and three (c.156C>A, c.248G>A, and c.739_740delTG) have been reported previously. One missense mutation (c.1010G>A; p.Cys337Tyr) appears to be the most common in our population being seen in 10 unrelated families. This is the largest cohort of patients with PPD in the literature and the first report from India on mutation analysis of WISP3. We also review all the mutations reported in WISP3 till date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.35620DOI Listing
November 2012

Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania.

Am J Hum Genet 2011 Oct 22;89(4):516-28. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188841PMC
October 2011

Larger mitochondrial DNA than Y-chromosome differences between matrilocal and patrilocal groups from Sumatra.

Nat Commun 2011 ;2:228

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Genetic differences between human populations are typically larger for the Y-chromosome than for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which has been attributed to the ubiquity of patrilocality across human cultures. However, this claim has been disputed, and previous analyses of matrilocal groups give conflicting results. Here we analyse mtDNA variation (complete mtDNA genome sequences via next-generation sequencing) and non-recombining regions of the Y-chromosome variation (Y-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms and Y-short-tandem-repeats (STR)) in a matrilocal group (the Semende) and a patrilocal group (the Besemah) from Sumatra. We find in the Semende significantly lower mtDNA diversity than in the Besemah as expected for matrilocal groups, but unexpectedly we find no difference in Y-chromosome diversity between the groups. We highlight the importance of using complete mtDNA sequences for such analyses, as using only partial sequences (as done in previous studies) can give misleading results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1235DOI Listing
August 2011

Giuffrè-Tsukahara syndrome: Evidence for X-linked dominant inheritance and review.

Am J Med Genet A 2010 Aug;152A(8):2057-60

Diagnostics Division, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India.

We report on a girl with Giuffrè-Tsukahara syndrome manifesting microcephaly, mental retardation, radio-ulnar synostosis, short stature and scoliosis. Skewed X-inactivation was not observed in our patient. We reviewed previous reports and provide evidence in support of X-linked dominant inheritance of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33505DOI Listing
August 2010

Genetic variation and recent positive selection in worldwide human populations: evidence from nearly 1 million SNPs.

PLoS One 2009 Nov 18;4(11):e7888. Epub 2009 Nov 18.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Genome-wide scans of hundreds of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have resulted in the identification of new susceptibility variants to common diseases and are providing new insights into the genetic structure and relationships of human populations. Moreover, genome-wide data can be used to search for signals of recent positive selection, thereby providing new insights into the genetic adaptations that occurred as modern humans spread out of Africa and around the world.

Methodology: We genotyped approximately 500,000 SNPs in 255 individuals (5 individuals from each of 51 worldwide populations) from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP-CEPH). When merged with non-overlapping SNPs typed previously in 250 of these same individuals, the resulting data consist of over 950,000 SNPs. We then analyzed the genetic relationships and ancestry of individuals without assigning them to populations, and we also identified candidate regions of recent positive selection at both the population and regional (continental) level.

Conclusions: Our analyses both confirm and extend previous studies; in particular, we highlight the impact of various dispersals, and the role of substructure in Africa, on human genetic diversity. We also identified several novel candidate regions for recent positive selection, and a gene ontology (GO) analysis identified several GO groups that were significantly enriched for such candidate genes, including immunity and defense related genes, sensory perception genes, membrane proteins, signal receptors, lipid binding/metabolism genes, and genes involved in the nervous system. Among the novel candidate genes identified are two genes involved in the thyroid hormone pathway that show signals of selection in African Pygmies that may be related to their short stature.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007888PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775638PMC
November 2009

The nucleolar protein Esf2 interacts directly with the DExD/H box RNA helicase, Dbp8, to stimulate ATP hydrolysis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2006 13;34(10):3189-99. Epub 2006 Jun 13.

Department of Molecular Biophysics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8024, USA.

While 18 putative RNA helicases are involved in ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their enzymatic properties have remained largely biochemically uncharacterized. To better understand their function, we examined the enzymatic properties of Dpb8, a DExD/H box protein previously shown to be required for the synthesis of the 18S rRNA. As expected for an RNA helicase, we demonstrate that recombinant Dbp8 has ATPase activity in vitro, and that this activity is dependent on an intact ATPase domain. Strikingly, we identify Esf2, a nucleolar putative RNA binding protein, as a binding partner for Dbp8, and show that it enhances Dbp8 ATPase activity by decreasing the K(M) for ATP. Thus, we have uncovered Esf2 as the first example of a protein co-factor that has a stimulatory effect on a nucleolar RNA helicase. We show that Esf2 can bind to pre-rRNAs and speculate that it may function to bring Dbp8 to the pre-rRNA, thereby both regulating its enzymatic activity and guiding Dbp8 to its site of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkl419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1483223PMC
June 2006

The putative NTPase Fap7 mediates cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA processing through a direct interaction with Rps14.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Dec;25(23):10352-64

Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, 333 Cedar Street, SHM C-114, New Haven, CT 06520-8024, USA.

One of the proteins identified as being involved in ribosome biogenesis by high-throughput studies, a putative P-loop-type kinase termed Fap7 (YDL166c), was shown to be required for the conversion of 20S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this function has remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that Fap7 is strictly required for cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D in the cytoplasm. Genetic depletion of Fap7 causes accumulation of only the 20S pre-rRNA, which could be detected not only in 43S preribosomes but also in 80S-sized complexes. Fap7 is not a structural component of 43S preribosomes but likely transiently interacts with them by directly binding to Rps14, a ribosomal protein that is found near the 3' end of the 18S rRNA. Consistent with an NTPase activity, conserved residues predicted to be required for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) hydrolysis are essential for Fap7 function in vivo. We propose that Fap7 mediates cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D by directly interacting with Rps14 and speculate that it is an enzyme that functions as an NTP-dependent molecular switch in 18S rRNA maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.23.10352-10364.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1291222PMC
December 2005

Osmosensitivity associated with insertions in argP (iciA) or glnE in glutamate synthase-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli.

J Bacteriol 2004 Oct;186(19):6391-9

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.

An ampicillin enrichment strategy following transposon insertion mutagenesis was employed to obtain NaCl-sensitive mutants of a gltBD (glutamate synthase [GOGAT]-deficient) strain of Escherichia coli. It was reasoned that the gltBD mutation would sensitize the parental strain even to small perturbations affecting osmotolerance. Insertions conferring an osmosensitive phenotype were identified in the proU, argP (formerly iciA), and glnE genes encoding a glycine betaine/proline transporter, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, and the adenylyltransferase for glutamine synthetase, respectively. The gltBD+ derivatives of the strains were not osmosensitive. The argP mutation, but not the glnE mutation, was associated with reduced glutamate dehydrogenase activity and a concomitant NH4+ assimilation defect in the gltBD strain. Supplementation of the medium with lysine or a lysine-containing dipeptide phenocopied the argP null mutation for both osmosensitivity and NH4+ assimilation deficiency in a gltBD background, and a dominant gain-of-function mutation in argP was associated with suppression of these lysine inhibitory effects. Osmosensitivity in the gltBD strains, elicited either by lysine supplementation or by introduction of the argP or glnE mutations (but not proU mutations), was also correlated with a reduction in cytoplasmic glutamate pools in cultures grown at elevated osmolarity. We propose that an inability to accumulate intracellular glutamate at high osmolarity underlies the osmosensitive phenotype of both the argP gltBD and glnE gltBD mutants, the former because of a reduction in the capacity for NH4+ assimilation into glutamate and the latter because of increased channeling of glutamate into glutamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.186.19.6391-6399.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC516596PMC
October 2004

Evidence for an arginine exporter encoded by yggA (argO) that is regulated by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator ArgP in Escherichia coli.

J Bacteriol 2004 Jun;186(11):3539-46

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500007, India.

The anonymous open reading frame yggA of Escherichia coli was identified in this study as a gene that is under the transcriptional control of argP (previously called iciA), which encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. Strains with null mutations in either yggA or argP were supersensitive to the arginine analog canavanine, and yggA-lac expression in vivo exhibited argP(+)-dependent induction by arginine. Lysine supplementation phenocopied the argP null mutation in that it virtually abolished yggA expression, even in the argP+ strain. The dipeptides arginylalanine and lysylalanine behaved much like arginine and lysine, respectively, to induce and to turn off yggA transcription. Dominant missense mutations in argP (argPd) that conferred canavanine resistance and rendered yggA-lac expression constitutive were obtained. The protein deduced to be encoded by yggA shares similarity with a basic amino acid exporter (LysE) of Corynebacterium glutamicum, and we obtained evidence for increased arginine efflux from E. coli strains with either the argPd mutation or multicopy yggA+. The null yggA mutation abolished the increased arginine efflux from the argPd strain. Our results suggest that yggA encodes an ArgP-regulated arginine exporter, and we have accordingly renamed it argO (for "arginine outward transport"). We propose that the physiological function of argO may be either to prevent the accumulation to toxic levels of canavanine (which is a plant-derived antimetabolite) or arginine or to maintain an appropriate balance between the intracellular lysine and arginine concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.186.11.3539-3546.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC415761PMC
June 2004