Publications by authors named "Madhu Sharma"

59 Publications

Surgical Management of Giant Intrapericardial Teratoma Encasing the Coronary Artery.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2021 Apr 23:21501351211005365. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Congenital Cardiothoracic Surgery, Hassenfeld Children's Hospital at NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Intrapericardial teratomas are rare, predominantly benign tumors that warrant surgical resection in the neonatal period because of their potential detrimental effects on the cardiorespiratory system. Surgical resection can be a challenge when the tumor encases and obscures a coronary artery. Adherence to certain operative principles is necessary to achieve successful outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21501351211005365DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of knowledge of use of electronic cigarette and its harmful effects among young adults.

Open Med (Wars) 2020 25;15(1):796-804. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India.

Background: The practice of young adults smoking e-cigarette may have been adopted as a way of smoking cessation or just to follow a trend. Most people still remain unaware of the detrimental effects of e-cigarette. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of the habit of smoking e-cigarette and the awareness of its harmful effects among adults aged 18-23 years.

Methods: A questionnaire adopted from a study conducted in Italy was used in the study following due permission. After taking their consent, participants were requested to fill the survey irrespective of their smoking status.

Results: In total the study comprised 710 participants aged 20.7 ± 1.7 years (females = 412 and males = 298) from six countries. Most respondents were from India followed by the USA and then the UK. The most common mode of information for the participants on the existence of e-cigarette was from the family members, friends followed by Internet search engines and TV/newspaper advertisements. Among the participants, e-cigarette had a prevalence of 5.63%. Among these, 26 participants were using e-cigarette for less than 1 year and 2 participants for more than 5 years. E-cigarette smokers also experienced sore throat, cough, headache, dizziness and sleeplessness.

Conclusion: Majority of the young population was unaware about the use and harmful effects of e-cigarette.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2020-0224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711978PMC
August 2020

Reversible Myocardial Injury Associated With SARS-CoV-2 in an Infant.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Dec 12;2(15):2348-2352. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York, USA.

Coronavirus disease-2019 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has been associated with myocardial dysfunction and heart failure in adult patients. We report a case of reversible myocardial injury and heart failure in an infant with SARS-CoV-2 infection. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550045PMC
December 2020

Highly selective electrochemical nanofilm sensor for detection of carcinogenic PAHs in environmental samples.

Talanta 2020 Nov 13;219:121273. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Environmental Materials Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur, 440020, India. Electronic address:

A highly sensitive sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer film was devised for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquatic solutions. In this paper we report, electro-polymerisation of 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) and target, pyrene, using cyclic voltammeter in electrolyte medium, forming the pyrene imprinted polymer. After polymerisation, the pyrene was removed from imprinted polymer using methanol to produce sensory nanofilm characterised by infrared spectrometer, optical and atomic force microscopy. The mechanism of nanofilm sensing was established using atomic models and electrochemical response by differential pulse voltammeter with the redox system of ([Fe(CN)]/[Fe(CN)]). The π-π interaction between pyrene and 4VP was primary cause for pyrene recognition in aqueous solutions and the model binding score for this interaction was -5.10 kcal mol. The electrochemical sensor determined pyrene in the concentration range of 1 × 10 - 1 ng L, resulting best linear regression (r > 0.9) and detection limit of 0.001 ng L. The recovery percentage of pyrene from the nanofilm was 83-110% in water samples and the imprinting factor value was 2.67. Therefore, the novel imprinted polymer nanofilm sensor showed highest sensitivity for target pyrene in aqueous samples compared to reported sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121273DOI Listing
November 2020

Theranostic lyotropic liquid crystalline nanostructures for selective breast cancer imaging and therapy.

Acta Biomater 2020 09 18;113:522-540. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow, Sector-10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India. Electronic address:

Herein, we report the development of theranostic lyotropic liquid crystalline nanostructures (LCN's) loaded with unique MnO nanoparticles (MNPs) for selective cancer imaging and therapy. MNPs serves as a fluorescent agent as well as a source of manganese (Mn) and enables localized oxidative stress under the hallmarks of cancer (acidosis, high HO level). In pursuit of synergistic amplification of Mn antitumor activity, betulinic acid (BA) is loaded in LCN's. In this investigation, nano-architecture of LCN's phase interface is established via SAXS, Cryo-TEM and Cryo-FESEM. Intriguing in vitro studies showed that the LCN's triggered hydroxyl radical production and exhibited greater selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells, ensuring the safety of normal cells. Significant tumor ablation is realized by the 96.5 % of tumor growth inhibition index of LCN's as compared to control group. Key insights into on-site drug release, local anti-cancer response, and tumor location are gained through precise guidance of fluorescent MNPs. In addition, comprehensive assessment of the safety, pharmacokinetics and tumor distribution behavior of LCN's is performed in vivo or ex vivo. This work emphasizes the promise of modulating tumor microenvironment with smart endogenous stimuli sensitive nano systems to achieve advanced comprehensive cancer nano-theranostics without any external stimulus. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Effective diagnosis and treatment approaches with maximum anti-cancer activity and minimal side-effects are critical to ameliorate cancer therapy. Compared to radiation, photodynamic and photothermal therapy, the specific and selective activation of tumor microenvironmental endogenous stimuli for the logical generation of cytotoxic OH free radicals serves as an efficient therapeutic strategy for chemodynamic-cancer treatment. In this investigation, MnO nanoparticles fulfill two needs (fluorescence-based optical imaging and a source of Mn based chemodynamic therapy) in one unit. This approach also ensures the safety of normal cells, as the toxic OH free radical activity is substantially suppressed under the mild alkaline/HO conditions in normal cell microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.06.023DOI Listing
September 2020

The dynamics of starch hydrolysis and thickness perception during oral processing.

Food Res Int 2020 08 28;134:109275. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

While it is known that salivary amylase changes perceived thickness in starch-based foods, the dynamics of oral breakdown of starch has not been related to that of sensory perception. This work examines the associations between in-mouth oral breakdown of starch by α-amylase and thickness of a semisolid product measured instrumentally and using a sensory panel. Pureed carrots made with added waxy maize (w/w) (0% (control), 0.4% (S0.4) and 0.8% (S0.8)), were tested for dilution and hydrolysis effects with the addition of water and saliva and measuring viscosity (shear of 10 s), viscoelasticity (10-0.01 Hz at 0.1% strain) and maltose release. Sensory testing was conducted using progressive profiling. Control and S0.8 pureed carrots showed similar viscosities at 10 s while S0.4 was lower. Addition of saliva had the highest impact on viscosity drop for S0.8. Viscoelastic properties of pureed carrots decreased with starch addition which decreased further with water/saliva incorporation. Starch breakdown measured in terms of maltose release did not change with starch concentration and oral processing times. Unlike instrumental viscosity results, perceived thickness of purees increased with starch concentration. During oral processing, thickness decreased at a constant rate across all samples highlighting the dilution effect of saliva. A relation was observed only between oral viscosity and starch hydrolysis and not rheological measurements. This indicates that changes in starch hydrolysis during oral processing can be used as an indicator of rate of drop in perceived viscosity in starch-based semi-solid foods such as pureed carrots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109275DOI Listing
August 2020

Assessment of cancer risk of microplastics enriched with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

J Hazard Mater 2020 11 20;398:122994. Epub 2020 May 20.

Environmental Materials Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440020, India. Electronic address:

Abundance of microplastics in aquatic and marine ecosystems is contaminating the seafood and it is leading to transfer of toxic pollutants to human beings. In this article, we report the hazardous nature and cancer risk of microplastics which originate from e-waste. Capture of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) onto microplastics by adsorption phenomena and an assessment of probable cancer risk of ingested PAHs enriched microplastics by human beings have been investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was well fit for the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of carcinogenic PAHs on microplastics was ranged from 46 to 236 μg g and the maximum binding was achieved within 45 min in water. The leachate derived from microplastics of e-waste were highly hazardous in nature, for example, the sum of PAHs was 3.17 mg L which is about 1000 times higher than the standard for benzo[a]pyrene, a congener of PAHs. The calculated cancer risk in terms of lifetime of microplastic ingestion would be 1.13 × 10 for children and 1.28 × 10 for adults and these values are higher than the recommended value of 10. The abundance of microplastics could transfer hazardous pollutants to seafood (e.g., fishes and prawns) leading to cancer risk in human beings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122994DOI Listing
November 2020

Molecularly imprinted microparticles (microMIPs) embedded with reduced graphene oxide for capture and destruction of E.coli in drinking water.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 May 16;110:110672. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Environmental Materials Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, India. Electronic address:

In this article for the first time, we have reported, a facile way for the creation of E.coli impressions in the polymer for selective capture and to destroy E. coli in drinking water. This microporous imprinted polymer has shown the existence of micrometer size rod shape cavities with the population of 2.45 × 10 ± 60 imprints per cm. Adsorption capacity of the polymer for E.coli was 10 CFU mg. This microporous imprinted polymer captured 99% of the bacteria within 30 min at initial concentration of 10 CFU mL. The non-imprinted polymer prepared without the bacteria imprinting reported only 40% of the bacteria removal even after 60 min. The reduced graphene oxide was embedded in the microporous imprinted polymer and it reported minimum inhibitory concentration at 7.4 mg L. Within 10 min, reduced graphene oxide completely kills the E.coli while microporous imprinted polymer was embedded with the reduced graphene oxide takes about 13 min to disinfect the water. The reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles were near the imprinted cavity to generate localized temperature between 180 and 210 °C to kill the bacterial cells trapped inside the imprinted cavities of the polymer. The thermal atomic force microscope with the specialized heated probe tips were used to determine the localized temperature in the polymers. The localized thermal energy would be responsible for the production of superoxides, which were as similar to photolysis reactions, and would be further improving antibacterial activity. The combination of selective capture and destruction of pathogens in a single molecular construct improves disinfection of drinking water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110672DOI Listing
May 2020

Massive ST-segment elevations in a newborn with tuberous sclerosis and ventricular rhabdomyomas.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2020 Feb 5;6(2):60-62. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2019.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026522PMC
February 2020

Characterizing the Dynamic Textural Properties of Hydrocolloids in Pureed Foods-A Comparison Between TDS and TCATA.

Foods 2019 May 30;8(6). Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Pureed foods, a compensatory diet for dysphagia, require the incorporation of hydrocolloids in order to be swallowed safely. The effect of hydrocolloid addition on textural dynamics of pureed foods has not yet been investigated. Starch and xanthan were added to levels that allowed products to meet the criteria of the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative. Nine pureed carrot matrices made with two concentrations of starch, xanthan, and their blends were characterized for textural evolution using two dynamic sensory techniques: Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA). Each test, with four replications, was conducted with 16 panelists. Results indicate that purees were divided into two groups based on sensory responses--grainy and smooth were the primary differentiating attributes for these two groups. Grainy was associated with starch-added samples, while samples with xanthan (alone and in blends) were smooth and slippery. For both groups, thickness was perceived during the first half of processing, adhesiveness in the second half of oral processing, and mouthcoating was perceived toward the end of processing. A comparison of results from these tests showed that both TDS and TCATA gave similar information about texture dynamics and product differentiation of pureed foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8060184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617281PMC
May 2019

Targeted co-delivery of the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat and chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via a redox-sensitive prodrug approach promotes synergistic tumor suppression.

Biomater Sci 2019 Jun;7(7):2889-2906

Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow, India.

Rapidly growing evidence suggests a strong dependence of a polyol pathway enzyme Aldose Reductase (AR) in cancer progression and invasion. Thus, inhibiting the AR through therapeutic inhibitors has a potential application in cancer treatment. Epalrestat (EPR) is the only marketed AR inhibitor with proven safety and efficacy in the management of complications like diabetic neuropathy. However, its short half-life and highly hydrophobic nature restrict its use as an anticancer agent. In the present study, we first developed a redox-sensitive prodrug of EPR by conjugating Tocopherol Polyethylene Glycol Succinate (TPGS) which can form a self-assembled micellar prodrug (EPR-SS-TPPGS). Subsequently, to achieve synergistic chemotherapeutic efficacy Doxorubicin (Dox) was co-loaded into the EPR-SS-TPGS micelles where the system is disrupted in a tumor redox environment and co-delivers Dox and EPR in a ratiometric manner. We then employed TPGS conjugated vitamin-B6 as a targeting moiety and prepared the mixed micelles to facilitate VTC receptor-mediated uptake. The encapsulation of Dox and EPR with the developed prodrug approach showed significant synergies with increased intracellular accumulation and redox triggered release in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cell lines leading to superior cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. Prolonged circulation half-life and tumor site bioavailability were achieved for both the drugs with the developed approach. Surprisingly, EPR and Dox combination significantly down-regulated the CD44 receptor expression which is the main contributing factor of tumor metastasis. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation demonstrated a significant reduction in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. In summary, this nanoencapsulation paradigm of AR inhibitors with chemotherapeutic agents lays the foundation of new opportunities in combination chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9bm00221aDOI Listing
June 2019

Targeted co-delivery of the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat and chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via a redox-sensitive prodrug approach promotes synergistic tumor suppression.

Biomater Sci 2019 Jun;7(7):2889-2906

Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow, India.

Rapidly growing evidence suggests a strong dependence of a polyol pathway enzyme Aldose Reductase (AR) in cancer progression and invasion. Thus, inhibiting the AR through therapeutic inhibitors has a potential application in cancer treatment. Epalrestat (EPR) is the only marketed AR inhibitor with proven safety and efficacy in the management of complications like diabetic neuropathy. However, its short half-life and highly hydrophobic nature restrict its use as an anticancer agent. In the present study, we first developed a redox-sensitive prodrug of EPR by conjugating Tocopherol Polyethylene Glycol Succinate (TPGS) which can form a self-assembled micellar prodrug (EPR-SS-TPPGS). Subsequently, to achieve synergistic chemotherapeutic efficacy Doxorubicin (Dox) was co-loaded into the EPR-SS-TPGS micelles where the system is disrupted in a tumor redox environment and co-delivers Dox and EPR in a ratiometric manner. We then employed TPGS conjugated vitamin-B6 as a targeting moiety and prepared the mixed micelles to facilitate VTC receptor-mediated uptake. The encapsulation of Dox and EPR with the developed prodrug approach showed significant synergies with increased intracellular accumulation and redox triggered release in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cell lines leading to superior cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. Prolonged circulation half-life and tumor site bioavailability were achieved for both the drugs with the developed approach. Surprisingly, EPR and Dox combination significantly down-regulated the CD44 receptor expression which is the main contributing factor of tumor metastasis. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation demonstrated a significant reduction in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. In summary, this nanoencapsulation paradigm of AR inhibitors with chemotherapeutic agents lays the foundation of new opportunities in combination chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9bm00221aDOI Listing
June 2019

Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Early and Late Phase of Sepsis.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2018 Sep;22(9):660-663

Departments of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Pt B.D. Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

Objective: Early diagnosis of sepsis is necessary to decrease morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as diagnostic and prognostic of early and late phase of sepsis.

Methods: It was a prospective, observational study, conducted in Intensive Care and High Dependency Unit (Daycare) of the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (tertiary care center), Rohtak, from January 2017 to December 2017. A total of 56 cases of newly diagnosed cases of sepsis were included in the study and 20 healthy adults were taken as controls. Daily NLR was calculated in cases till the primary outcome.

Results: The results suggested that NLR seems to have promising role as diagnostic and prognostic marker (with = 0.001 and = 0.045, respectively) in sepsis.

Conclusion: The study suggests that NLR can be a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_59_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161585PMC
September 2018

Nonlamellar liquid crystals: a new paradigm for the delivery of small molecules and bio-macromolecules.

Ther Deliv 2018 09;9(9):667-689

Division of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

The aim of this article is to collate the recent developments in the field of drug delivery, medical therapeutics and diagnostics specifically involving the nonlamellar liquid crystalline (NLC) systems. This review highlights different NLC phases having cubic, hexagonal and sponge internal structures, and their application in the field of drug delivery, such as dose reduction, toxicity reduction and therapeutic efficacy enhancement either in the form of nanoparticles, colloidal dispersion or gels. In addition, application of NLC systems as vehicles for peptides, proteins and as a theranostic system in cancer and other disease conditions is also elaborated, which is a growing platform of interest. Overall, the present review gives us a complete outlook on applications of NLC systems in the field of medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2018-0038DOI Listing
September 2018

The effect of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus on acute kidney injury and systemic hypertension in extremely low gestational age newborns.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Oct 12;32(19):3209-3214. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

e Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine , The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine , Bronx , NY , USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in preterm neonates is becoming an increasingly recognized morbidity in the neonatal intensive care unit neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), yet its epidemiology, delineation and relation to numerous toxic exposures and common morbidities such as systemic hypertension is just evolving. With a frequency of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) as high as 70% in preterm infants born before 28-week gestation, the role of the hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) remains unclear. To determine if AKI and systemic hypertension is more common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) with hs PDA compared to ELGAN with no or non-hs PDA using modified AKIN and Neonatal Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of Kidney Function, and End-stage (N-RIFLE) scoring systems. This was a retrospective cohort study of infants ≤28 weeks gestational age born between 2010 and 2016 who had echocardiographic PDA evaluation completed for hemodynamical significance as well as serial serum creatinine and urine output measurement documented, needed for the two AKI scoring systems: modified AKIN (based on serial serum creatinine) and N-RIFLE (using urine output data). Blood pressure measurements and therapy were evaluated during the hospitalization and on the day of NICU discharge. Baseline characteristics and outcome variables were compared between the hs-PDA and no or non-hs PDA using unpaired -tests for continuous variables and chi square tests for categorical data. One hundred fifty-one infants were eligible of which 110 had hs-PDA. Infants with hs-PDA were smaller (777 versus 867 g,  = .026), less mature (25.8 versus 26.4 weeks,  = .023) and had greater exposure to nephrotoxic drugs (14 versus 9.4 days,  = .001). Other clinical and demographic variables were similar between the two groups. The overall incidence of AKI was not different between the hs-PDA and no PDA or non-hs PDA groups when evaluated by the acute kidney injury network (AKIN) or N-RIFLE staging; however, preterm newborns with hs-PDA demonstrated a trend towards increased risk of AKI injury (12.7 versus 0.02%,  = .06). The N-RIFLE and AKIN scoring systems demonstrated very poor degree of agreement (kappa = 0.00853) in our study. There was no difference in the rates of hypertension during the hospitalization as well as on the day of NICU discharge. Preterm neonates with hs-PDA had similar rates of AKI and hypertension as neonates with no or non-hs PDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1460349DOI Listing
October 2019

The impact of primary open-angle glaucoma: Quality of life in Indian patients.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Mar;66(3):416-419

Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: Glaucoma significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of a patient. Despite the huge number of glaucoma patients in India, not many, QoL studies have been carried out. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the QoL in Indian patients with varying severity of glaucoma.

Methods: This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, analytical study of 180 patients. The QoL was assessed using orally administered QoL instruments comprising of two glaucoma-specific instruments; Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) and Viswanathan 10 instrument, and 1 vision-specific instrument; National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEIVFQ25).

Results: Using NEIVFQ25, the difference between mean QoL scores among cases (88.34 ± 4.53) and controls (95.32 ± 5.76) was statistically significant. In GQL-15, there was a statistically significant difference between mean scores of cases (22.58 ± 5.23) and controls (16.52 ± 1.24). The difference in mean scores with Viswanathan 10 instrument in cases (7.92 ± 0.54) and controls (9.475 ± 0.505) was also statistically significant. QoL scores also showed moderate correlation with mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and vertical cup-disc ratio.

Conclusion: In our study, all the three instruments showed decrease in QoL in glaucoma patients compared to controls. With the increase in severity of glaucoma, corresponding decrease in QoL was observed. It is important for ophthalmologists to understand about the QoL in glaucoma patients so as to have a more holistic approach to patients and for effective delivery of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_847_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859598PMC
March 2018

Recent advances in proteomics of cereals.

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 2016 Apr - Oct;32(1-2):1-17. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

c Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program , International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) , P.O.Box 6299, Rabat-Institutes, Rabat , Morocco.

Cereals contribute a major part of human nutrition and are considered as an integral source of energy for human diets. With genomic databases already available in cereals such as rice, wheat, barley, and maize, the focus has now moved to proteome analysis. Proteomics studies involve the development of appropriate databases based on developing suitable separation and purification protocols, identification of protein functions, and can confirm their functional networks based on already available data from other sources. Tremendous progress has been made in the past decade in generating huge data-sets for covering interactions among proteins, protein composition of various organs and organelles, quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteins, and to characterize their modulation during plant development, biotic, and abiotic stresses. Proteomics platforms have been used to identify and improve our understanding of various metabolic pathways. This article gives a brief review of efforts made by different research groups on comparative descriptive and functional analysis of proteomics applications achieved in the cereal science so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02648725.2016.1272357DOI Listing
December 2017

Widely used non-ionic surfactant 4-nonylphenol: showing genotoxic effects in various tissues of Channa punctatus.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 16;24(12):11331-11339. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.

The present study investigated the intertissue differences in genotoxicity induction in the fish, Channa punctatus, in response to 4-nonylphenol. The lethal concentration of 50 (LC) was estimated using a semi-static system. Fish were subjected to three sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Liver, gill, and kidney tissues were analyzed, and the genotoxicity was estimated using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The frequency of micronucleated cells (MNCs), binucleated cells (BNCs), aberrant cells, and tail moment (TM) increased significantly. The time for maximum induction of genotoxicity for all the parameters considered in the micronucleus assay was 72 h of exposure, whereas the TM was highest at 24 h of exposure followed by a decline. The gill and liver showed higher genotoxicity than kidney tissue demonstrating organ-specific susceptibilities to NP in fish C. punctatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8759-1DOI Listing
April 2017

4-Nonylphenol induced DNA damage and repair in fish, Channa punctatus after subchronic exposure.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2017 Jul 1;40(3):320-325. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

a Department of Zoology , Guru Nanak Dev University , Amritsar , Punjab , India.

The detection of a possible DNA damaging effect of 4-nonylphenol (NP) after subchronic exposure and repair after cessation of exposure to Channa punctatus is the aim of the present study. Channa punctatus was exposed to different concentrations (0.15 mg/l, 0.10 mg/l, and 0.07 mg/l) of NP along with positive control (ethanol) and negative control (water) for 90 d and after that allowed to recover for 30 d. Comet assay and micronucleus assay were used for the determination of DNA damage and repair by using blood cells. The effect was seen after 30, 60, and 90 d of exposure. Time- and dose-dependent increase in DNA damage was found as revealed by both the end points studied. Evident recovery was observed after 30 d of cessation of exposure. Blood cells were successfully appeared to achieve the restoration of DNA integrity. Hence, the study aimed to improve the knowledge of the genetic hazard to fish associated with NP exposure and provide a wide scope to discover the efficiency of DNA repair system in C. punctatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2016.1223096DOI Listing
July 2017

Study on DNA damaging effects of 4-nonylphenol using erythrocytes from peripheral circulation, gill and kidney of fish Channapunctatus.

J Environ Biol 2016 Mar;37(2):313-8

The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on blood cells of fish Channapunctatus. Fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.15 mg l⁻¹; 0.31 mg l⁻¹ and 0.63 mg l⁻¹) of 4-NP for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. Blood cells from kidney, gills and peripheral circulation were analyzed for the presence of micronuclei and other changes in the erythrocytes. Significant changes were observed in all the experimental groups tested when compared with control. Highest genotoxicity was observed in blood cells obtained from gills (MN-2.92%, aberrant cell- 70.64%), followed by kidney (MN-1.34%, aberrant cells-64.94%), were least effect was observed in blood cells obtained from peripheral circulation (MN-0.88%, aberrant cells-46.27%).Therefore, micronucleus test performed on blood cells obtained from different sources showed that gills were more sensitive as compared to peripheral blood and kidney revealing genotoxic effect of 4-NP on fish C. punctatus.
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March 2016

Case Report: Escherichia fergusonnii - Pathogen in Urinary Tract Infection.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2016;16(2):135-137

Microbiology, Pt. B.D.S, PGIMS, ROHTAK-120001, Haryana, India.

Urinary tract infections are one of the leading cause of morbidity in admitted patients. Most commonly caused by Escherichia coli, but there are some variants which are commonly reported in urinary tract infection. This study was about to speciate such isolate like E.fergusonnii and find out its antibiogram.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152651602160610183738DOI Listing
January 2016

Fosfomycin use in multi drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2015 ;15(3):196-201

Department of Microbiology, Pt. B.D.S. PGIMS, Rohtak-124001, Haryana, India.

Objectives And Aims: Escherchia coli isolated, from urine samples were studied for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns, with special reference to the new antimicrobial compound fosfomycin and their correlation with various virulence factors.

Material And Methods: The mid stream urine samples received in the department were processed and identification was done by using the standard culture and identification techniques. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and the disk diffusion method was used to confirm the ESBL, AmpC, MBL production by the UPEC. Various virulence factors like hemolysin, haemagglutinaton, gelatinase, siderophore production, biofilm formation, serum resistance and hydrophobicity were detected.

Results: Fosfomycin was found to be most effective agent (100%) against uropathogenic E.coli followed by netilmicin (89.5%). The least effective agents were ampiciilin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine percent (29%) isolates were found to be multi drug resistant (MDR).

Conclusions: The testing of the newer therapeutic agents like fosfomycin will add on to therapeutics for UTI's.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526515666150916141907DOI Listing
August 2016

Acinetobacter lwoffii an emerging pathogen in neonatal ICU.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2015 ;15(3):184-8

Department of Microbiology, Pt. B.D.S. PGIMS Rohtak-124001, Haryana, India.

Background: Acinetobacter species are ubiquitous in the environment and are important causative agent for nososcomial infection especially in immunocompromised patients. Multi drug resistant Acinetobacter lwoffii are emerging as a pathogen in neoanatal sepsis.

Aims And Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical and antibiotic profile of Acinetobacter lwoffii.

Material And Methods: This study was done on blood samples from neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit during a period of one year from January to December 2012, who developed Acinetobacter infection. The diagnosis of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by both conventional as well as by automated system.

Results: Out of total 13,133 blood samples received for culture, 1418(10.8%) were from NICU. Ninety (6.3%) isolates were found to be positive for the growth of Acinetobacter species. Of these isolates 31.11% were found to be Acinetobacter lwoffii, 68.9% were Acinetobacter baumannii calcaetius complex. Acinetobacter lwoffii isolates were most commonly sensitive to imepenem 16(57%), cotrimoxazole 9(32%), ciprofloxacin 6(21%) followed by amoxyclavulanic acid 2(7%) and cefuroxime 1(3.5%).

Conclusion: Multi drug resistant Acinetobacter lwoffii infection is increasing particularly in premature and very low-birth weight neonates. Judicious and timely antibiotic use in NICUs are one of the important key in controlling multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infection and improving clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526515666150826114745DOI Listing
August 2016

Biofilm and multidrug resistance in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Pathog Glob Health 2015 Feb 21;109(1):26-9. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Context: Escherichia coli is known as causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs) tends to form microcolonies in mucosa lining of urinary bladder known as biofilm. These biofilms make the organism to resist the host immune response, more virulent and lead to the evolution of antibacterial drug resistance by enclosing them in an extracellular biochemical matrix.

Aims: This study was done to know the association of various virulence factors and biofilm production in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Settings And Design: This study was conducted in Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana during a period of 1 year from January 2011 to December 2011.

Methods And Material: Biofilm was detected by microtiter plate (MTP) method, and various virulence factors like hemolysin, hemagglutination, gelatinase, siderophore production, serum resistance, and hydrophobicity were detected. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and the disk diffusion method was used to confirm the ESBL, AmpC, MBL production by the UPEC statistical analysis used: The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0. A two-sided P-value of less than or equal to 0·05 was considered to be significant.

Results: Biofilm production was found in 18 (13·5%) isolates, more commonly in females (two times). These isolates were found to be resistant to antibiotics common in use and were 100% MDR.

Conclusions: Biofilm production makes the organism to be more resistant to antibiotics and virulent as compared to non-biofilm producers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2047773215Y.0000000001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445292PMC
February 2015

Comparison of ELISA and Microscopy for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool.

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Nov 20;8(11):DC07-8. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Professor, Department of Microbiology, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India .

Background: Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp. has become recognized as one of the most common causes of water borne diseases in humans.

Aims And Objectives: To compare the sensitivity of ELISA and Microscopy for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology of PT. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, between January 2011 to june 2011 on 50 stool samples, which were processed for detection of cryptosporidial antigen by ELISA and detection of cysts by microscopy (Modified Ziehl and Nelsen staining).

Study And Design: This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology in PT. BD Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, India.

Result: Out of total, 50 stool samples eighteen (36%) samples were found positive for Cryptosporidium cysts by microscopy in comparison to 3(6%) stool samples which were found positive for cryptosporidial antigen by ELISA. Samples found positive with ELISA were also positive with microscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for ELISA was 16.7%, 100%, 100% and 68% respectively.

Conclusion: The study concludes that stool microscopic Modified acid fast staining is more sensitive method than ELISA for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples but the specificity of ELISA was more than microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/9713.5088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4290234PMC
November 2014

Biotechnological approaches to the production of shikonins: a critical review with recent updates.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2016 16;36(2):327-40. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

a Division of Biotechnology , CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology , Palampur , Himachal Pradesh , India and.

Shikonins are commercially important secondary compounds, known for array of biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, antitumor, antioxidants, etc. These compounds are usually colored and therefore have application in food, textiles and cosmetics. Shikonin and its derivatives, which are commercially most important of the naphthoquinone pigments, are distributed among members of the family Boraginaceae. These include different species of Lithospermum, Arnebia, Alkanna, Anchusa, Echium and Onosma. The growing demand for plant-based natural products has made this group of compounds one of the enthralling targets for their in vitro production. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent progress in production of shikonins by various biotechnological means. Different methods of increasing the levels of shikonins in plant cells such as selection of cell lines, optimization of culture conditions, elicitation, in situ product removal, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering are discussed. The experience of different researchers working worldwide on this aspect is also considered. Further, to meet market demand, the needs for continuous and reliable production systems, as well as future prospects, are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2014.961003DOI Listing
October 2016

Mass propagation of Cymbidium giganteum Wall. ex Lindl. using in vitro seedlings.

Indian J Exp Biol 2014 Sep;52(9):905-11

In vitro seedlings were used as explants for protocorm like bodies (PLBs) production which in turn were used for regeneration purpose. PLBs were induced from the base of seedlings (1.0-1.5 cm in size) in MS + BAP (8.88 microM). After 90 days of inoculation, PLBs production rate started declining and most of the PLBs turned into plantlets. Preculture of seedlings in 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ) for 7 days and transfer to BAP supplemented medium resulted in production of 16 PLBs per seedling within 90 days of culture. Increase of TDZ concentration to 2.5 microM and preculture time 15 days, resulted in induction of highest number of PLBs (19 PLBs per seedling) in the basal medium. The results emphasized the importance of thidiazuron (TDZ) concentration and preculture time for PLBs proliferation from the base of seedlings. The PLBs thus produced were used for regeneration studies. Irrespective of single, segmented or clumps of PLBs, the regeneration response was 100% in 2,4-D (4.52 microM) and KN (4.64 microM) but when KN was replaced by BAP (8.88 microM), response was observed only in clumps of PLBs, whereas in single and segmented ones it was 99 and 97%, respectively. Regenerants developed stout root system in half strength M medium supplemented with 2.84 microM of IAA and transferred to greenhouse with 90% survival. The present study holds tremendous potential as the mother plant is not destroyed and PLBs are produced as a continuous system.
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September 2014

In vitro flowering--a system for tracking floral organ development in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro.

Indian J Exp Biol 2014 Aug;52(8):825-34

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii plants are slender and tall (15-25 m) thereby, rendering tagging, sampling and tracking the development of flowers difficult. Therefore, a reproducible system of in vitro flowering was established for tracking the stages of flower development. MS medium supplemented with 2.22 microM 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.23 microM indole-3-butyric acid and 2% sucrose was optimized as the flower induction medium (FIM) wherein 28 and 42 days were required for the development of gynoecium and androecium, respectively. Six distinct stages of in vitro flower development were identified, and the flowers were comparable with that of in planta sporadic flowers. Pollen viability of the in vitro flowers was higher than those of in planta ones. The in vitro system developed in the present study facilitates easy tracking of different stages of flower development under controlled environmental conditions. It can also be used for medium- or long-term storage of pollens and manipulation of in vitro fertilization.
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August 2014

A simple technique for tracking individual spore and gametophyte development in Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f. using modified extra thin alginate film technique.

Indian J Exp Biol 2014 Aug;52(8):820-4

A new technique was developed for accurate calculation of percent germination and tracking of individual spores from germination to gametophyte development in Adiantum lunulatum. High percentage of ETAF immobilized spore germination (72.4%) was followed by development of gametophytic clumps. The ETAF immobilized clumps were cut into pieces and multiplied en masse. Apomictic sporophytes developed from the gametophytes. This indicated the potential of ETAF for mass propagation of A. lunulatum without the need to start from spores. Since individual spores can be tracked from germination to gametophyte development, the ETAF technique has the potential to be used for (i) harvesting uniformly developed plants of similar age for extensive experimentations and commercial utilization and (ii) detailed study on developmental and reproductive biology of different ferns and fern allies.
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August 2014

Study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2014 Jan-Mar;57(1):61-4

Department of Microbiology, Pt. B.D. Sharm PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

Context: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections, caused by Escherichia coli. This study determined the presence of virulence factors in the organism and correlates it with the multi-drug resistance (MDR).

Aims: The aim of the following study is to assess the virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Settings And Design: This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology in PT. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak.

Subjects And Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 1 year. Urine samples received were processed as per standard microbiological procedures. Virulence factors such as hemolysin, hemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity, serum resistance, gelatinase and siderophore production were studied. The antimicrobial susceptibility was done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute Guidelines.

Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using SPSS(Statistical Package for the social sciences) IBM Corporation version 17.0. A two sided P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results: Hemolysin production was seen in 47.4%, hemagglutination in 74.8%, cell surface hydrophobicity in 61%, serum resistance in 59%, gelatinase in 67.5% and siderophore production in 88% isolates. Nitrofurantoin was found to be most effective followed by, gatifloxacin and gentamicin. Twenty nine percent (29.62%) isolates were MDR.

Conclusions: Therefore, the knowledge of virulence factors of E. coli and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern will help in better understanding of the organism and in the treatment of UTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.130899DOI Listing
April 2015