Publications by authors named "Maarten Schenke"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impaired θ-γ Coupling Indicates Inhibitory Dysfunction and Seizure Risk in a Dravet Syndrome Mouse Model.

J Neurosci 2021 01 24;41(3):524-537. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Dravet syndrome (DS) is an epileptic encephalopathy that still lacks biomarkers for epileptogenesis and its treatment. Dysfunction of Na1.1 sodium channels, which are chiefly expressed in inhibitory interneurons, explains the epileptic phenotype. Understanding the network effects of these cellular deficits may help predict epileptogenesis. Here, we studied θ-γ coupling as a potential marker for altered inhibitory functioning and epileptogenesis in a DS mouse model. We found that cortical θ-γ coupling was reduced in both male and female juvenile DS mice and persisted only if spontaneous seizures occurred. θ-γ Coupling was partly restored by cannabidiol (CBD). Locally disrupting Na1.1 expression in the hippocampus or cortex yielded early attenuation of θ-γ coupling, which in the hippocampus associated with fast ripples, and which was replicated in a computational model when voltage-gated sodium currents were impaired in basket cells (BCs). Our results indicate attenuated θ-γ coupling as a promising early indicator of inhibitory dysfunction and seizure risk in DS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2132-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821857PMC
January 2021

Responsivity to light in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice reveals frequency-dependent enhancement of visual network excitability.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 03 26;53(5):1672-1686. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Migraine patients often report (inter)ictal hypersensitivity to light, but the underlying mechanisms remain an enigma. Both hypo- and hyperresponsivity of the visual network have been reported, which may reflect either intra-individual dynamics of the network or large inter-individual variation in the measurement of human visual evoked potential data. Therefore, we studied visual system responsivity in freely behaving mice using combined epidural electroencephalography and intracortical multi-unit activity to reduce variation in recordings and gain insight into visual cortex dynamics. For better clinical translation, we investigated transgenic mice that carry the human pathogenic R192Q missense mutation in the α subunit of voltage-gated Ca 2.1 Ca channels leading to enhanced neurotransmission and familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 in patients. Visual evoked potentials were studied in response to visual stimulation paradigms with flashes of light. Following intensity-dependent visual stimulation, FHM1 mutant mice displayed faster visual evoked potential responses, with lower initial amplitude, followed by less pronounced neuronal suppression compared to wild-type mice. Similar to what was reported for migraine patients, frequency-dependent stimulation in mutant mice revealed enhanced photic drive in the EEG beta-gamma band. The frequency-dependent increases in visual network responses in mutant mice may reflect the context-dependent enhancement of visual cortex excitability, which could contribute to our understanding of sensory hypersensitivity in migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048865PMC
March 2021

Apnea Associated with Brainstem Seizures in Mice Is Caused by Medullary Spreading Depolarization.

J Neurosci 2019 11 18;39(48):9633-9644. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Departments of Human Genetics,

Seizure-related apnea is common and can be lethal. Its mechanisms however remain unclear and preventive strategies are lacking. We postulate that brainstem spreading depolarization (SD), previously associated with lethal seizures in animal models, initiates apnea upon invasion of brainstem respiratory centers. To study this, we assessed effects of brainstem seizures on brainstem function and respiration in male and female mice carrying a homozygous S218L missense mutation that leads to gain-of-function of voltage-gated Ca2.1 Ca channels and high risk for fatal seizures. Recordings of brainstem DC potential and neuronal activity, cardiorespiratory activity and local tissue oxygen were performed in freely behaving animals. Brainstem SD occurred during all spontaneous fatal seizures and, unexpectedly, during a subset of nonfatal seizures. Seizure-related SDs in the ventrolateral medulla correlated with respiratory suppression. Seizures induced by stimulation of the inferior colliculus could evoke SD that spread in a rostrocaudal direction, preceding local tissue hypoxia and apnea, indicating that invasion of SD into medullary respiratory centers initiated apnea and hypoxia rather than Fatal outcome was prevented by timely resuscitation. Moreover, NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine prevented seizure-related SD and apnea, which supports brainstem SD as a prerequisite for brainstem seizure-related apnea in this animal model and has translational value for developing strategies that prevent fatal ictal apnea. Apnea during and following seizures is common, but also likely implicated in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This underlines the need to understand mechanisms for potentially lethal seizure-related apnea. In the present work we show, in freely behaving SUDEP-prone transgenic mice, that apnea is induced when spontaneous brainstem seizure-related spreading depolarization (SD) reaches respiratory nuclei in the ventrolateral medulla. We show that brainstem seizure-related medullary SD is followed by local hypoxia and recovers during nonfatal seizures, but not during fatal events. NMDA receptor antagonists prevented medullary SD and apnea, which may be of translational value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1713-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880468PMC
November 2019

Brainstem spreading depolarization and cortical dynamics during fatal seizures in Cacna1a S218L mice.

Brain 2019 02;142(2):412-425

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a fatal complication of epilepsy in which brainstem spreading depolarization may play a pivotal role, as suggested by animal studies. However, patiotemporal details of spreading depolarization occurring in relation to fatal seizures have not been investigated. In addition, little is known about behavioural and neurophysiological features that may discriminate spontaneous fatal from non-fatal seizures. Transgenic mice carrying the missense mutation S218L in the α1A subunit of Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels exhibit enhanced excitatory neurotransmission and increased susceptibility to spreading depolarization. Homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice show spontaneous non-fatal and fatal seizures, occurring throughout life, resulting in reduced life expectancy. To identify characteristics of fatal and non-fatal spontaneous seizures, we compared behavioural and electrophysiological seizure dynamics in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice. To gain insight on the role of brainstem spreading depolarization in SUDEP, we studied the spatiotemporal distribution of spreading depolarization in the context of seizure-related death. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures were investigated by video monitoring and electrophysiological recordings in freely-behaving Cacna1aS218L and wild-type mice. Homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice showed multiple spontaneous tonic-clonic seizures and died from SUDEP in adulthood. Death was preceded by a tonic-clonic seizure terminating with hindlimb clonus, with suppression of cortical neuronal activity during and after the seizure. Induced seizures in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice were followed by multiple spreading depolarizations and death. In wild-type or heterozygous Cacna1aS218L mice, induced seizures and spreading depolarization were never followed by death. To identify temporal and regional features of seizure-induced spreading depolarization related to fatal outcome, diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in anaesthetized homozygous Cacna1aS218L and wild-type mice. In homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice, appearance of seizure-related spreading depolarization in the brainstem correlated with respiratory arrest that was followed by cardiac arrest and death. Recordings in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice confirmed brainstem spreading depolarization during spontaneous fatal seizures. These data underscore the value of the homozygous Cacna1aS218L mouse model for identifying discriminative features of fatal compared to non-fatal seizures, and support a key role for cortical neuronal suppression and brainstem spreading depolarization in SUDEP pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351775PMC
February 2019

Optogenetic induction of cortical spreading depression in anesthetized and freely behaving mice.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2017 May 1;37(5):1641-1655. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

1 Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cortical spreading depression, which plays an important role in multiple neurological disorders, has been studied primarily with experimental models that use highly invasive methods. We developed a relatively non-invasive optogenetic model to induce cortical spreading depression by transcranial stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 ion channels expressed in cortical layer 5 neurons. Light-evoked cortical spreading depression in anesthetized and freely behaving mice was studied with intracortical DC-potentials, multi-unit activity and/or non-invasive laser Doppler flowmetry, and optical intrinsic signal imaging. In anesthetized mice, cortical spreading depression induction thresholds and propagation rates were similar for invasive (DC-potential) and non-invasive (laser Doppler flowmetry) recording paradigms. Cortical spreading depression-related vascular and parenchymal optical intrinsic signal changes were similar to those evoked with KCl. In freely behaving mice, DC-potential and multi-unit activity recordings combined with laser Doppler flowmetry revealed cortical spreading depression characteristics comparable to those under anesthesia, except for a shorter cortical spreading depression duration. Cortical spreading depression resulted in a short increase followed by prolonged reduction of spontaneous active behavior. Motor function, as assessed by wire grip tests, was transiently and unilaterally suppressed following a cortical spreading depression. Optogenetic cortical spreading depression induction has significant advantages over current models in that multiple cortical spreading depression events can be elicited in a non-invasive and cell type-selective fashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X16645113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5435281PMC
May 2017

Alteration in P-glycoprotein functionality affects intrabrain distribution of quinidine more than brain entry-a study in rats subjected to status epilepticus by kainate.

AAPS J 2012 Mar 4;14(1):87-96. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Division of Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

This study aimed to investigate the use of quinidine microdialysis to study potential changes in brain P-glycoprotein functionality after induction of status epilepticus (SE) by kainate. Rats were infused with 10 or 20 mg/kg quinidine over 30 min or 4 h. Plasma, brain extracellular fluid (brain ECF), and end-of-experiment total brain concentrations of quinidine were determined during 7 h after the start of the infusion. Effect of pretreatment with tariquidar (15 mg/kg, administered 30 min before the start of the quinidine infusion) on the brain distribution of quinidine was assessed. This approach was repeated in kainate-treated rats. Quinidine kinetics were analyzed with population modeling (NONMEM). The quinidine microdialysis assay clearly revealed differences in brain distribution upon changes in P-glycoprotein functionality by pre-administration of tariquidar, which resulted in a 7.2-fold increase in brain ECF and a 40-fold increase in total brain quinidine concentration. After kainate treatment alone, however, no difference in quinidine transport across the blood-brain barrier was found, but kainate-treated rats tended to have a lower total brain concentration but a higher brain ECF concentration of quinidine than saline-treated rats. This study did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that P-glycoprotein function at the blood-brain barrier is altered at 1 week after SE induction, but rather suggests that P-glycoprotein function might be altered at the brain parenchymal level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-011-9318-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281999PMC
March 2012

Simultaneous in vivo measurements of receptor density and affinity using [11C]flumazenil and positron emission tomography: comparison of full saturation and steady state methods.

Neuroimage 2011 Aug 14;57(3):928-37. Epub 2011 May 14.

Division of Pharmacology, LACDR, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

The binding of PET radiotracer [(11)C]flumazenil to the GABA(A) receptors is described by the receptor density (B(max)) and binding affinity (K(D)). The estimation of B(max) and K(D) is usually based on Scatchard analysis including at least two PET scans at steady state of various specific activities. Recently, a novel full saturation method to estimate both B(max) and K(D) was proposed, in which a saturating dose of flumazenil is given to cover a wide range of different receptor occupancies within a single scan. The aim of the present study was a direct comparison of steady state and full saturation methods for determining B(max) and K(D) of [(11)C]flumazenil in the same group of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fourteen rats underwent 3 consecutive [(11)C]flumazenil scans of 30 min duration each. A tracer dose was injected at the start of the first scan. Prior to the second scan the tracer was mixed with 5, 20, 100 or 500 μg unlabelled (cold) flumazenil to cover a wide range of receptor occupancies during the scan. The third scan was performed during a constant intravenous infusion of unlabelled flumazenil, resulting in ~50% GABA(A) receptor occupancy. The first and third scans were part of the steady state method, whilst the second scan was performed according to the full saturation method. For both methods, B(max) and K(D) were then derived by compartmental modelling. Both methods yielded similar B(max) and K(D) estimates. The full saturation method yielded B(max) values of 37 ± 5.8 ng · mL(-1) and K(D) values of 7.6 ± 2.0 ng · mL(-1), whilst the steady state method yielded B(max) values of 33 ± 5.4 ng · mL(-1) and K(D) values of 7.1 ± 0.8 ng · mL(-1). The main advantage of the full saturation method is that B(max) and K(D) can be obtained from a single PET scan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.022DOI Listing
August 2011
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