Publications by authors named "Mackenzie V Halbert"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as T Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Fundamentals, Challenges, Applications, and Prospectives.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 4;33(23):e1906539. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Gadolinium-based chelates are a mainstay of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clinic. However, their toxicity elicits severe side effects and the Food and Drug Administration has issued many warnings about their potential retention in patients' bodies, which causes safety concerns. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are a potentially attractive alternative, because of their nontoxic and biodegradable nature. Studies in developing IONPs as T contrast agents have generated promising results, but the complex, interrelated parameters influencing contrast enhancement make the development difficult, and IONPs suitable for T contrast enhancement have yet to make their way to clinical use. Here, the fundamental principles of MRI contrast agents are discussed, and the current status of MRI contrast agents is reviewed with a focus on the advantages and limitations of current T contrast agents and the potential of IONPs to serve as safe and improved alternative to gadolinium-based chelates. The past advances and current challenges in developing IONPs as a T contrast agent from a materials science perspective are presented, and how each of the key material properties and environment variables affects the performance of IONPs is assessed. Finally, some potential approaches to develop high-performance and clinically relevant T contrast agents are discussed.
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June 2021

Approach to Rapid Synthesis and Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for High Gene Transfection.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Mar 4;8(10):6320-8. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.

Surface functionalization of theranostic nanoparticles (NPs) typically relies on lengthy, aqueous postsynthesis labeling chemistries that have limited ability to fine-tune surface properties and can lead to NP heterogeneity. The need for a rapid, simple synthesis approach that can provide great control over the display of functional moieties on NP surfaces has led to increased use of highly selective bioorthoganol chemistries including metal-affinity coordination. Here we report a simple approach for rapid production of a superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with tunable functionality and high reproducibility under aqueous conditions. We utilize the high affinity complex formed between catechol and Fe((III)) as a means to dock well-defined catechol modified polymer modules on the surface of SPIONs during sonochemical coprecipitation synthesis. Polymer modules consisted of chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymer (CP) modified with catechol (CCP), and CCP functionalized with cationic polyethylenimine (CCP-PEI) to facilitate binding and delivery of DNA for gene therapy. This rapid synthesis/functionalization approach provided excellent control over the extent of PEI labeling, improved SPION magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement and produced an efficient transfection agent.
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March 2016