Publications by authors named "Macarena Hernandez-Jimenez"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Influence of metabolic syndrome on post-stroke outcome, angiogenesis and vascular function in old rats determined by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jul 1;41(7):1692-1706. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Neurovascular Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre i+12, Madrid, Spain.

Stroke affects primarily aged and co-morbid people, aspects not properly considered to date. Since angiogenesis/vasculogenesis are key processes for stroke recovery, we purposed to determine how different co-morbidities affect the outcome and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, using a rodent model of metabolic syndrome, and by dynamic enhanced-contrast imaging (DCE-MRI) to assess its non-invasive potential to determine these processes. Twenty/twenty-two month-old corpulent (JCR:LA-Cp/Cp), a model of metabolic syndrome and lean rats were used. After inducing the experimental ischemia by transient MCAO, angiogenesis was analyzed by histology, vasculogenesis by determination of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood by flow cytometry and evaluating their pro-angiogenic properties in culture and the vascular function by DCE-MRI at 3, 7 and 28 days after tMCAO. Our results show an increased infarct volume, BBB damage and an impaired outcome in corpulent rats compared with their lean counterparts. Corpulent rats also displayed worse post-stroke angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, outcome that translated in an impaired vascular function determined by DCE-MRI. These data confirm that outcome and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis induced by stroke in old rats are negatively affected by the co-morbidities present in the corpulent genotype and also that DCE-MRI might be a technique useful for the non-invasive evaluation of vascular function and angiogenesis processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20976412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221771PMC
July 2021

Defining a Target Population to Effectively Test a Neuroprotective Drug.

Stroke 2021 Jan 11;52(2):505-510. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Stroke Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain (M.O.-G., M. Requena, D.C., A.G.-T., M.D., M.M., S.B., N.R., J.J., D.R.-L., J.P., M. Rubiera, C.A.M., M. Ribo).

Background And Purpose: We aim to identify the subgroup of acute ischemic stroke patients with higher probabilities of benefiting from a potential neuroprotective drug using baseline outcome predictors and test whether different selection criteria strategies can improve detected treatment effect.

Methods: We analyzed the association between final infarct volume (FIV), measured on 24- to 72-hour computed tomography, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at discharge/day 5 of acute stroke patients who underwent endovascular treatment. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and affected hemisphere. We analyzed the impact of absolute (5-15 mL) and relative (33%) FIV reductions in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in the whole population and in different subsets of patients selected according to baseline imaging criteria using computed tomography perfusion.

Results: We analyzed 627 patients; association between FIV and 5-day National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was best described with a quadratic function, with a regression coefficient β=1.56 ([95% CI, 1.45-1.67] <0.001) in the adjusted analysis. In the models considering a fixed absolute (5/15 mL) FIV reduction, treatment effect was highest when patients with predicted larger FIV were excluded, whereas in a 33% FIV reduction model, treatment effect increased with the exclusion of patients with expected excellent outcomes.

Conclusions: Patients either with excellent outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy or with large infarcts may dilute the treatment effect in stroke neuroprotective drug trials. Computed tomography perfusion on admission may help selecting adequate patients according to expected drug effect profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032025DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting TLR4 with ApTOLL Improves Heart Function in Response to Coronary Ischemia Reperfusion in Pigs Undergoing Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Biomolecules 2020 08 9;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), CIBERCV, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary ischemia/reperfusion (IR). To test whether the new TLR4 antagonist, ApTOLL, may prevent coronary IR damage, we administered 0.078 mg/kg ApTOLL or Placebo in pigs subjected to IR, analyzing the levels of cardiac troponins, matrix metalloproteinases, pro-, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, heart function, and tissue integrity over a period of 7 days after IR. Our results show that ApTOLL reduced cardiac troponin-1 24 h after administration, improving heart function, as detected by a significant recovery of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and the shortening fraction (FS) cardiac parameters. The extension of necrotic and fibrotic areas was also reduced, as detected by Evans blue/2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxylin/Eosine, and Masson Trichrome staining of heart sections, together with a significant reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading, matrix metalloproteinase 9. Finally, the expression of the following cytokines, CCL1, CCL2, MIP1-A-B, CCL5, CD40L, C5/C5A, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, G-CSF, GM-CSF, ICAM-1, INF-g, IL1-a, ILI-b, IL-1Ra, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL16, IL17-A, IL17- E, IL18, IL21, IL27, IL32, MIF, SERPIN-E1, TNF-a, and TREM-1, were also assayed, detecting a pronounced decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines after 7 days of treatment with ApTOLL. Altogether, our results show that ApTOLL is a promising new tool for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10081167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464507PMC
August 2020

Pharmacological Modulation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Reverses Thrombotic Stroke tPA (Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator) Resistance.

Stroke 2019 11 17;50(11):3228-3237. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

From the Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Neuroquímica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain (C.P.-M., V.D.-L., A.G.-C., F.O., M.H.-J., I.B.-F., A.P.-R., J.M.P., I.L., M.A.M.).

Background and Purpose- Recanalization of the occluded artery is a primary goal in stroke treatment. Unfortunately, endovascular treatment is not always available, and tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) therapy is limited by its narrow therapeutic window; importantly, the rate of early arterial recanalization after tPA administration is low, especially for platelet-rich thrombi. The mechanisms for this tPA resistance are not well known. Since neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in this setting, our aim was to study whether NET pharmacological modulation can reverse tPA resistance and the role of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), previously related to NET formation, in thrombosis. Methods- To this goal, we have used a mouse photothrombotic stroke model, which produces a fibrin-free thrombus composed primarily of aggregated platelets and thrombi obtained from human stroke patients. Results- Our results demonstrate that (1) administration of DNase-I, which promotes NETs lysis, but not of tPA, recanalizes the occluded vessel improving photothrombotic stroke outcome; (2) a preventive treatment with Cl-amidine, impeding NET formation, completely precludes thrombotic occlusion; (3) platelet TLR4 mediates NET formation after photothrombotic stroke; and (4) ex vivo fresh platelet-rich thrombi from ischemic stroke patients are effectively lysed by DNase-I. Conclusions- Hence, our data open new avenues for recanalization of platelet-rich thrombi after stroke, especially to overcome tPA resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026848DOI Listing
November 2019

TLR4-Binding DNA Aptamers Show a Protective Effect against Acute Stroke in Animal Models.

Mol Ther 2018 08 15;26(8):2047-2059. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Neuroquímica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), 28041 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Since Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates brain damage after stroke, development of TLR4 antagonists is a promising therapeutic strategy for this disease. Our aim was to generate TLR4-blocking DNA aptamers to be used for stroke treatment. From a random oligonucleotide pool, we identified two aptamers (ApTLR#1R, ApTLR#4F) with high affinity for human TLR4 by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Optimized truncated forms (ApTLR#1RT, ApTLR#4FT) were obtained. Our data demonstrate specific binding of both aptamers to human TLR4 as well as a TLR4 antagonistic effect. ApTLR#4F and ApTLR#4FT showed a long-lasting protective effect against brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), an effect that was absent in TLR4-deficient mice. Similar effects were obtained in other MCAO models, including in rat. Additionally, efficacy of ApTLR#4FT in a model of brain ischemia-reperfusion in rat supports the use of this aptamer in patients undergoing artery recanalization induced by pharmacological or mechanical interventions. The absence of major toxicology aspects and the good safety profile of the aptamers further encourage their future clinical positioning for stroke therapy and possibly other diseases in which TLR4 plays a deleterious role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.05.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094477PMC
August 2018

Test repositioning for functional assessment of neurological outcome after experimental stroke in mice.

PLoS One 2017 4;12(5):e0176770. Epub 2017 May 4.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Stroke is a cerebrovascular pathology for which the only approved treatment is fibrinolysis. Several studies have focused on the development of new drugs but none has led to effective therapies to date, due, among others, to the difficulty to evaluate clinical deficits in experimental animal models. The present study aims to explore the applicability of known behavioral tests not commonly used in ischemia for the neurological assessment of mice after experimental stroke in different brain areas. A total of 225 CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by ligature (pMCAO) or permanent anterior cerebral artery occlusion by photothrombosis (pACAO) models. Modified neuroseverity score, footprint test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze were performed. Under these experimental conditions, modified neuroseverity score showed neurological impairment early after experimental stroke in both models. By contrast, the footprint test and the elevated plus maze detected short-term neurological deterioration in the pMCAO model but not in the pACAO model. Furthermore, the forced swim test identified depression-like behavior in mice after ischemia only when the left hemisphere was affected. In conclusion, we propose the repositioning of known neurobehavioral tests, but not commonly used in the stroke field, for the fast detection of neurological impairments early after ischemia, and even specific to discriminate the territory affected by arterial occlusion as well as the hemisphere where brain damage occurs. All these findings may prove useful to improve the experimental design of neuroprotective drugs in order to bridge the gap between experimental studies and clinical trials.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176770PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417557PMC
September 2017

Seladin-1/DHCR24 Is Neuroprotective by Associating EAAT2 Glutamate Transporter to Lipid Rafts in Experimental Stroke.

Stroke 2016 Jan 1;47(1):206-13. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

From the Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense and Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), Madrid, Spain (M.H.-J., D.M.-L., I.L., M.A.M.); and Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC, Madrid, Spain (E.G.-R., A.M.-S., M.D.L., C.G.D.).

Background And Purpose: 3β-Hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24) or selective alzheimer disease indicator 1 (seladin-1), an enzyme of cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, has been implicated in neuroprotection, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, its role in ischemic stroke remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of seladin-1/DHCR24 using an experimental stroke model in mice.

Methods: Dhcr24(+/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. In another set of experiments, WT mice were treated intraperitoneally either with vehicle or U18666A (seladin-1/DHCR24 inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) 30 minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brains were removed 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion for infarct volume determination. For protein expression determination, peri-infarct region was obtained 24 h after ischemia, and Western blot or cytometric bead array was performed.

Results: Dhcr24(+/-) mice displayed larger infarct volumes after middle cerebral artery occlusion than their WT littermates. Treatment of WT mice with the seladin-1/DHCR24 inhibitor U18666A also increased ischemic lesion. Inflammation-related mediators were increased after ischemia in Dhcr24(+/-) mice compared with WT counterparts. Consistent with a role of cholesterol in proper function of glutamate transporter EAAT2 in membrane lipid rafts, we found a decreased association of EAAT2 with lipid rafts after ischemia when DHCR24 is genetically deleted or pharmacologically inhibited. Accordingly, treatment with U18666A decreases [(3)H]-glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes.

Conclusions: These results support the idea that lipid raft integrity, ensured by seladin-1/DHCR24, plays a crucial protective role in the ischemic brain by guaranteeing EAAT2-mediated uptake of glutamate excess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010810DOI Listing
January 2016

Aging increases microglial proliferation, delays cell migration, and decreases cortical neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

J Neuroinflammation 2015 May 10;12:87. Epub 2015 May 10.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Aging is not just a risk factor of stroke, but it has also been associated with poor recovery. It is known that stroke-induced neurogenesis is reduced but maintained in the aged brain. However, there is no consensus on how neurogenesis is affected after stroke in aged animals. Our objective is to determine the role of aging on the process of neurogenesis after stroke.

Methods: We have studied neurogenesis by analyzing proliferation, migration, and formation of new neurons, as well as inflammatory parameters, in a model of cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in young- (2 to 3 months) and middle-aged mice (13 to 14 months).

Results: Aging increased both microglial proliferation, as shown by a higher number of BrdU(+) cells and BrdU/Iba1(+) cells in the ischemic boundary and neutrophil infiltration. Interestingly, aging increased the number of M1 monocytes and N1 neutrophils, consistent with pro-inflammatory phenotypes when compared with the alternative M2 and N2 phenotypes. Aging also inhibited (subventricular zone) SVZ cell proliferation by decreasing both the number of astrocyte-like type-B (prominin-1(+)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)(+)/nestin(+)/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)(+) cells) and type-C cells (prominin-1(+)/EGFR(+)/nestin(-)/Mash1(+) cells), and not affecting apoptosis, 1 day after stroke. Aging also inhibited migration of neuroblasts (DCX(+) cells), as indicated by an accumulation of neuroblasts at migratory zones 14 days after injury; consistently, aged mice presented a smaller number of differentiated interneurons (NeuN(+)/BrdU(+) and GAD67(+) cells) in the peri-infarct cortical area 14 days after stroke.

Conclusions: Our data confirm that stroke-induced neurogenesis is maintained but reduced in aged animals. Importantly, we now demonstrate that aging not only inhibits proliferation of specific SVZ cell subtypes but also blocks migration of neuroblasts to the damaged area and decreases the number of new interneurons in the cortical peri-infarct area. Thus, our results highlight the importance of using aged animals for translation to clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-015-0314-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437744PMC
May 2015

Toll-like receptor 4 modulates cell migration and cortical neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

FASEB J 2014 Nov 25;28(11):4710-8. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates brain damage after stroke. Now our objective is to determine TLR4 involvement in stroke-induced neurogenesis. Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in wild-type and TLR4-deficient mice. Stereological and densitometric analysis of immunofluorescence-labeled brain sections and FACS analysis of cell suspensions were performed. Our results show that subventricular zone (SVZ) cell proliferation after stroke depends on infarct size. Second, when comparing brains with similar lesions, TLR4 attenuated SVZ proliferation, as shown by a decrease in prominin-1(+)/EGFR(+)/nestin(-) cells (type-C cells) at 1-2 d, and in BrdU(+) cells at 7 d, in TLR4(+/+) vs. TLR4(-/-) mice. Interestingly, 7 d after the infarct, neuroblasts in TLR4(+/+) mice migrated farther distances, reaching areas closer to the lesion than those in TLR4-deficient mice. However, at 14 d, TLR4-deficient mice presented a higher number of neuroblasts in all migratory zones than the TLR4(+/+) counterparts, which suggests that TLR4 deficiency delays neuroblast migration. Consistently, TLR4(+/+) mice showed an increased number of interneurons (NeuN(+)/BrdU(+)/GAD67(+) cells) in peri-infarct cortex 14-28 d after stroke. Our data indicate that, despite a negative effect on SVZ cell proliferation, TLR4 plays an important role in stroke-induced neurogenesis by promoting neuroblasts migration and increasing the number of new cortical neurons after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.14-252452DOI Listing
November 2014

Apoptosis-related proteins are potential markers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury.

Neurosci Lett 2014 Jan 21;558:143-8. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Servicio de Bioquímica-Investigación, Hospital Ramón y Cajal-IRYCIS, 28034 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes high mortality and long-term morbidity rates. The magnitude of the neuronal damage depends on the duration and severity of the initial insult combined with the deleterious effects of reperfusion and apoptosis. Currently, a diagnosis of HIE is based largely on the neurological and histological findings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify apoptosis-related proteins that might serve as potential markers of HIE injury. As an initial step toward reaching this objective, we analyzed changes in protein levels in an in vitro model of hypoxia using antibody arrays, and we have identified changes in the expression level of two proteins involved in apoptosis, Smac-DIABLO and cathepsin D. We obtained brain sections from eight neonatal HIE patients and performed histological staining, TUNEL assays and Smac-DIABLO and cathepsin D immunolocalization. Our results revealed a high number of TUNEL-positive cells, including neurons, astrocytes and ependymal cells, in the various regions that were analyzed. Interestingly, many of the areas that were positive for TUNEL staining did not appear to be damaged in the histological evaluation. In addition, using immunostaining, we found that Smac-DIABLO and cathepsin D had the same regional distribution pattern. Taken together, these findings indicate that these two proteins could serve as markers to identify injured regions that might not to be detectable using histological observations alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.11.019DOI Listing
January 2014

Silent information regulator 1 protects the brain against cerebral ischemic damage.

Stroke 2013 Aug 30;44(8):2333-7. Epub 2013 May 30.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a member of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases implicated in a wide range of cellular functions and has beneficial properties in pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion processes and neurodegeneration. However, no direct evidence has been reported on the direct implication of SIRT1 in ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to establish the role of SIRT1 in stroke using an experimental model in mice.

Methods: Wild-type and Sirt1-/- mice were subjected to permanent focal ischemia by permanent ligature. In another set of experiments, wild-type mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, activator 3 (SIRT1 activator, 10 mg/kg), or sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) for 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 40 hours after ischemia. Brains were removed 48 hours after ischemia for determining the infarct volume. Neurological outcome was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score.

Results: Exposure to middle cerebral artery occlusion increased SIRT1 expression in neurons of the ipsilesional mouse brain cortex. Treatment of mice with activator 3 reduced infarct volume, whereas sirtinol increased ischemic injury. Sirt1-/- mice displayed larger infarct volumes after ischemia than their wild-type counterparts. In addition, SIRT1 inhibition/deletion was concomitant with increased acetylation of p53 and nuclear factor κB (p65).

Conclusions: These results support the idea that SIRT1 plays an important role in neuroprotection against brain ischemia by deacetylation and subsequent inhibition of p53-induced and nuclear factor κB-induced inflammatory and apoptotic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001715DOI Listing
August 2013

Citicoline (CDP-choline) increases Sirtuin1 expression concomitant to neuroprotection in experimental stroke.

J Neurochem 2013 Sep 13;126(6):819-26. Epub 2013 May 13.

Unidad de Investigación Neurovascular, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos-IdISSC, Madrid, Spain.

CDP-choline has shown neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia. In humans, although a recent trial International Citicoline Trial on Acute Stroke (ICTUS) has shown that global recovery is similar in CDP-choline and placebo groups, CDP-choline was shown to be more beneficial in some patients, such as those with moderate stroke severity and not treated with t-PA. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial actions of CDP-choline. We have now studied the participation of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in the neuroprotective actions of CDP-choline. Fischer rats and Sirt1⁻/⁻ mice were subjected to permanent focal ischemia. CDP-choline (0.2 or 2 g/kg), sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor; 10 mg/kg), and resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator; 2.5 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally. Brains were removed 24 and 48 h after ischemia for western blot analysis and infarct volume determination. Treatment with CDP-choline increased SIRT1 protein levels in brain concomitantly to neuroprotection. Treatment with sirtinol blocked the reduction in infarct volume caused by CDP-choline, whereas resveratrol elicited a strong synergistic neuroprotective effect with CDP-choline. CDP-choline failed to reduce infarct volume in Sirt1⁻/⁻ mice. Our present results demonstrate a robust effect of CDP-choline like SIRT1 activator by up-regulating its expression. Our findings suggest that therapeutic strategies to activate SIRT1 may be useful in the treatment of stroke. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is implicated in a wide range of cellular functions. Regarding stroke, there is no direct evidence. We have demonstrated that citicoline increases SIRT1 protein levels in brain concomitantly to neuroprotection. Citicoline fails to reduce infarct volume in Sirt1⁻/⁻ mice. Our findings suggest that therapeutic strategies acting on SIRT1 may be useful in the treatment of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.12269DOI Listing
September 2013

Apolipoprotein-E controls adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 on cerebral microvessels after methamphetamine intoxication.

Stroke 2012 Jun 15;43(6):1647-53. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr 55, D-45122 Essen, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Methamphetamine is a powerful addictive, which has been associated with ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhage in humans. Whether and how methamphetamine influences the expression of tight junctions and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters, which have previously been shown to be regulated by apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) under conditions of brain ischemia, was unknown.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice received intraperitoneal injections of methamphetamine (3 times 4 mg/kg separated by 3 hours) either alone or in combination with the ApoE receptor-2 inhibitor receptor-associated protein (40 μg/kg) or the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W (5 mg/kg). Animals were euthanized 3 or 24 hours after methamphetamine exposure. Tissue responses were evaluated with Western blots, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry using total brain and cerebral microvessel extracts.

Results: Methamphetamine induced a transient activation of stress kinases c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 and p38 in the brain parenchyma and increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression on cerebral microvessels without inducing loss of tight junction proteins and without inducing IgG extravasation. Methamphetamine transiently increased the expression of the luminal adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter ABCB1 on cerebral microvessels and reduced the expression of the abluminal transporter ABCC1. Elevated expression of ApoE was noted in the brain parenchyma by methamphetamine, activating ApoE receptor-2 on brain capillaries, deactivating c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 and c-Jun, and regulating ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression. Indeed, ApoE receptor-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition prevented the ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression changes.

Conclusions: Acute exposure to methamphetamine at doses comparable to those consumed in drug addiction does not induce tight junction breakdown but differentially regulates adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters through the ApoE/ApoE receptor-2/c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.648923DOI Listing
June 2012

eIF4F complex disruption causes protein synthesis inhibition during hypoxia in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2012 Feb 6;1823(2):430-8. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Servicio de Bioquímica-Investigación, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, RyCIS, Madrid, Spain.

Poor oxygenation (hypoxia) influences important physiological and pathological situations, including development, ischemia, stroke and cancer. Hypoxia induces protein synthesis inhibition that is primarily regulated at the level of initiation step. This regulation generally takes place at two stages, the phosphorylation of the subunit α of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2 and the inhibition of the eIF4F complex availability by dephosphorylation of the inhibitory protein 4E-BP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1). The contribution of each of them is mainly dependent of the extent of the oxygen deprivation. We have evaluated the regulation of hypoxia-induced translation inhibition in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells subjected to a low oxygen concentration (0.1%) at several times. Our findings indicate that protein synthesis inhibition occurs primarily by the disruption of eIF4F complex through 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation, which is produced by the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity via the activation of REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage 1) protein in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)-dependent manner, as well as the translocation of eIF4E to the nucleus. In addition, this mechanism is reinforced by the increase in 4E-BP1 levels, mainly at prolonged times of hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.11.008DOI Listing
February 2012

New hierarchical phosphorylation pathway of the translational repressor eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in ischemia-reperfusion stress.

J Biol Chem 2010 Nov 24;285(45):34355-63. Epub 2010 Aug 24.

Department of Investigation, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is a translational repressor that is characterized by its capacity to bind specifically to eIF4E and inhibit its interaction with eIF4G. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 regulates eIF4E availability, and therefore, cap-dependent translation, in cell stress. This study reports a physiological study of 4E-BP1 regulation by phosphorylation using control conditions and a stress-induced translational repression condition, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) stress, in brain tissue. In control conditions, 4E-BP1 was found in four phosphorylation states that were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, which corresponded to Thr(69)-phosphorylated alone, Thr(69)- and Thr(36)/Thr(45)-phosphorylated, all these plus Ser(64) phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of the sites analyzed. In control or IR conditions, no Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation alone was detected without Thr(69) phosphorylation, and neither was Ser(64) phosphorylation without Thr(36)/Thr(45)/Thr(69) phosphorylation detected. Ischemic stress induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation at Thr(69), Thr(36)/Thr(45), and Ser(64) residues, with 4E-BP1 remaining phosphorylated at Thr(69) alone or dephosphorylated. In the subsequent reperfusion, 4E-BP1 phosphorylation was induced at Thr(36)/Thr(45) and Ser(64), in addition to Thr(69). Changes in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation after IR were according to those found for Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinases. These results demonstrate a new hierarchical phosphorylation for 4E-BP1 regulation in which Thr(69) is phosphorylated first followed by Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation, and Ser(64) is phosphorylated last. Thr(69) phosphorylation alone allows binding to eIF4E, and subsequent Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation was sufficient to dissociate 4E-BP1 from eIF4E, which led to eIF4E-4G interaction. These data help to elucidate the physiological role of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in controlling protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.135103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2966049PMC
November 2010

Translation regulation after taxol treatment in NIH3T3 cells involves the elongation factor (eEF)2.

Exp Cell Res 2007 Oct 1;313(17):3694-706. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Departamento de Bioquímica-Investigación, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Changes to the translational machinery that occur during apoptosis have been described in the last few years. The two principal ways in which translational factors are modified during apoptosis are: (i) changes in protein phosphorylation and (ii) specific proteolytic cleavages. Taxol, a member of a new class of anti-tubulin drugs, is currently used in chemotherapeutic treatments of different types of cancers. We have previously demonstrated that taxol induces calpain-mediated apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells [Piñeiro et al., Exp. Cell Res., 2007, 313:369-379]. In this study we found that translation was significantly inhibited during taxol-induced apoptosis in these cells. We have studied the phosphorylation status and expression levels of eIF2a, eIF4E, eIF4G and the regulatory protein 4E-BP1, all of which are implicated in translation regulation. We found that taxol treatment did not induce changes in eIF2alpha phosphorylation, but strongly decreased eIF4G, eIF4E and 4E-BP1 expression levels. MDL28170, a specific inhibitor of calpain, prevented reduction of eIF4G, but not of eIF4E or 4E-BP1 levels. Moreover, the calpain inhibitor did not block taxol-induced translation inhibition. All together these findings demonstrated that none of these factors are responsible for the taxol-induced protein synthesis inhibition. On the contrary, taxol treatment increased elongation factor eEF2 phosphorylation in a calpain-independent manner, supporting a role for eEF2 in taxol-induced translation inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.07.025DOI Listing
October 2007