Publications by authors named "Mackenzie Adams"

8 Publications

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Youth and Parent Perspectives on the Acceptability of a Group Physical Activity and Coping Intervention for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care 2021 Oct;47(5):367-381

School of Nursing, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Purpose: To examine youth and parent perspectives on the acceptability of Bright 1 Bodies, a group physical activity and coping intervention for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods: Adolescents participated in 12 weekly sessions of moderate to vigorous physical activity and discussion with peers with T1DM. Adolescents completed an exit survey measuring satisfaction with the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale. Semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents and at least one parent. Qualitative description was used to develop themes that summarize the acceptability of the intervention.

Results: Mean scores for survey subscales were: 4.5 (SD = 0.39) for program components and strategies, 4.4 (SD = 0.44) for comfort with the intervention, and 4.3 (SD = 0.62) for instructors. Themes included: (1) adolescents and parents valued being around others with T1DM and their families, (2) the intervention helped adolescents gain knowledge and reinforce diabetes self-management behaviors, (3) challenges included convenience and sustaining participant engagement, and (4) adolescents intended to sustain physical activity and diabetes self-management behaviors after the intervention.

Conclusions: Adolescents and parents viewed the intervention as acceptable across multiple domains. Participants valued the group aspect of the intervention, and future interventions would benefit from integrating social interactions with others with T1DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/26350106211040429DOI Listing
October 2021

COVID-19 and mental health of food retail, food service, and hospitality workers.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 Apr-May;18(4-5):169-179. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Child, Family, and Population Health Nursing, University of Washington, School of Nursing, Seattle, Washington DC, USA.

The coronavirus pandemic has taken a detrimental toll on the lives of individuals globally. In addition to the direct effect (e.g., being infected with the virus), this pandemic has negatively ravaged many industries, particularly food retail, food services, and hospitality. Given the novelty of the disease, the true impact of COVID-19 remains to be determined. Because of the nature of their work, and the characteristics of the workers, individuals in the food retail, food service, and hospitality industries are a group whose vulnerability is at its most fragile state during this pandemic. Through this qualitative study, we explored workers' perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on their mental health and coping, including screening for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Twenty-seven individual interviews were conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four key themes emerged: being infected and infecting others, the unknown, isolation, and work and customer demands. Considering the many uncertainties of COVID-19, workers in these three industries were experiencing heightened levels of mental distress because of where they worked and the already existing disparities they faced on a daily basis before the pandemic started. Yet they remained hopeful for a better future. More studies are needed to fully understand the magnitude, short-term, and long-term effects of COVID-19. Based on this study's findings, programs are critically needed to promote positive coping behaviors among at-risk and distressed workers. Recommendations for employers, occupational health and safety professionals, and policy stakeholders to further support these service workers are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2021.1901905DOI Listing
May 2021

Antisense oligonucleotides and nucleic acids generate hypersensitive platelets.

Thromb Res 2021 04 18;200:64-71. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Introduction: Despite the great promise for therapies using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), their adverse effects, which include pro-inflammatory effects and thrombocytopenia, have limited their use. Previously, these effects have been linked to the phosphorothioate (PS) backbone necessary to prevent rapid ASO degradation in plasma. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the nucleic acid portion of an ASO-type drug on platelets and determine if it may contribute to thrombosis or thrombocytopenia.

Methods: Platelets were isolated from healthy donors and men with advanced prostate cancer. Effects of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), oligonucleotides, gDNA, and microRNA on platelet activation and aggregation were evaluated. A mouse model of lung thrombosis was used to confirm the effects of PS-modified oligonucleotides in vivo.

Results: Platelet exposure to gDNA, miRNA, and oligonucleotides longer than 16-mer at a concentration above 8 mM resulted in the formation of hypersensitive platelets, characterized by an increased sensitivity to low-dose thrombin (0.1 nM) and increase in p-Selectin expression (6-8 fold greater than control; p < 0.001). The observed nucleic acid (NA) effects on platelets were toll-like receptor (TLR) -7 subfamily dependent. Injection of a p-Selectin inhibitor significantly (p = 0.02) reduced the formation of oligonucleotide-associated pulmonary microthrombosis in vivo.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that platelet exposure to nucleic acids independent of the presence of a PS modification leads to a generation of hypersensitive platelets and requires TLR-7 subfamily receptors. ASO studies conducted in cancer patients may benefit from testing the ASO effects on platelets ex vivo before initiation of patient treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264460PMC
April 2021

Interventions to promote hotel workers' health: A scoping review.

Am J Ind Med 2020 12 7;63(12):1095-1103. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Background: The hospitality industry employs millions of workers and is a key contributor to the US economy. Despite being essential drivers in the industry's success, hotel workers, particularly hotel housekeepers, are exposed to occupational hazards and experience disproportionate rates of injuries and chronic health conditions. Thus there is a significant need for health promotion efforts directed toward these workers. However, little is known about existing interventions targeting their health.

Methods: We conducted a scoping review to identify and appraise workplace health promotion interventions targeting hotel employees. We performed a scoping review following the framework outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Our literature search process was recorded using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Basic study information was compiled into a matrix table. Study quality was assessed using the template for intervention description and replication.

Results: Eight unique interventions were identified, occurring at over 30 hotels with participants ranging between 16 and 1207 employees. Though many of the reported health outcomes were not statistically significant, studies reported results with clinical implications, including decreased numbers of injury claims, reduced anxiety, improvements in cardiovascular disease risk indicators, such as body mass index, and increased knowledge among participants.

Conclusions: This is the first review to interrogate the literature on existing workplace interventions targeting the health of hotel workers. While some studies found significant improvements in health outcomes, few conducted rigorous program evaluation. The results highlight the need for more and effective interventions targeting these at-risk workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23190DOI Listing
December 2020

The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adult emergency department patients.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 11 19;52(11):1281-1290. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: This study describes the prevalence of eating disorders among adult patients who present to the emergency department for medical care and examines the relationship between eating disorders, depression, and substance use disorders.

Method: Emergency department patients aged 21-65 years (n = 1,795) completed a computerized questionnaire that included validated screening tools for eating disorders, risky drinking behavior, other substance use, and depression. Analyses were conducted comparing individuals who screened positive for an eating disorder with those who did not based on demographics (gender, age, race, income, education), body mass index (BMI), risky drinking behavior, other substance use, and depression.

Results: Nearly 16% (15.9%) of all patients screened positive for an eating disorder regardless of their reason for presenting to the emergency department. Patients who screened positive for an eating disorder were significantly more likely to have a BMI > 30 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.68, confidence interval [CI] = 1.98, 3.62, p < .001), to also screen positive for depression (OR = 3.19, CI = 2.28, 4.47, p < .001) and to be female (OR = 2.37, CI = 1.76, 3.19, p < .001). No differences in the prevalence of positive screens for eating disorders were seen across age or racial groups, level of education or income, or for any of the included substance use variables.

Discussion: Eating disorders are common among adult emergency department patients and are associated with high rates of comorbid depression and higher BMI. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with eating disorders, targeted screening may be warranted in the emergency department setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047774PMC
November 2019

Comparison of insertion characteristics of tapered and cylindrical transfixation pins in third metacarpal bones of equine cadavers.

Am J Vet Res 2017 Oct;78(10):1200-1209

OBJECTIVE To compare heat generation and mechanical bone damage for tapered and cylindrical transfixation pins during drilling, tapping, and pin insertion in equine third metacarpal bones. SAMPLE 16 pairs of cadaveric equine third metacarpal bones. PROCEDURES For cylindrical pin insertion, a 6.2-mm hole was drilled and tapped with a cylindrical tap, and then a standard 6.3-mm pin was inserted. For tapered pin insertion, a 6.0-mm hole was drilled, reamed with a tapered reamer, and tapped with a tapered tap, and then a 6.3-mm tapered pin was inserted. Paired t tests and 1-way ANOVAs were used to compare heat generation (measured by use of thermocouples and thermography), macrodamage (assessed by use of stereomicroscopy), and microdamage (assessed by examination of basic fuchsin-stained histologic specimens) between cylindrical and tapered pins and between tapered pins inserted to various insertion torques. RESULTS Tapered pin insertion generated less heat but resulted in more bone damage than did cylindrical pin insertion when pins were inserted to the same insertion torque. Insertion of tapered pins to increasing insertion torques up to 16 N•m resulted in increased heat generation and bone damage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Tapered pin insertion resulted in lower heat production than did cylindrical pin insertion. However, tapered pin insertion resulted in greater bone damage, which likely was attributable to differences in the tapered and cylindrical taps. A tapered pin may be preferable to a cylindrical pin for insertion in equine cortical bone provided that improvements in tap design can reduce bone damage during insertion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.10.1200DOI Listing
October 2017

Platelet-Synthesized Testosterone in Men with Prostate Cancer Induces Androgen Receptor Signaling.

Neoplasia 2015 Jun;17(6):490-6

Department of Urology, Division of Urologic Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:

Platelets have been long postulated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, although relatively little is known regarding the precise mechanisms involved. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer eventually fails with relapse occurring in the form of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC tumors typically overexpress androgen receptor (AR), demonstrating continued dependence upon AR signaling. Platelets have been previously demonstrated to contain androgens, and we sought to explore the contribution of platelet-derived androgens in CRPC. In this study, we examined the role of platelet-derived androgens in vitro using platelets from men with CRPC, men with high-risk prostate cancer, and healthy male donors. A series of in vitro assays was performed to elucidate the impact of platelet-derived androgens on androgen-sensitive prostate tumor cells. By examining platelet-derived androgen effects on AR signaling in prostate tumor cells, we found that platelets, from men with CRPC and on ADT, strongly induce AR target genes and tumor cell proliferation. Moreover, we show a fully intact testosterone (T) biosynthetic pathway within platelets from its precursor cholesterol and demonstrate that platelets of CRPC patients with ADT resistance are able to generate T. Overall, our findings reveal an unknown capacity of platelets to synthesize T at functionally relevant levels in patients with lethal prostate cancer. Importantly, it suggests a novel paracrine mechanism of T production that may act to sustain CRPC state and potentiate therapeutic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2015.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4719002PMC
June 2015

IL-22 is expressed by the invasive trophoblast of the equine (Equus caballus) chorionic girdle.

J Immunol 2012 May 4;188(9):4181-7. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The invasive trophoblast cells of the equine placenta migrate into the endometrium to form endometrial cups, dense accumulations of trophoblast cells that produce equine chorionic gonadotropin between days 40 and 120 of normal pregnancy. The mechanisms by which the trophoblast cells invade the endometrium while evading maternal immune destruction are poorly defined. A gene expression microarray analysis performed on placental tissues obtained at day 34 of gestation revealed a >900-fold upregulation of mRNA encoding the cytokine IL-22 in chorionic girdle relative to noninvasive chorion. Quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to verify high expression of IL-22 in chorionic girdle. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a striking increase in IL-22 mRNA expression in chorionic girdle from days 32 to 35 and an absence of IL-22 expression in other conceptus tissues. Bioinformatic analysis and cDNA sequencing confirmed the predicted length of horse IL-22, which carries a 3' extension absent in IL-22 genes of humans and mice, but present in the cow and pig. Our discovery of IL-22 in the chorionic girdle is a novel finding, as this cytokine has been previously reported in immune cells only. IL-22 has immunoregulatory functions, with primary action on epithelial cells. mRNA of IL-22R1 was detected in pregnant endometrium at levels similar to other equine epithelia. Based upon these findings, we hypothesize that IL-22 cytokine produced by the chorionic girdle binds IL-22R1 on endometrium, serving as a mechanism of fetal-maternal communication by modulating endometrial responses to trophoblast invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1103509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746837PMC
May 2012
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