Publications by authors named "Madeleine C Mankowski"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-wide CRISPR Screens Reveal Host Factors Critical for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cell 2021 01 20;184(1):76-91.e13. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of host genes essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Here we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens in Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), bat CoV HKU5 expressing the SARS-CoV-1 spike, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors, including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered pro-viral genes and pathways, including HMGB1 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, that are SARS lineage and pan-coronavirus specific, respectively. We show that HMGB1 regulates ACE2 expression and is critical for entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and NL63. We also show that small-molecule antagonists of identified gene products inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in monkey and human cells, demonstrating the conserved role of these genetic hits across species. This identifies potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and reveals SARS lineage-specific and pan-CoV host factors that regulate susceptibility to highly pathogenic CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574718PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals host genes that regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Identification of host genes essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Here we performed a genome-wide CRISPR screen with SARS-CoV-2 and identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered novel pro-viral genes and pathways including the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and key components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Small molecule inhibitors of these pathways prevented SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death. We also revealed that the alarmin HMGB1 is critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, loss of the histone H3.3 chaperone complex sensitized cells to virus-induced death. Together this study reveals potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and highlights host genes that may regulate COVID-19 pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.16.155101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457610PMC
June 2020

Combined Effects of HLA-B*57/5801 Elite Suppressor CD8+ T Cells and NK Cells on HIV-1 Replication.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 20;10:113. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Elite controllers or suppressors (ES) are HIV-1 infected individuals who maintain undetectable viral loads without anti-retroviral therapy. The HLA-B*57 allele is overrepresented in ES suggesting a role for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in immune control. Natural killer (NK) cells also play a role in controlling viral replication, and genetic studies demonstrate that specific combinations of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) alleles and HLA subtypes including HLA-B*57 correlate with delayed progression to AIDS. While prior studies have shown that both HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and NK cells can inhibit viral replication , the interaction between these two effector cells has not been studied. We performed suppression assays using CD8+ T cells and NK cells from HLA-B*57 ES either alone or in combination with each other. We found no evidence of antagonism or synergy between the CD8+ T cells and NK cells, suggesting that they have independent mechanisms of inhibition . Our data has implications for combined immunotherapy with CD8+ T cells and NK cells in HIV cure strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098910PMC
March 2020

Plasma deconvolution identifies broadly neutralizing antibodies associated with hepatitis C virus clearance.

J Clin Invest 2019 08 13;129(11):4786-4796. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly-neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. Identification of these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. Here, we present development and application of a high-throughput method that deconvolutes polyclonal anti-HCV NAbs in plasma, delineating the epitope specificities of anti-HCV NAbs in acute infection plasma of forty-four humans with subsequent clearance or persistence of HCV. Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. These studies have potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying bNAb combinations in plasma associated with natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI130720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819096PMC
August 2019

Outflanking immunodominance to target subdominant broadly neutralizing epitopes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 07 18;116(27):13474-13479. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;

A major obstacle to vaccination against antigenically variable viruses is skewing of antibody responses to variable immunodominant epitopes. For influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), the immunodominance of the variable head impairs responses to the highly conserved stem. Here, we show that head immunodominance depends on the physical attachment of head to stem. Stem immunogenicity is enhanced by immunizing with stem-only constructs or by increasing local HA concentration in the draining lymph node. Surprisingly, coimmunization of full-length HA and stem alters stem-antibody class switching. Our findings delineate strategies for overcoming immunodominance, with important implications for human vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816300116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612916PMC
July 2019

Synergistic anti-HCV broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies with independent mechanisms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 01 18;115(1):E82-E91. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205;

There is an urgent need for a vaccine to combat the hepatitis C virus (HCV) pandemic, and induction of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) against HCV is a major goal of vaccine development. Even within HCV genotype 1, no single bNAb effectively neutralizes all viral strains, so induction of multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) targeting distinct epitopes may be necessary for protective immunity. Therefore, identification of optimal NAb combinations and characterization of NAb interactions can guide vaccine development. We analyzed neutralization profiles of 12 human NAbs across diverse HCV strains, assigning the NAbs to two functionally distinct clusters. We then measured neutralizing breadth of 35 NAb combinations against genotype 1 isolates, with each combination including one NAb from each neutralization cluster. Many NAbs displayed complementary neutralizing breadth, forming combinations with greater neutralization across diverse strains than any individual bNAb. Remarkably, one of the most broadly neutralizing combinations of two NAbs, designated HEPC74/HEPC98, also displayed enhanced potency, with interactions matching the Bliss independence model, suggesting that these NAbs inhibit HCV infection through independent mechanisms. Subsequent experiments showed that HEPC74 primarily blocks HCV envelope protein binding to CD81, while HEPC98 primarily blocks binding to scavenger receptor B1 and heparan sulfate. Together, these data identify a critical vulnerability resulting from the reliance of HCV on multiple cell surface receptors, suggesting that vaccine induction of multiple NAbs with distinct neutralization profiles is likely to enhance the breadth and potency of the humoral immune response against HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1718441115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776832PMC
January 2018

Extra-epitopic hepatitis C virus polymorphisms confer resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies by modulating binding to scavenger receptor B1.

PLoS Pathog 2017 02 24;13(2):e1006235. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) may guide vaccine development for highly variable viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), since they target conserved viral epitopes that could serve as vaccine antigens. However, HCV resistance to bNAbs could reduce the efficacy of a vaccine. HC33.4 and AR4A are two of the most potent anti-HCV human bNAbs characterized to date, binding to highly conserved epitopes near the amino- and carboxy-terminus of HCV envelope (E2) protein, respectively. Given their distinct epitopes, it was surprising that these bNAbs showed similar neutralization profiles across a panel of natural HCV isolates, suggesting that some viral polymorphisms may confer resistance to both bNAbs. To investigate this resistance, we developed a large, diverse panel of natural HCV envelope variants and a novel computational method to identify bNAb resistance polymorphisms in envelope proteins (E1 and E2). By measuring neutralization of a panel of HCV pseudoparticles by 10 μg/mL of each bNAb, we identified E1E2 variants with resistance to one or both bNAbs, despite 100% conservation of the AR4A binding epitope across the panel. We discovered polymorphisms outside of either binding epitope that modulate resistance to both bNAbs by altering E2 binding to the HCV co-receptor, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1). This study is focused on a mode of neutralization escape not addressed by conventional analysis of epitope conservation, highlighting the contribution of extra-epitopic polymorphisms to bNAb resistance and presenting a novel mechanism by which HCV might persist even in the face of an antibody response targeting multiple conserved epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342271PMC
February 2017