Publications by authors named "Madhusudan Grover"

73 Publications

Intestinal barrier dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021 24;14:1756284821993586. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Medicine and Physiology, Enteric NeuroScience Program, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Background And Aim: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Sensory, motor and barrier dysfunctions are the key physiological endophenotypes of IBS. Our aim is to review studies evaluating barrier dysfunction in adults and children with IBS, as well as to link those changes with IBS symptomatology and quality of life.

Methods: A comprehensive and systematic review of multiple databases was performed up to March 2020 to identify studies comparing intestinal permeability in IBS patients with healthy controls. Both and studies were considered.

Results: We identified 66 studies, of which 27 used intestinal probes to quantify barrier function. The prevalence of barrier dysfunction differed between PI-IBS (17-50%), IBS-D (37-62%) and IBS-C (4-25%). At a group level, permeability was increased compared with healthy controls in IBS-D (9/13 studies) and PI-IBS (4/4 studies), but only a minority of IBS-C (2/7 studies) and not in the only IBS-M study. All four studies in children with IBS demonstrated loss of barrier function. A heterogeneous set of tight junction genes were found to be altered in small and large intestines of adults with IBS, but these have not been evaluated in children. Positive associations were identified between barrier dysfunction and bowel disturbances (6/9 studies), abdominal pain (9/13 studies), overall symptom severity (1/6 studies), depression and anxiety (1/1 study) and quality of life (1/4 studies). Fecal slurry or supernatants of IBS patients were found to induce barrier disruption in animal models (5/6 studies).

Conclusions: Barrier dysfunction is present in a significant proportion of adult and all pediatric IBS studies, especially in the IBS-D and PI-IBS subtype. The majority of studies indicated a positive association between loss of barrier function and symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in the bowel function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284821993586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925957PMC
February 2021

Functional Dyspepsia and Gastroparesis in Tertiary Care are Interchangeable Syndromes With Common Clinical and Pathologic Features.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 3;160(6):2006-2017. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD), a highly prevalent gastrointestinal syndrome, and its relationship with the better-understood syndrome of gastroparesis.

Methods: Adult patients with chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms were followed up prospectively for 48 weeks in multi-center registry studies. Patients were classified as having gastroparesis if gastric emptying was delayed; if not, they were labeled as having FD if they met Rome III criteria. Study analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance and regression models.

Results: Of 944 patients enrolled during a 12-year period, 720 (76%) were in the gastroparesis group and 224 (24%) in the FD group. Baseline clinical characteristics and severity of upper gastrointestinal symptoms were highly similar. The 48-week clinical outcome was also similar but at this time 42% of patients with an initial diagnosis of gastroparesis were reclassified as FD based on gastric-emptying results at this time point; conversely, 37% of patients with FD were reclassified as having gastroparesis. Change in either direction was not associated with any difference in symptom severity changes. Full-thickness biopsies of the stomach showed loss of interstitial cells of Cajal and CD206 macrophages in both groups compared with obese controls.

Conclusions: A year after initial classification, patients with FD and gastroparesis, as seen in tertiary referral centers at least, are not distinguishable based on clinical and pathologic features or based on assessment of gastric emptying. Gastric-emptying results are labile and do not reliably capture the pathophysiology of clinical symptoms in either condition. FD and gastroparesis are unified by characteristic pathologic features and should be considered as part of the same spectrum of truly "organic" gastric neuromuscular disorders. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT00398801, NCT01696747.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.01.230DOI Listing
May 2021

Factors that contribute to the impairment of quality of life in gastroparesis.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jan 25:e14087. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Understanding factors that impair quality of life (QOL) in gastroparesis is important for clinical management.

Aims: (a) Determine QOL in patients with gastroparesis; (b) Determine factors that impair QOL.

Methods: Gastroparetic patientsAQ6 underwent history and questionnaires assessing symptoms (PAGI-SYM and Rome III), QOL (SF-36v2 and PAGI-QOL), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety InventoryAQ7).

Key Results: 715 gastroparesis patients (256 diabetic (DG), 459 idiopathic (IG)) were evaluated. SF-36 physical component (PC) score averaged 33.3 ± 10.5; 41% had impaired score <30. SF-36 PC scores were similar between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Impaired SF-36 PC associated with increased nausea/vomiting and upper abdominal pain subscores, acute onset of symptoms, higher number of comorbidities, use of narcotic pain medications, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). SF-36 mental component (MC) score averaged 38.9 ± 13.0; 26% had impaired score <30. Poor SF-36 MC associated with diabetic etiology, higher Beck depression inventory, and state anxiety scores. PAGI-QOL score averaged 2.6 ± 1.1; 50% had a score of <2.6. Low PAGI-QOL associated with higher fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain subscores, more depression and Trait anxiety, smoking cigarettes, need for nutritional support, progressively worsening symptoms and periodic exacerbations.

Conclusions & Inferences: Multiple measures show poor QOL present in gastroparesis. Several areas impacted on reduced QOL: (a) Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, as well as IBS; (b) Etiology and acute onset and progressively worsening symptoms; (c) Comorbidities and psychological factors such as anxiety and depression; (d) Patient-related factors such as smoking. Targeting the modifiable factors may improve patient outcomes in gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14087DOI Listing
January 2021

Role of gut microbiota in regulating gastrointestinal dysfunction and motor symptoms in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan;13(1):1866974

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, MN, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor and non-motor gastrointestinal (GI) deficits. GI symptoms' including compromised intestinal barrier function often accompanies altered gut microbiota composition and motor deficits in PD. Therefore, in this study, we set to investigate the role of gut microbiota and epithelial barrier dysfunction on motor symptom generation using a rotenone-induced mouse model of PD. We found that while six weeks of 10 mg/kg of chronic rotenone administration by oral gavage resulted in loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons in both germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CR) mice, the decrease in motor strength and coordination was observed only in CR mice. Chronic rotenone treatment did not disrupt intestinal permeability in GF mice but resulted in a significant change in gut microbiota composition and an increase in intestinal permeability in CR mice. These results highlight the potential role of gut microbiota in regulating barrier dysfunction and motor deficits in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1866974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833732PMC
January 2021

Psychological, physical, and sleep comorbidities and functional impairment in irritable bowel syndrome: Results from a national survey of U.S. adults.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(1):e0245323. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Genetic epidemiology Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Background/aims: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in referral practice commonly report mental disorders and functional impairment. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of mental, physical and sleep-related comorbidities in a nationally representative sample of IBS patients and their impact on functional impairment.

Methods: IBS was defined by modified Rome Criteria based on responses to the chronic conditions section of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication. Associations between IBS and mental, physical and sleep disorders and 30-day functional impairment were examined using logistic regression models.

Results: Of 5,650 eligible responders, 186 met criteria for IBS {weighted prevalence 2.5% (SE = 0.3)}. Age >60 years was associated with decreased odds (OR = 0.3; 95% CI:.1-.6); low family income (OR = 2.4; 95% CI:1.2-4.9) and unemployed status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI:1.2-4.2) were associated with increased odds of IBS. IBS was significantly associated with anxiety, behavior, mood disorders (ORs 1.8-2.4), but not eating or substance use disorders. Among physical conditions, IBS was associated with increased odds of headache, chronic pain, diabetes mellitus and both insomnia and hypersomnolence related symptoms (ORs 1.9-4.0). While the association between IBS and patients' role impairment persisted after adjusting for mental disorders (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7), associations with impairment in self-care, cognition, and social interaction in unadjusted models (ORs 2.5-4.2) were no longer significant after adjustment for mental disorders.

Conclusion: IBS is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, comorbidity with mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, and role impairment. Other aspects of functional impairment appear to be moderated by presence of comorbid mental disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245323PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808669PMC
January 2021

Constipation in Patients With Symptoms of Gastroparesis: Analysis of Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Transit.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Oct 28. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background & Aims: Constipation can be an important symptom in some patients with gastroparesis. The aims were to: 1) Determine prevalence of constipation and delayed colonic transit in patients with symptoms of gastroparesis; 2) Correlate severity of constipation to severity of symptoms of gastroparesis; and 3) Relate severity of constipation to GI transit delays assessed by gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) and wireless motility capsule (WMC).

Methods: Patients with symptoms of gastroparesis underwent gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES), wireless motility capsule (WMC) assessing gastric emptying, small bowel transit, and colonic transit, and questionnaires assessing symptoms using a modified Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] and Rome III functional GI disorder questionnaire.

Results: Of 338 patients with symptoms of gastroparesis, 242 (71.5%) had delayed gastric emptying by scintigraphy; 298 (88.2%) also met criteria for functional dyspepsia. Severity of constipation was severe/very severe in 34% patients, moderate in 24%, and none/very mild/mild in 42%. Increasing severity of constipation was associated with increasing symptoms of gastroparesis and presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Severity of constipation was not associated with gastric retention on GES or WMC. Delayed colonic transit was present in 108 patients (32% of patients). Increasing severity of constipation was associated with increasing small bowel transit time, colonic transit time, and whole gut transit time.

Conclusions: Severe/very severe constipation and delayed colon transit occurs in a third of patients with symptoms of gastroparesis. The severity of constipation is associated with severity of gastroparesis symptoms, presence of IBS, small bowel and colon transit delay, but not delay in gastric emptying. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01696747.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.10.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079462PMC
October 2020

Comparing Clinical, Imaging, and Physiological Correlates of Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: Systemic Sclerosis vs Amyloidosis and Paraneoplastic Syndrome.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2020 08;11(8):e00206

Division of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is characterized by impaired transit and luminal dilation in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Our study aims to describe the clinical, radiographic, and physiological findings in pseudo-obstruction associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc), amyloidosis, and paraneoplastic syndrome.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients evaluated at our institution between January 1, 2008, and August 1, 2018, was assembled. Clinical, imaging, and physiological characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records.

Results: We identified 100 cases of pseudo-obstruction (55 SSc, 27 amyloidosis, and 18 paraneoplastic). Female population predominance was seen in SSc (71%) vs male population in amyloidosis (74%). Most common symptom was abdominal bloating in all 3 groups. Vomiting was more common in SSc than amyloidosis (73% vs 46%, P = 0.02). Diarrhea was more common in amyloidosis and SSc compared with paraneoplastic (81% and 67% vs 28%, P < 0.01). Weight loss (>5%) was more common in SSc compared with amyloidosis and paraneoplastic (78% vs 31% and 17%, P < 0.0001). Only small bowel dilation was seen in 79%, 40%, and 44% and only large bowel dilation in 2%, 44%, and 44% of patients in SSc, amyloidosis, and paraneoplastic, respectively. Five of 8 SSc patients had myopathic and 3 of 5 paraneoplastic had neuropathic involvement on gastroduodenal manometry.

Discussion: SSc-associated pseudo-obstruction demonstrates female population predominance and presents with vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Amyloidosis-associated pseudo-obstruction shows male population predominance. Small bowel is more commonly involved than large bowel on both imaging and transit studies in SSc. Myopathic involvement was more common in SSc, contrary to neuropathic in paraneoplastic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410023PMC
August 2020

Body weight in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 02 15;33(2):e13974. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The classic clinical picture of gastroparesis is a symptomatic patient losing weight. In addition, a number of patients with delayed gastric emptying are obese and/or gaining weight. Our aim was to investigate the factors impacting body weight in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis.

Methods: In patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, detailed history and weight were acquired at enrollment and after 48 weeks. Questionnaires assessed symptoms, food intake, physical activity, and quality of life. Patients underwent laboratory testing, gastric emptying scintigraphy, and water load testing.

Results: Of 138 patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, 10% were underweight (BMI < 18.5), 39% were normal weight (BMI 18.5-25), 20% were overweight with BMI 25 to 30 kg/m , and 29% were obese with BMI > 30 kg/m . Body weight at enrollment was positively associated with oral caloric consumption (P < .001), following a gastroparesis diet (P = .04), nutrition consultation (P = .001), upper abdominal pain (P = .01); and negatively associated with energy expenditure (P = .05), alcohol use (P = .003) and severity of bloating (P < .001). When followed over 48 weeks, 53% patients stayed stable (within 5% of baseline weight), 30% gained, and 17% lost weight. Weight gain over 48 weeks was positively associated with oral caloric consumption (P = .003) and constipation severity (P = .005) at enrollment, and negatively associated with lower abdominal pain severity (P = .007) at enrollment, and associated with improvement in inability to finish meal score (P < .001) at 48 weeks.

Conclusions: In this series of patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, 10% were underweight whereas 29% were obese. Over 48 weeks, 30% of patients increased their body weight ≥ 5%. Diet, activity, and symptoms are important factors associated with body weight in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13974DOI Listing
February 2021

Longitudinal Multi-omics Reveals Subset-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Cell 2020 09 10;182(6):1460-1473.e17. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

The gut microbiome has been implicated in multiple human chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Determining its mechanistic role in disease has been difficult due to apparent disconnects between animal and human studies and lack of an integrated multi-omics view of disease-specific physiological changes. We integrated longitudinal multi-omics data from the gut microbiome, metabolome, host epigenome, and transcriptome in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) host physiology. We identified IBS subtype-specific and symptom-related variation in microbial composition and function. A subset of identified changes in microbial metabolites correspond to host physiological mechanisms that are relevant to IBS. By integrating multiple data layers, we identified purine metabolism as a novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS with translational potential. Our study highlights the importance of longitudinal sampling and integrating complementary multi-omics data to identify functional mechanisms that can serve as therapeutic targets in a comprehensive treatment strategy for chronic GI diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.007DOI Listing
September 2020

Duodenal mucosal secretory disturbances in functional dyspepsia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 01 9;33(1):e13955. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: There is increased recognition of duodenal disturbances (inflammation, altered mucosal protein expression, and chemosensitivity) in functional dyspepsia (FD). Besides sensorimotor functions, enteric submucosal neurons also regulate epithelial ion transport. We hypothesized that duodenal mucosal ion transport and expression of associated genes are altered in FD.

Methods: Duodenal mucosal ion transport (basal and acetylcholine- and glucose-evoked changes in short-circuit current [Isc]) and expression of associated genes and regulatory miRNAs were evaluated in 40 FD patients and 24 healthy controls.

Results: Basal Isc (FD: 88.2 [52.6] μA/cm vs healthy: 20.3 [50.2] μA/cm ; P ≤ .0001), acetylcholine-evoked Isc (FD: Emax 50.4 [35.8] μA/cm vs healthy: 16.6 [15] μA/cm ; P ≤ .001), and glucose-evoked Isc responses (FD: E 69.8 [42.1] μA/cm vs healthy: 40.3 [24.6] μA/cm ; P = .02) were greater in FD than in controls. The Emax for glucose was greater in FD patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In FD, the mRNA expression of SLC4A7 and SLC4A4, which transport bicarbonate into cells at the basolateral surface, and the apical anion exchanger SLC26A3 were reduced (false discovery rate <0.05), the serotonin receptor HTR4 was increased, and the serotonin transporter SLC6A4 was decreased. Selected miRNAs (hsa-miR-590-3p, hsa-miR-32-5p) that target genes associated with ionic transport were upregulated in FD.

Conclusions: Compared to controls, FD patients had greater baseline and agonist-evoked duodenal mucosal secretory responses. These findings may be explained by reduced gene expression, which would be anticipated to reduce luminal bicarbonate secretion. The upregulated miRNAs may partly explain the downregulation of these genes in FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772227PMC
January 2021

Gastric Biopsies in Gastroparesis: Insights into Gastric Neuromuscular Disorders to Aid Treatment.

Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2020 09 14;49(3):557-570. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Enteric NeuroScience Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Division of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

The cellular and molecular understanding of human gastroparesis has markedly improved due to studies on full-thickness gastric biopsies. A decrease in the number of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and functional changes in ICC constitutes the hallmark cellular feature of gastroparesis. More recently, in animal models, macrophages have also been identified to play a central role in development of delayed gastric emptying. Activation of macrophages leads to loss of ICC. In human gastroparesis, loss of anti-inflammatory macrophages in gastric muscle has been shown. Deeper molecular characterization using transcriptomics and proteomics has identified macrophage-based immune dysregulation in human gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387746PMC
September 2020

Characteristics and Risk Factors of Post-Infection Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Campylobacter Enteritis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We investigated the prevalence of postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in a cohort with culture-confirmed Campylobacter cases; risk factors for PI-IBS based on clinical factors; and shifts in IBS patterns postinfection in patients with pre-existing IBS.

Methods: The Minnesota Department of Health collects data on symptoms and exposures upon notification of Campylobacter cases. From 2011 through 2019, we sent surveys (the Rome III and IBS symptom severity surveys) to 3586 patients 6 to 9 months after Campylobacter infection. The prevalence of PI-IBS was estimated and risk factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: There were 1667 responders to the survey, 249 of whom had pre-existing IBS. Of the 1418 responders without pre-existing IBS, 301 (21%) subsequently developed IBS. Most of these individuals had IBS-mixed (54%), followed by IBS-diarrhea (38%), and IBS-constipation (6%). The mean IBS symptom severity score was 218 (indicating moderate severity). Female sex, younger age, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, and hospitalization during acute enteritis were associated with increased risk, whereas fever was protective for the development of PI-IBS. Antibiotic use and exposure patterns were similar between PI-IBS and control groups. Among patients with IBS-mixed or IBS-diarrhea before infection, 78% retained their subtypes after infection. In contrast, only 50% of patients with IBS-constipation retained that subtype after infection, whereas 40% transitioned to IBS-mixed. Of patients with pre-existing IBS, 38% had increased frequency of abdominal pain after Campylobacter infection.

Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with Campylobacter infection in Minnesota, 21% developed PI-IBS; most cases reported mixed IBS or diarrhea of moderate severity. Demographic and clinical factors during acute enterocolitis are associated with PI-IBS development. Campylobacter infection also can result in a switch of a pre-existing IBS phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.07.033DOI Listing
July 2020

New and alternative strategies for the prevention, control, and treatment of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.

Transl Res 2020 09 11;223:76-88. Epub 2020 May 11.

Departments of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine. Electronic address:

Campylobacter is an enteric pathogen and a leading bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. It is widely distributed in food animal species and is transmitted to humans primarily through the foodborne route. While generally causing self-limited diarrhea in humans, Campylobacter may induce severe or systemic infections in immunocompromised or young/elderly patients, which often requires antibiotic therapy with the first-line antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Over the past decades, Campylobacter has acquired resistance to these clinically significant antibiotics, compromising the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments. To address this concern, many studies have been conducted to advance novel and alternative measures to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in animal reservoirs and in the human host. Although some of these undertakings have yielded promising results, efficacious and reliable alternative approaches are yet to be developed. In this review article, we will describe Campylobacter-associated disease spectrums and current treatment options, discuss the state of antibiotic resistance and alternative therapies, and provide an evaluation of various approaches that are being developed to control Campylobacter infections in animal reservoirs and the human host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423705PMC
September 2020

Autonomic function in gastroparesis and chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting: Relationship with etiology, gastric emptying, and symptom severity.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 08 15;32(8):e13810. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

Background: Autonomic dysfunction can be present in patients with idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis. The role of autonomic dysfunction relating to gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with gastroparesis and chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) remains unclear. The aim of our study is to evaluate autonomic function in patients with gastroparesis and CUNV with respect to etiology, gastric emptying and symptom severity.

Methods: We studied 242 patients with chronic gastroparetic symptoms recruited at eight centers. All patients had a gastric emptying scintigraphy within 6 months of the study. Symptom severity was assessed using the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index. Autonomic function testing was performed at baseline enrollment using the ANX 3.0 autonomic monitoring system which measures heart rate variability and respiratory activity measurements.

Key Results: Low sympathetic response to challenge (Valsalva or standing) was the most common abnormality seen impacting 89% diabetic and 74% idiopathic patients. Diabetics compared to idiopathics, exhibited greater global hypofunction with sympathetic (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.2-10.3; P < .001) and parasympathetic (OR = 7.2, 95% CI 3.4-15.0; P < .001) dysfunction. Patients with delayed gastric emptying were more likely to have paradoxic parasympathetic excessive during sympathetic challenge [(Valsalva or standing) 40% vs. 26%, P = .05]. Patients with more severe symptoms exhibited greater parasympathetic dysfunction compared to those with mild-moderate symptoms: resting sympathovagal balance [LFa/RFa 1.8 (1.0-3.1) vs. 1.2 (0.6-2.3), P = .006)] and standing parasympathetic activity [0.4 (0.1-0.8) vs. 0.6 (0.2-1.7); P = .03].

Conclusions: Autonomic dysfunction was common in patients with gastroparesis and CUNV. Parasympathetic dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying and more severe upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Conversely, sympathetic hypofunction was associated with milder symptoms.

Inferences: Gastroparesis and CUNV may be a manifestation of GI autonomic dysfunction or imbalance, such that sympathetic dysfunction occurs early on in the manifestation of chronic upper GI symptoms, while parasympathetic dysfunction results in more severe symptoms and delayed gastric emptying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377964PMC
August 2020

Marijuana Use in Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis: Prevalence, Patient Characteristics, and Perceived Benefit.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 08 22;65(8):2311-2320. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

NIH Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Marijuana may be used by some patients with gastroparesis (Gp) for its potential antiemetic, orexigenic, and pain-relieving effects.

Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the use of marijuana by patients for symptoms of Gp, assessing prevalence of use, patient characteristics, and patients' perceived benefit on their symptoms of Gp.

Methods: Patients with symptoms of Gp underwent history and physical examination, gastric emptying scintigraphy, and questionnaires assessing symptoms. Patients were asked about the current use of medications and alternative medications including marijuana.

Results: Fifty-nine of 506 (11.7%) patients with symptoms of Gp reported current marijuana use, being similar among patients with delayed and normal gastric emptying and similar in idiopathic and diabetic patients. Patients using marijuana were younger, more often current tobacco smokers, less likely to be a college graduate, married or have income > $50,000. Patients using marijuana had higher nausea/vomiting subscore (2.7 vs 2.1; p = 0.002), higher upper abdominal pain subscore (3.5 vs 2.9; p = 0.003), more likely to be using promethazine (37 vs 25%; p = 0.05) and dronabinol (17 vs 3%; p < 0.0001). Of patients using marijuana, 51% had been using it for more than 2 years, 47% were using this once or more per day, and 81% of marijuana users rated their benefit from marijuana as better or much better.

Conclusions: A subset of patients (12%) with symptoms of Gp use marijuana. Patients with severe nausea and abdominal pain were more likely to use marijuana and perceive it to be beneficial for their symptoms.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01696747.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05963-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242137PMC
August 2020

Delayed Gastric Emptying Associates With Diabetic Complications in Diabetic Patients With Symptoms of Gastroparesis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 11;114(11):1778-1794

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: Diabetic gastroparesis (Gp) occurs more often in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) than in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Other diabetic end-organ complications include peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy (together termed triopathy). This study determines the prevalence of diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy) in diabetic patients with symptoms of Gp, assessing the differences between T1DM and T2DM and delayed and normal gastric emptying (GE).

Methods: Diabetic patients with symptoms of Gp underwent history and physical examination, GE scintigraphy, electrogastrography with water load, autonomic function testing, and questionnaires assessing symptoms and peripheral neuropathy.

Results: One hundred thirty-three diabetic patients with symptoms of Gp were studied: 59 with T1DM and 74 with T2DM and 103 with delayed GE and 30 without delayed GE. The presence of retinopathy (37% vs 24%; P = 0.13), nephropathy (19% vs 11%; P = 0.22), and peripheral neuropathy (53% vs 39%; P = 0.16) was not significantly higher in T1DM than in T2DM; however, triopathies (all 3 complications together) were seen in 10% of T1DM and 3% of T2DM (P = 0.04). Diabetic patients with delayed GE had increased prevalence of retinopathy (36% vs 10%; P = 0.006) and number of diabetic complications (1.0 vs 0.5; P = 0.009); however, 39% of diabetic patients with delayed GE did not have any diabetic complications.

Discussion: In diabetic patients with symptoms of Gp, delayed GE was associated with the presence of retinopathy and the total number of diabetic complications. Only 10% of patients with T1DM and 3% of those with T2DM had triopathy of complications, and 39% of diabetic patients with Gp did not have any diabetic complications. Thus, the presence of diabetic complications should raise awareness for Gp in either T1DM or T2DM; however, diabetic Gp frequently occurs without other diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832848PMC
November 2019

Effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation in gastroparesis: Results from a large prospectively collected database of national gastroparesis registries.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 12 4;31(12):e13714. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for treating gastroparesis symptoms is controversial.

Methods: We studied 319 idiopathic or diabetic gastroparesis symptom patients from the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (GpCRC) observational studies: 238 without GES and 81 with GES. We assessed the effects of GES using change in GCSI total score and nausea/vomiting subscales between baseline and 48 weeks. We used propensity score methods to control for imbalances in patient characteristics between comparison groups.

Key Results: GES patients were clinically worse (40% severe vs. 18% for non-GES; P < .001); worse PAGI-QOL (2.2. vs. 2.6; P = .003); and worse GCSI total scores (3.5 vs. 2.8; P < .001). We observed improvements in 48-week GCSI total scores for GES vs. non-GES: improvement by ≥ 1-point (RR = 1.63; 95% CI = (1.14, 2.33); P = .01) and change from enrollment (difference = -0.5 (-0.8, -0.3); P < .001). When adjusting for patient characteristics, symptom scores were smaller and not statistically significant: improvement by ≥ 1-point (RR = 1.29 (0.88, 1.90); P = .20) and change from the enrollment (difference = -0.3 (-0.6, 0.0); P = .07). Of the individual items, the nausea improved by ≥ 1 point (RR = 1.31 (1.03, 1.67); P = .04). Patients with GCSI score ≥ 3.0 tended to improve more than those with score < 3.0. (Adjusted P = 0.02).

Conclusions And Inferences: This multicenter study of gastroparesis patients found significant improvements in gastroparesis symptoms among GES patients. Accounting for imbalances in patient characteristics, only nausea remained significant. Patients with greater symptoms at baseline improved more after GES. A much larger sample of patients is needed to fully evaluate symptomatic responses and to identify patients likely to respond to GES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863164PMC
December 2019

Satiety testing in diabetic gastroparesis: Effects of insulin pump therapy with continuous glucose monitoring on upper gastrointestinal symptoms and gastric myoelectrical activity.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 01 1;32(1):e13720. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Symptoms induced by caloric or non-caloric satiety test meals and gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) have not been studied in patients with diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) before and after intense glucose management.

Aims: We determined the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on GI symptoms, volume consumed, and GMA induced by the caloric meal satiety test (CMST) and water load satiety test (WLST) in DGP.

Methods: Forty-five patients with DGP underwent CMST and WLST at baseline and 24 weeks after CSII with CGM. Subjects ingested the test meals until they were completely full. Visual analog scales were used to quantify pre- and postmeal symptoms, and GMA was recorded with cutaneous electrodes and analyzed visually and by computer. KEY RESULTS: At baseline and 24-week visits, nausea, bloating, abdominal discomfort, and fullness were immediately increased after CMST and WLST (Ps < 0.01). The meal volumes ingested were significantly less than normal controls at both visits in almost one-third of the subjects. After the CMST, the percentage 3 cycle per minute GMA increased and bradygastria decreased compared with WLST (Ps < 0.05). After treatment for 24 weeks meal volumes ingested, postmeal symptoms and GMA were no different than baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: (a) Satiety test meals elicited symptoms of nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort; (b) CMST stimulated more symptoms and changes in GMA than WLST; and (c) CSII with CGM for 24 weeks did not improve symptoms, volumes ingested, or GMA elicited by the two satiety test meals in these patients with diabetic GP. Satiety tests in diabetic gastropresis are useful to study acute postprandial symptoms and GMA, but these measures were not improved by intensive insulin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382784PMC
January 2020

Gastroparesis: a turning point in understanding and treatment.

Gut 2019 12 28;68(12):2238-2250. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Department of Digestive Diseases and Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Gastroparesis is defined by delayed gastric emptying (GE) and symptoms of nausea, vomiting, bloating, postprandial fullness, early satiety and abdominal pain. Most common aetiologies include diabetes, postsurgical and postinfectious, but in many cases it is idiopathic. Clinical presentation and natural history vary by the aetiology. There is significant morbidity and healthcare utilisation associated with gastroparesis. Mechanistic studies from diabetic animal models of delayed GE as well as human full-thickness biopsies have significantly advanced our understanding of this disorder. An innate immune dysregulation and injury to the interstitial cells of Cajal and other components of the enteric nervous system through paracrine and oxidative stress mediators is likely central to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. Scintigraphy and C breath testing provide the most validated assessment of GE. The stagnant gastroparesis therapeutic landscape is likely to soon see significant changes. Relatively newer treatment strategies include antiemetics (aprepitant), prokinetics (prucalopride, relamorelin) and fundic relaxants (acotiamide, buspirone). Endoscopic pyloromyotomy appears promising over the short term, especially for symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Further controlled trials and identification of the appropriate subgroup with pyloric dysfunction and assessment of long-term outcomes are essential. This review highlights the clinical presentation, diagnosis, mechanisms and treatment advancements for gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874806PMC
December 2019

Proteomics in gastroparesis: unique and overlapping protein signatures in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 11 4;317(5):G716-G726. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Enteric NeuroScience Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Macrophage-based immune dysregulation plays a critical role in development of delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice. Loss of anti-inflammatory macrophages and increased expression of genes associated with pro-inflammatory macrophages has been reported in full-thickness gastric biopsies from gastroparesis patients. We aimed to determine broader protein expression (proteomics) and protein-based signaling pathways in gastric biopsies of diabetic (DG) and idiopathic gastroparesis (IG) patients. Additionally, we determined correlations between protein expressions, gastric emptying, and symptoms. Full-thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from nine DG patients, seven IG patients, and five nondiabetic controls. Aptamer-based SomaLogic tissue scan that quantitatively identifies 1,305 human proteins was used. Protein fold changes were computed, and differential expressions were calculated using Limma. Ingenuity pathway analysis and correlations were carried out. Multiple-testing corrected < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seventy-three proteins were differentially expressed in DG, 132 proteins were differentially expressed in IG, and 40 proteins were common to DG and IG. In both DG and IG, "Role of Macrophages, Fibroblasts and Endothelial Cells" was the most statistically significant altered pathway [DG false discovery rate (FDR) = 7.9 × 10; IG FDR = 6.3 × 10]. In DG, properdin expression correlated with GCSI bloating ( = -0.99, FDR = 0.02) and expressions of prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, protein kinase C-ζ type, and complement C2 correlated with 4 h gastric retention ( = -0.97, FDR = 0.03 for all). No correlations were found between proteins and symptoms or gastric emptying in IG. Protein expression changes suggest a central role of macrophage-driven immune dysregulation in gastroparesis, specifically, complement activation in diabetic gastroparesis. This study uses SOMAscan, a novel proteomics assay for determination of altered proteins and associated molecular pathways in human gastroparesis. Seventy-three proteins were changed in diabetic gastroparesis, 132 in idiopathic gastroparesis compared with controls. Forty proteins were common in both. Macrophage-based immune dysregulation pathway was most significantly affected in both diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Proteins involved in the complement and prostaglandin synthesis pathway were associated with symptoms and gastric emptying delay in diabetic gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00115.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879892PMC
November 2019

Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Nat Commun 2019 05 1;10(1):2012. Epub 2019 May 1.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55902, USA.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), though mechanisms remain poorly defined and treatment involves non-specific antibiotics. Here we show that SIBO based on duodenal aspirate culture reflects an overgrowth of anaerobes, does not correspond with patient symptoms, and may be a result of dietary preferences. Small intestinal microbial composition, on the other hand, is significantly altered in symptomatic patients and does not correspond with aspirate culture results. In a pilot interventional study we found that switching from a high fiber diet to a low fiber, high simple sugar diet triggered FGID-related symptoms and decreased small intestinal microbial diversity while increasing small intestinal permeability. Our findings demonstrate that characterizing small intestinal microbiomes in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms may allow a more targeted antibacterial or a diet-based approach to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09964-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494866PMC
May 2019

Serine proteases as luminal mediators of intestinal barrier dysfunction and symptom severity in IBS.

Gut 2020 01 28;69(1):62-73. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: The intestinal lumen contains several proteases. Our aim was to determine the role of faecal proteases in mediating barrier dysfunction and symptoms in IBS.

Design: 39 patients with IBS and 25 healthy volunteers completed questionnaires, assessments of in vivo permeability, ex vivo colonic barrier function in Ussing chambers, tight junction (TJ) proteins, ultrastructural morphology and 16 s sequencing of faecal microbiota rRNA. A casein-based assay was used to measure proteolytic activity (PA) in faecal supernatants (FSNs). Colonic barrier function was determined in mice (ex-germ free) humanised with microbial communities associated with different human PA states.

Results: Patients with IBS had higher faecal PA than healthy volunteers. 8/20 postinfection IBS (PI-IBS) and 3/19 constipation- predominant IBS had high PA (>95th percentile). High-PA patients had more and looser bowel movements, greater symptom severity and higher in vivo and ex vivo colonic permeability. High-PA FSNs increased paracellular permeability, decreased occludin and increased phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) expression. Serine but not cysteine protease inhibitor significantly blocked high-PA FSN effects on barrier. The effects on barrier were diminished by pharmacological or siRNA inhibition of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Patients with high-PA IBS had lower occludin expression, wider TJs on biopsies and reduced microbial diversity than patients with low PA. Mice humanised with high-PA IBS microbiota had greater in vivo permeability than those with low-PA microbiota.

Conclusion: A subset of patients with IBS, especially in PI-IBS, has substantially high faecal PA, greater symptoms, impaired barrier and reduced microbial diversity. Commensal microbiota affects luminal PA that can influence host barrier function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765451PMC
January 2020

Measurement of novel intestinal secretory and barrier pathways and effects of proteases.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 04;31(4):e13547

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in conjunction with the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in mediating solute absorption and secretion. A dysregulated ionic movement across the epithelium can result in GI diseases that manifest as either watery diarrhea or constipation. Hirschsprung disease is an example of an ENS disorder characterized by absence of enteric ganglia in distal gut resulting in obstructive phenotype. Receptor rearranged during transfection (RET) gene variants are the most commonly recognized genetic associations with Hirschsprung disease. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Russell et al demonstrate that RET mediates colonic ion transport through modulation of cholinergic nerves. They go on to show inhibition of RET can attenuate accelerated transit in a rat model. Normalizing secretory and absorptive defects has been an attractive therapeutic strategy. In addition to the intrinsic regulation of secretory processes, luminal mediators like bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and proteases can affect both secretion and barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Elevated levels of proteases have been identified in a wide range of GI diseases including irritable bowel syndrome. Proteases are known to cause visceral hypersensitivity and barrier disruption in vitro and in animal models. The goals of this review are to describe fundamental concepts related to intestinal epithelial secretion, the utility of Ussing chambers to measure ionic mechanisms and to discuss examples of novel signaling pathways; namely the RET signaling cascade in secretomotor neurons and effects of luminal proteases on barrier and ionic secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407641PMC
April 2019

Ethnic, Racial, and Sex Differences in Etiology, Symptoms, Treatment, and Symptom Outcomes of Patients With Gastroparesis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 07 4;17(8):1489-1499.e8. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Gastroenterology Section, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background & Aims: Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder of the stomach characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. There is limited information on gastroparesis in minority populations. We assessed ethnic, racial, and sex variations in the etiology, symptoms, quality of life, gastric emptying, treatments, and symptom outcomes of patients with gastroparesis.

Methods: We collected information from the National Institutes of Health Gastroparesis Consortium on 718 adult patients, from September 2007 through December 2017. Patients were followed every 4 or 6 months, when data were collected on medical histories, symptoms (based on answers to the PAGI-SYM questionnaires), and quality of life (based on SF-36). Follow-up information collected at 1 year (48 week) was used in this analysis. Comparisons were made between patients of self-reported non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic ethnicities, as well as and between male and female patients.

Results: Our final analysis included 552 non-Hispanic whites (77%), 83 persons of Hispanic ethnicity (12%), 62 non-Hispanic blacks (9%), 603 women (84%), and 115 men (16%). A significantly higher proportion of non-Hispanic blacks (60%) had gastroparesis of diabetic etiology than of non-Hispanic whites (28%); non-Hispanic blacks also had more severe retching (2.5 vs 1.7 score) and vomiting (2.9 vs 1.8 score) and a higher percentage were hospitalized in the past year (66% vs 38%). A significantly higher proportion of Hispanics had gastroparesis of diabetic etiology (59%) than non-Hispanic whites (28%), but Hispanics had less-severe nausea (2.7 vs 3.3 score), less early satiety (3.0 vs 3.5 score), and a lower proportion used domperidone (8% vs 21%) or had a peripherally inserted central catheter (1% vs 7%). A higher proportion of women had gastroparesis of idiopathic etiology (69%) than men (46%); women had more severe symptoms of stomach fullness (3.6 vs 3.1 score), early satiety (3.5 vs 2.9 score), postprandial fullness (3.7 vs 3.1 score), bloating (3.3 vs 2.6 score), stomach visibly larger (3.0 vs 2.1 score), and upper abdominal pain (2.9 vs 2.4 score). A lower proportion of women were hospitalized in past year (39% vs 53% of men).

Conclusions: In patients with gastroparesis, etiologies, symptom severity, and treatments vary among races and ethnicities and between sexes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01696747.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.10.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500483PMC
July 2019

uses amino acids associated with gut microbial dysbiosis in a subset of patients with diarrhea.

Sci Transl Med 2018 10;10(464)

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in pathogen defense. Studies using antibiotic-treated mice reveal mechanisms that increase susceptibility to infection (CDI), but risk factors associated with CDI in humans extend beyond antibiotic use. Here, we studied the dysbiotic gut microbiota of a subset of patients with diarrhea and modeled the gut microbiota of these patients by fecal transplantation into germ-free mice. When challenged with , the germ-free mice transplanted with fecal samples from patients with dysbiotic microbial communities showed increased gut amino acid concentrations and greater susceptibility to CDI. A mutant that was unable to use proline as an energy source was unable to robustly infect germ-free mice transplanted with a dysbiotic or healthy human gut microbiota. Prophylactic dietary intervention using a low-proline or low-protein diet in germ-free mice colonized by a dysbiotic human gut microbiota resulted in decreased expansion of wild-type after challenge, suggesting that amino acid availability might be important for CDI. Furthermore, a prophylactic fecal microbiota transplant in mice with dysbiosis reduced proline availability and protected the mice from CDI. Last, we identified clinical risk factors that could potentially predict gut microbial dysbiosis and thus greater susceptibility to CDI in a retrospective cohort of patients with diarrhea. Identifying at-risk individuals and reducing their susceptibility to CDI through gut microbiota-targeted therapies could be a new approach to preventing infection in susceptible patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aam7019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537101PMC
October 2018

Opioid Use and Potency Are Associated With Clinical Features, Quality of Life, and Use of Resources in Patients With Gastroparesis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 06 13;17(7):1285-1294.e1. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Section of Gastroenterology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background & Aims: Many patients with gastroparesis are prescribed opioids for pain control, but indications for opioid prescriptions and the relationship of opioid use to gastroparesis manifestations are undefined. We characterized associations of use of potent vs weaker opioids and presentations of diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

Methods: We collected data on symptoms, gastric emptying, quality of life, and health care resource use from 583 patients with gastroparesis (>10% 4-h scintigraphic retention) from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Consortium, from January 2007 through November 2016. Patients completed medical questionnaires that included questions about opioid use. The opioid(s) were categorized for potency relative to oral morphine. Symptom severities were quantified by Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms questionnaires. Subgroup analyses compared patients on potent vs weaker opioids and opioid effects in diabetic vs idiopathic etiologies.

Results: Forty-one percent of patients were taking opioids; 82% of these took potent agents (morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, buprenorphine, or fentanyl). Abdominal pain was the reason for prescription for 61% of patients taking opioids. Mean scores for gastroparesis, nausea/vomiting, bloating/distention, abdominal pain, and constipation scores were higher in opioid users (P ≤ .05). Opioid use was associated with greater levels of gastric retention, worse quality of life, increased hospitalization, and increased use of antiemetic and pain modulator medications compared with nonusers (P ≤ .03). Use of potent opioids was associated with worse gastroparesis, nausea/vomiting, upper abdominal pain, and quality-of-life scores, and more hospitalizations compared with weaker opioids (tapentadol, tramadol, codeine, or propoxyphene) (P ≤ .05). Opioid use was associated with larger increases in gastric retention in patients with idiopathic vs diabetic gastroparesis (P = .008).

Conclusions: Opioid use is prevalent among patients with diabetic or idiopathic gastroparesis, and is associated with worse symptoms, delays in gastric emptying, and lower quality of life, as well as greater use of resources. Potent opioids are associated with larger effects than weaker agents. These findings form a basis for studies to characterize adverse outcomes of opioid use in patients with gastroparesis and to help identify those who might benefit from interventions to prevent opioid overuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2018.10.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6633865PMC
June 2019

Transcriptomic signatures reveal immune dysregulation in human diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

BMC Med Genomics 2018 Aug 7;11(1):62. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Enteric NeuroScience Program, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Cellular changes described in human gastroparesis have revealed a role for immune dysregulation, however, a mechanistic understanding of human gastroparesis and the signaling pathways involved are still unclear.

Methods: Diabetic gastroparetics, diabetic non-gastroparetic controls, idiopathic gastroparetics and non-diabetic non-gastroparetic controls underwent full-thickness gastric body biopsies. Deep RNA sequencing was performed and pathway analysis of differentially expressed transcripts was done using Ingenuity®. A subset of differentially expressed genes in diabetic gastroparesis was validated in a separate cohort using QT-PCR.

Results: 111 genes were differentially expressed in diabetic gastroparesis and 181 in idiopathic gastroparesis with a logfold difference of | ≥ 2| and false detection rate (FDR) < 5%. Top canonical pathways in diabetic gastroparesis included genes involved with macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis pathway and differential regulation of cytokine production in macrophages and T helper cells by IL-17A and IL-17F. Top canonical pathways in idiopathic gastroparesis included genes involved in granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis, agranulocyte adhesion and diapedesis, and role of macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Sixty-five differentially expressed genes (logfold difference | ≥ 2|, FDR < 5%) were common in both diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis with genes in the top 5 canonical pathways associated with immune signaling. 4/5 highly differentially expressed genes (SGK1, APOLD1, CXCR4, CXCL2, and FOS) in diabetic gastroparesis were validated in a separate cohort of patients using RT-PCR. Immune profile analysis revealed that genes associated with M1 (pro inflammatory) macrophages were enriched in tissues from idiopathic gastroparesis tissues compared to controls (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis have both unique and overlapping transcriptomic signatures. Innate immune signaling likely plays a central role in pathogenesis of human gastroparesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-018-0379-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081936PMC
August 2018

Rome Foundation Working Team Report on Post-Infection Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Gastroenterology 2019 01 28;156(1):46-58.e7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background & Aims: The existence of postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has been substantiated by epidemiology studies conducted in diverse geographic and clinical settings. However, the available evidence has not been well summarized, and there is little guidance for diagnosis and treatment of PI-IBS. The ROME Foundation has produced a working team report to summarize the available evidence on the pathophysiology of PI-IBS and provide guidance for diagnosis and treatment, based on findings reported in the literature and clinical experience.

Methods: The working team conducted an evidence-based review of publication databases for articles describing the clinical features (diagnosis), pathophysiology (intestinal sensorimotor function, microbiota, immune dysregulation, barrier dysfunction, enteroendocrine pathways, and genetics), and animal models of PI-IBS. We used a Delphi-based consensus system to create guidelines for management of PI-IBS and a developed treatment algorithm based on published findings and experiences of team members.

Results: PI-IBS develops in about 10% of patients with infectious enteritis. Risk factors include female sex, younger age, psychological distress during or before acute gastroenteritis, and severity of the acute episode. The pathogenesis of PI-PBS appears to involve changes in the intestinal microbiome as well as epithelial, serotonergic, and immune system factors. However, these mechanisms are incompletely understood. There are no evidence-based, effective pharmacologic strategies for treatment of PI-IBS. We provide a consensus-based treatment algorithm, based on clinical presentation and potential disease mechanisms.

Conclusions: Based on a systematic review of the literature and team experience, we summarize the clinical features, pathophysiology (from animal models and human studies), and progression of PI-IBS. Based on these findings, we present an algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of PI-IBS based on team consensus. We also propose areas for future investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309514PMC
January 2019

Gut Microbiota-Produced Tryptamine Activates an Epithelial G-Protein-Coupled Receptor to Increase Colonic Secretion.

Cell Host Microbe 2018 06;23(6):775-785.e5

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Tryptamine, a tryptophan-derived monoamine similar to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is produced by gut bacteria and is abundant in human and rodent feces. However, the physiologic effect of tryptamine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here, we show that the biological effects of tryptamine are mediated through the 5-HT receptor (5-HTR), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) uniquely expressed in the colonic epithelium. Tryptamine increases both ionic flux across the colonic epithelium and fluid secretion in colonoids from germ-free (GF) and humanized (ex-GF colonized with human stool) mice, consistent with increased intestinal secretion. The secretory effect of tryptamine is dependent on 5-HTR activation and is blocked by 5-HTR antagonist and absent in 5-HTR mice. GF mice colonized by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron engineered to produce tryptamine exhibit accelerated GI transit. Our study demonstrates an aspect of host physiology under control of a bacterial metabolite that can be exploited as a therapeutic modality. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055526PMC
June 2018