Publications by authors named "Maaike E Ressing"

49 Publications

An alternative model for type I interferon induction downstream of human TLR2.

J Biol Chem 2020 10 12;295(42):14325-14342. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Surface-exposed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR2 and TLR4 survey the extracellular environment for pathogens. TLR activation initiates the production of various cytokines and chemokines, including type I interferons (IFN-I). Downstream of TLR4, IFNβ secretion is only vigorously triggered in macrophages when the receptor undergoes endocytosis and switches signaling adaptor; surface TLR4 engagement predominantly induces proinflammatory cytokines via the signaling adaptor MyD88. It is unclear whether this dichotomy is generally applicable to other TLRs, cell types, or differentiation states. Here, we report that diverse TLR2 ligands induce an IFN-I response in human monocyte-like cells, but not in differentiated macrophages. This TLR2-dependent IFN-I signaling originates from the cell surface and depends on MyD88; it involves combined activation of the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, driven by the kinases TBK1 and TAK1-IKKβ, respectively. TLR2-stimulated monocytes produced modest IFNβ levels that caused productive downstream signaling, reflected by STAT1 phosphorylation and expression of numerous interferon-stimulated genes. Our findings reveal that the outcome of TLR2 signaling includes an IFN-I response in human monocytes, which is lost upon macrophage differentiation, and differs mechanistically from IFN-I-induction through TLR4. These findings point to molecular mechanisms tailored to the differentiation state of a cell and the nature of receptors activated to control and limit TLR-triggered IFN-I responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573265PMC
October 2020

Balancing STING in antimicrobial defense and autoinflammation.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2020 10 6;55:1-14. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Immunohematology & Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Rapid detection of microbes is crucial for eliciting an effective immune response. Innate immune receptors survey the intracellular and extracellular environment for signs of a microbial infection. When they detect a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), such as viral DNA, they alarm the cell about the ongoing infection. The central signaling hub in sensing of viral DNA is the stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Upon activation, STING induces downstream signaling events that ultimately result in the production of type I interferons (IFN I), important cytokines in antimicrobial defense, in particular towards viruses. In this review, we describe the molecular features of STING, including its upstream sensors and ligands, its sequence and structural conservation, common polymorphisms, and its localization. We further highlight how STING activation requires a careful balance: its activity is essential for antiviral defense, but unwanted activation through mutations or accidental recognition of self-derived DNA causes autoinflammatory diseases. Several mechanisms, such as post-translational modifications, ensure this balance by fine-tuning STING activation. Finally, we discuss how viruses evade detection of their genomes by either exploiting cells that lack a functional DNA sensing pathway as a niche or by interfering with STING activation through viral evasion molecules. Insight into STING's exact mechanisms in health and disease will guide the development of novel clinical interventions for microbial infections, autoinflammatory diseases, and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.06.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Conditionally Controlling Human TLR2 Activity via Trans-Cyclooctene Caged Ligands.

Bioconjug Chem 2020 06 8;31(6):1685-1692. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Bio-Organic Synthesis, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key pathogen sensors of the immune system. Their activation results in the production of cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules that are crucial for innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent years, specific (sub)-cellular location and timing of TLR activation have emerged as parameters for defining the signaling outcome and magnitude. To study the subtlety of this signaling, we here report a new molecular tool to control the activation of TLR2 via "click-to-release"-chemistry. We conjugated a bioorthogonal trans-cyclooctene (TCO) protecting group via solid support to a critical position within a synthetic TLR2/6 ligand to render the compound unable to initiate signaling. The TCO-group could then be conditionally removed upon addition of a tetrazine, resulting in restored agonist activity and TLR2 activation. This approach was validated on RAW264.7 macrophages and various murine primary immune cells as well as human cell line systems, demonstrating that TCO-caging constitutes a versatile approach for generating chemically controllable TLR2 agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303972PMC
June 2020

Human B cells fail to secrete type I interferons upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure.

Mol Immunol 2017 11 30;91:225-237. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Department Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Most cells are believed to be capable of producing type I interferons (IFN I) as part of an innate immune response against, for instance, viral infections. In macrophages, IFN I is potently induced upon cytoplasmic exposure to foreign nucleic acids. Infection of these cells with herpesviruses leads to triggering of the DNA sensors interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). Thereby, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and the downstream molecules TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are sequentially activated culminating in IFN I secretion. Human gamma-herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), exploit B cells as a reservoir for persistent infection. In this study, we investigated whether human B cells, similar to macrophages, engage the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway to induce an innate immune response. We found that the B cells fail to secrete IFN I upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure, although they express the DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16 and the signaling components TBK1 and IRF3. In primary human B lymphocytes and EBV-negative B cell lines, this deficiency is explained by a lack of detectable levels of the central adaptor protein STING. In contrast, EBV-transformed B cell lines did express STING, yet both these lines as well as STING-reconstituted EBV-negative B cells did not produce IFN I upon dsDNA or cGAMP stimulation. Our combined data show that the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway is dysfunctional in human B cells. This exemplifies that certain cell types cannot induce IFN I in response to cytoplasmic DNA exposure providing a potential niche for viral persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2017.08.025DOI Listing
November 2017

Chemical Tools for Studying TLR Signaling Dynamics.

Cell Chem Biol 2017 Jul 22;24(7):801-812. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Bio-organic Synthesis, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The detection of infectious pathogens is essential for the induction of antimicrobial immune responses. The innate immune system detects a wide array of microbes using a limited set of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). One family of PRRs with a central role in innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Upon ligation, these receptors initiate signaling pathways culminating in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or type I interferons (IFN-I). In recent years, it has become evident that the specific subcellular location and timing of TLR activation affect signaling outcome. The subtlety of this signaling has led to a growing demand for chemical tools that provide the ability to conditionally control TLR activation. In this review, we survey current models for TLR signaling in time and space, discuss how chemical tools have contributed to our understanding of TLR ligands, and describe how they can aid further elucidation of the dynamic aspects of TLR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.05.022DOI Listing
July 2017

EBV MicroRNA BART16 Suppresses Type I IFN Signaling.

J Immunol 2017 05 17;198(10):4062-4073. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands;

Type I IFNs play critical roles in orchestrating the antiviral defense by inducing direct antiviral activities and shaping the adaptive immune response. Viruses have evolved numerous strategies to specifically interfere with IFN production or its downstream mediators, thereby allowing successful infection of the host to occur. The prototypic human gammaherpesvirus EBV, which is associated with infectious mononucleosis and malignant tumors, harbors many immune-evasion proteins that manipulate the adaptive and innate immune systems. In addition to proteins, the virus encodes >40 mature microRNAs for which the functions remain largely unknown. In this article, we identify EBV-encoded miR-BART16 as a novel viral immune-evasion factor that interferes with the type I IFN signaling pathway. miR-BART16 directly targets CREB-binding protein, a key transcriptional coactivator in IFN signaling, thereby inducing CREB-binding protein downregulation in EBV-transformed B cells and gastric carcinoma cells. miR-BART16 abrogates the production of IFN-stimulated genes in response to IFN-α stimulation and it inhibits the antiproliferative effect of IFN-α on latently infected BL cells. By obstructing the type I IFN-induced antiviral response, miR-BART16 provides a means to facilitate the establishment of latent EBV infection and enhance viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1501605DOI Listing
May 2017

The Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoprotein gp150 Forms an Immune-Evasive Glycan Shield at the Surface of Infected Cells.

PLoS Pathog 2016 Apr 14;12(4):e1005550. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cell-mediated immunity plays a key role in host control of viral infection. This is exemplified by life-threatening reactivations of e.g. herpesviruses in individuals with impaired T-cell and/or iNKT cell responses. To allow lifelong persistence and virus production in the face of primed immunity, herpesviruses exploit immune evasion strategies. These include a reduction in viral antigen expression during latency and a number of escape mechanisms that target antigen presentation pathways. Given the plethora of foreign antigens expressed in virus-producing cells, herpesviruses are conceivably most vulnerable to elimination by cell-mediated immunity during the replicative phase of infection. Here, we show that a prototypic herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), encodes a novel, broadly acting immunoevasin, gp150, that is expressed during the late phase of viral replication. In particular, EBV gp150 inhibits antigen presentation by HLA class I, HLA class II, and the non-classical, lipid-presenting CD1d molecules. The mechanism of gp150-mediated T-cell escape does not depend on degradation of the antigen-presenting molecules nor does it require gp150's cytoplasmic tail. Through its abundant glycosylation, gp150 creates a shield that impedes surface presentation of antigen. This is an unprecedented immune evasion mechanism for herpesviruses. In view of its likely broader target range, gp150 could additionally have an impact beyond escape of T cell activation. Importantly, B cells infected with a gp150-null mutant EBV displayed rescued levels of surface antigen presentation by HLA class I, HLA class II, and CD1d, supporting an important role for iNKT cells next to classical T cells in fighting EBV infection. At the same time, our results indicate that EBV gp150 prolongs the timespan for producing viral offspring at the most vulnerable stage of the viral life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831753PMC
April 2016

Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2015 ;391:355-81

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to a large extent, the virus is not cleared. Instead, EBV establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes characterized by limited viral gene expression. For the production of new viral progeny, EBV reactivates from these latently infected cells. During the productive phase of infection, a repertoire of over 80 EBV gene products is expressed, presenting a vast number of viral antigens to the primed immune system. In particular the EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T lymphocytes can respond within hours, potentially destroying the virus-producing cells before viral replication is completed and viral particles have been released. Preceding the adaptive immune response, potent innate immune mechanisms provide a first line of defense during primary and recurrent infections. In spite of this broad range of antiviral immune effector mechanisms, EBV persists for life and continues to replicate. Studies performed over the past decades have revealed a wide array of viral gene products interfering with both innate and adaptive immunity. These include EBV-encoded proteins as well as small noncoding RNAs with immune-evasive properties. The current review presents an overview of the evasion strategies that are employed by EBV to facilitate immune escape during latency and productive infection. These evasion mechanisms may also compromise the elimination of EBV-transformed cells, and thus contribute to malignancies associated with EBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22834-1_12DOI Listing
December 2015

Viral inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP): a striking example of functional convergent evolution.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Apr 16;11(4):e1004743. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses that are highly abundant within their host populations. Even in the presence of a healthy immune system, these viruses manage to cause lifelong infections. This persistence is partially mediated by the virus entering latency, a phase of infection characterized by limited viral protein expression. Moreover, herpesviruses have devoted a significant part of their coding capacity to immune evasion strategies. It is believed that the close coexistence of herpesviruses and their hosts has resulted in the evolution of viral proteins that specifically attack multiple arms of the host immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in antiviral immunity. CTLs recognize their target through viral peptides presented in the context of MHC molecules at the cell surface. Every herpesvirus studied to date encodes multiple immune evasion molecules that effectively interfere with specific steps of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. This is reflected by the numerous ways herpesviruses have developed to block TAP function. In this review, we describe the characteristics and mechanisms of action of all known virus-encoded TAP inhibitors. Orthologs of these proteins encoded by related viruses are identified, and the conservation of TAP inhibition is discussed. A phylogenetic analysis of members of the family Herpesviridae is included to study the origin of these molecules. In addition, we discuss the characteristics of the first TAP inhibitor identified outside the herpesvirus family, namely, in cowpox virus. The strategies of TAP inhibition employed by viruses are very distinct and are likely to have been acquired independently during evolution. These findings and the recent discovery of a non-herpesvirus TAP inhibitor represent a striking example of functional convergent evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4399834PMC
April 2015

Silencing the shutoff protein of Epstein-Barr virus in productively infected B cells points to (innate) targets for immune evasion.

J Gen Virol 2015 Apr 12;96(Pt 4):858-865. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

During productive infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a dramatic suppression of cellular protein expression is caused by the viral alkaline exonuclease BGLF5. Among the proteins downregulated by BGLF5 are multiple immune components. Here, we show that shutoff reduces expression of the innate EBV-sensing Toll-like receptor-2 and the lipid antigen-presenting CD1d molecule, thereby identifying these proteins as novel targets of BGLF5. To silence BGLF5 expression in B cells undergoing productive EBV infection, we employed an shRNA approach. Viral replication still occurred in these cells, albeit with reduced late gene expression. Surface levels of a group of proteins, including immunologically relevant molecules such as CD1d and HLA class I and class II, were only partly rescued by depletion of BGLF5, suggesting that additional viral gene products interfere with their expression. Our combined approach thus provides a means to unmask novel EBV (innate) immune evasion strategies that may operate in productively infected B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000021DOI Listing
April 2015

Cowpox virus protein CPXV012 eludes CTLs by blocking ATP binding to TAP.

J Immunol 2014 Aug 14;193(4):1578-89. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands;

CD8(+) CTLs detect virus-infected cells through recognition of virus-derived peptides presented at the cell surface by MHC class I molecules. The cowpox virus protein CPXV012 deprives the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen of peptides for loading onto newly synthesized MHC class I molecules by inhibiting the transporter associated with Ag processing (TAP). This evasion strategy allows the virus to avoid detection by the immune system. In this article, we show that CPXV012, a 9-kDa type II transmembrane protein, prevents peptide transport by inhibiting ATP binding to TAP. We identified a segment within the ER-luminal domain of CPXV012 that imposes the block in peptide transport by TAP. Biophysical studies show that this domain has a strong affinity for phospholipids that are also abundant in the ER membrane. We discuss these findings in an evolutionary context and show that a frameshift deletion in the CPXV012 gene in an ancestral cowpox virus created the current form of CPXV012 that is capable of inhibiting TAP. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the ER-luminal domain of CPXV012 inserts into the ER membrane, where it interacts with TAP. CPXV012 presumably induces a conformational arrest that precludes ATP binding to TAP and, thus, activity of TAP, thereby preventing the presentation of viral peptides to CTLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1400964DOI Listing
August 2014

A high-coverage shRNA screen identifies TMEM129 as an E3 ligase involved in ER-associated protein degradation.

Nat Commun 2014 May 8;5:3832. Epub 2014 May 8.

1] Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584CX Utrecht, The Netherlands [2].

Misfolded ER proteins are retrotranslocated into the cytosol for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The human cytomegalovirus protein US11 exploits this ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway to downregulate HLA class I molecules in virus-infected cells, thereby evading elimination by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. US11-mediated degradation of HLA class I has been instrumental in the identification of key components of mammalian ERAD, including Derlin-1, p97, VIMP and SEL1L. Despite this, the process governing retrotranslocation of the substrate is still poorly understood. Here using a high-coverage genome-wide shRNA library, we identify the uncharacterized protein TMEM129 and the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme UBE2J2 to be essential for US11-mediated HLA class I downregulation. TMEM129 is an unconventional C4C4-type RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that resides within a complex containing various other ERAD components, including Derlin-1, Derlin-2, VIMP and p97, indicating that TMEM129 is an integral part of the ER-resident dislocation complex mediating US11-induced HLA class I degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024746PMC
May 2014

Epstein-Barr virus large tegument protein BPLF1 contributes to innate immune evasion through interference with toll-like receptor signaling.

PLoS Pathog 2014 Feb 20;10(2):e1003960. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Viral infection triggers an early host response through activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR signaling cascades induce production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines involved in establishing an anti-viral state as well as in orchestrating ensuing adaptive immunity. To allow infection, replication, and persistence, (herpes)viruses employ ingenious strategies to evade host immunity. The human gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a large, enveloped DNA virus persistently carried by more than 90% of adults worldwide. It is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignant tumors. EBV activates TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9. Interestingly, both the expression of and signaling by TLRs is attenuated during productive EBV infection. Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating TLR signaling and is controlled by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs). The EBV genome encodes three proteins reported to exert in vitro deubiquitinase activity. Using active site-directed probes, we show that one of these putative DUBs, the conserved herpesvirus large tegument protein BPLF1, acts as a functional DUB in EBV-producing B cells. The BPLF1 enzyme is expressed during the late phase of lytic EBV infection and is incorporated into viral particles. The N-terminal part of the large BPLF1 protein contains the catalytic site for DUB activity and suppresses TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB at, or downstream of, the TRAF6 signaling intermediate. A catalytically inactive mutant of this EBV protein did not reduce NF-κB activation, indicating that DUB activity is essential for attenuating TLR signal transduction. Our combined results show that EBV employs deubiquitination of signaling intermediates in the TLR cascade as a mechanism to counteract innate anti-viral immunity of infected hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3930590PMC
February 2014

Evaluation of viral interference with MHC class I-restricted antigen processing and presentation using a flow cytometry-based approach.

Methods Mol Biol 2013 ;960:127-136

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The peptide content of MHC class I molecules present at the cell surface is monitored by surveilling CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. In case of a viral infection, a proportion of the MHC class I molecules will carry peptides derived from viral proteins. This allows the CD8(+) T cells to recognize and eliminate virus-infected cells. This highly sensitive detection system of the host is counteracted by viruses, which have acquired functions to downregulate cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules. In this chapter, we describe a flow cytometry-based method to identify viral gene product(s) responsible for evasion from MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation. To this end, cells are transiently transfected using polyethylenimine (PEI) as a transfection reagent, followed by cell surface staining with MHC class I-specific monoclonal antibodies. Once viral proteins responsible for MHC class I downregulation have been identified, their mechanism of action can be characterized. Identification and characterization of virus-encoded MHC class I inhibitors augments our understanding of virus-host interactions and often provides new insights into antigen processing and presentation pathways, including related cellular processes such as protein trafficking and degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-218-6_10DOI Listing
June 2013

EBV BILF1 evolved to downregulate cell surface display of a wide range of HLA class I molecules through their cytoplasmic tail.

J Immunol 2013 Feb 11;190(4):1672-84. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Coevolution of herpesviruses and their hosts has driven the development of both host antiviral mechanisms to detect and eliminate infected cells and viral ploys to escape immune surveillance. Among the immune-evasion strategies used by the lymphocryptovirus (γ(1)-herpesvirus) EBV is the downregulation of surface HLA class I expression by the virally encoded G protein-coupled receptor BILF1, thereby impeding presentation of viral Ags and cytotoxic T cell recognition of the infected cell. In this study, we show EBV BILF1 to be expressed early in the viral lytic cycle. BILF1 targets a broad range of HLA class I molecules, including multiple HLA-A and -B types and HLA-E. In contrast, HLA-C was only marginally affected. We advance the mechanistic understanding of the process by showing that the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of EBV BILF1 is required for reducing surface HLA class I expression. Susceptibility to BILF1-mediated downregulation, in turn, is conferred by specific residues in the intracellular tail of the HLA class I H chain. Finally, we explore the evolution of BILF1 within the lymphocryptovirus genus. Although the homolog of BILF1 encoded by the lymphocryptovirus infecting Old World rhesus primates shares the ability of EBV to downregulate cell surface HLA class I expression, this function is not possessed by New World marmoset lymphocryptovirus BILF1. Therefore, this study furthers our knowledge of the evolution of immunoevasive functions by the lymphocryptovirus genus of herpesviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1102462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565383PMC
February 2013

Hiding lipid presentation: viral interference with CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell activation.

Viruses 2012 Oct 23;4(10):2379-99. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The immune system plays a major role in protecting the host against viral infection. Rapid initial protection is conveyed by innate immune cells, while adaptive immunity (including T lymphocytes) requires several days to develop, yet provides high specificity and long-lasting memory. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an unusual subset of T lymphocytes, expressing a semi-invariant T cell receptor together with markers of the innate NK cell lineage. Activated iNKT cells can exert direct cytolysis and can rapidly release a variety of immune-polarizing cytokines, thereby regulating the ensuing adaptive immune response. iNKT cells recognize lipids in the context of the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Intriguingly, CD1d-restricted iNKT cells appear to play a critical role in anti-viral defense: increased susceptibility to disseminated viral infections is observed both in patients with iNKT cell deficiency as well as in CD1d- and iNKT cell-deficient mice. Moreover, viruses have recently been found to use sophisticated strategies to withstand iNKT cell-mediated elimination. This review focuses on CD1d-restricted lipid presentation and the strategies viruses deploy to subvert this pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v4102379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497057PMC
October 2012

Viral interference with antigen presentation: trapping TAP.

Mol Immunol 2013 Sep 8;55(2):139-42. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Following primary infection, herpesviruses persist for life in their hosts, even when vigorous anti-viral immunity has been induced. Failure of the host immune system to eliminate infected cells is facilitated by highly effective immune evasion strategies acquired by these herpesviruses during millions of years of co-evolution with their hosts. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of viral gene products that lead to cytotoxic T cell evasion through interference with the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, TAP. The viral TAP inhibitors impede transport of peptides from the cytosol into the ER lumen, thereby preventing peptide loading onto MHC class I complexes. Recent insights have revealed a pattern of functional convergent evolution. In every herpesvirus subfamily, inhibitors of TAP function have been identified that are, surprisingly, unrelated in genome location, structure, and mechanism of action. Recently, cowpox virus has also been found to encode a TAP inhibitor. Expanding our knowledge on how viruses perturb antigen presentation, in particular by targeting TAP, not only provides information on viral pathogenesis, but also reveals novel aspects of the cellular processes corrupted by these viruses, notably the translocation of peptides by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP. As the various TAP inhibitors are anticipated to impede discrete conformational transitions it is expected that crystal structures of TAP-inhibitor complexes will reveal valuable structural information on the actual mechanism of peptide translocation by TAP. Viral TAP inhibitors are also used for various (clinical) applications, for example, as effective tools in antigen presentation studies and as immunomodulators in immunotherapy for cancer, heterologous vaccination, and transplant protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2012.10.009DOI Listing
September 2013

Inflammasomes and viruses: cellular defence versus viral offence.

J Gen Virol 2012 Oct 27;93(Pt 10):2063-2075. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators in immune responses against invading pathogens, including viruses. Precursors of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are processed by caspase-1. Caspase-1 is activated through autocleavage, but how this is regulated remained elusive for a long time. In 2002, an intracellular multimeric complex was discovered that facilitated caspase-1 cleavage and was termed 'inflammasome'. To date, different inflammasomes have been described, which recognize a variety of ligands and pathogens. In this review, we discuss the role of inflammasomes in sensing viral infection as well as the evasion strategies that viruses developed to circumvent inflammasome-dependent effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.042978-0DOI Listing
October 2012

The "Bridge" in the Epstein-Barr virus alkaline exonuclease protein BGLF5 contributes to shutoff activity during productive infection.

J Virol 2012 Sep 13;86(17):9175-87. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Replication of the human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus drastically impairs cellular protein synthesis. This shutoff phenotype results from mRNA degradation upon expression of the early lytic-phase protein BGLF5. Interestingly, BGLF5 is the viral DNase, or alkaline exonuclease, homologues of which are present throughout the herpesvirus family. During productive infection, this DNase is essential for processing and packaging of the viral genome. In contrast to this widely conserved DNase activity, shutoff is only mediated by the alkaline exonucleases of the subfamily of gammaherpesviruses. Here, we show that BGLF5 can degrade mRNAs of both cellular and viral origin, irrespective of polyadenylation. Furthermore, shutoff by BGLF5 induces nuclear relocalization of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein. Guided by the recently resolved BGLF5 structure, mutants were generated and analyzed for functional consequences on DNase and shutoff activities. On the one hand, a point mutation destroying DNase activity also blocks RNase function, implying that both activities share a catalytic site. On the other hand, other mutations are more selective, having a more pronounced effect on either DNA degradation or shutoff. The latter results are indicative of an oligonucleotide-binding site that is partially shared by DNA and RNA. For this, the flexible "bridge" that crosses the active-site canyon of BGLF5 appears to contribute to the interaction with RNA substrates. These findings extend our understanding of the molecular basis for the shutoff function of BGLF5 that is conserved in gammaherpesviruses but not in alpha- and betaherpesviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00309-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3416140PMC
September 2012

CD200 receptor controls sex-specific TLR7 responses to viral infection.

PLoS Pathog 2012 17;8(5):e1002710. Epub 2012 May 17.

Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Immunological checkpoints, such as the inhibitory CD200 receptor (CD200R), play a dual role in balancing the immune system during microbial infection. On the one hand these inhibitory signals prevent excessive immune mediated pathology but on the other hand they may impair clearance of the pathogen. We studied the influence of the inhibitory CD200-CD200R axis on clearance and pathology in two different virus infection models. We find that lack of CD200R signaling strongly enhances type I interferon (IFN) production and viral clearance and improves the outcome of mouse hepatitis corona virus (MHV) infection, particularly in female mice. MHV clearance is known to be dependent on Toll like receptor 7 (TLR7)-mediated type I IFN production and sex differences in TLR7 responses previously have been reported for humans. We therefore hypothesize that CD200R ligation suppresses TLR7 responses and that release of this inhibition enlarges sex differences in TLR7 signaling. This hypothesis is supported by our findings that in vivo administration of synthetic TLR7 ligand leads to enhanced type I IFN production, particularly in female Cd200(-/-) mice and that CD200R ligation inhibits TLR7 signaling in vitro. In influenza A virus infection we show that viral clearance is determined by sex but not by CD200R signaling. However, absence of CD200R in influenza A virus infection results in enhanced lung neutrophil influx and pathology in females. Thus, CD200-CD200R and sex are host factors that together determine the outcome of viral infection. Our data predict a sex bias in both beneficial and pathological immune responses to virus infection upon therapeutic targeting of CD200-CD200R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355091PMC
November 2012

Epstein-Barr virus isolates retain their capacity to evade T cell immunity through BNLF2a despite extensive sequence variation.

J Virol 2012 Jan 19;86(1):572-7. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded immune evasion protein BNLF2a inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), thereby downregulating HLA class I expression at the cell surface. As a consequence, recognition of EBV-infected cells by cytotoxic T cells is impaired. Here, we show that sequence polymorphism of the BNLF2a protein is observed with natural EBV isolates, with evidence for positive selection. Despite these mutations, the BNLF2a variants efficiently reduce cell surface HLA class I levels. This conservation of BNLF2a function during evolution of EBV implies an important role for the viral TAP inhibitor in preventing T cell recognition during viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.05151-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3255881PMC
January 2012

Structural and functional analysis of the TAP-inhibiting UL49.5 proteins of varicelloviruses.

Mol Immunol 2011 Sep 20;48(15-16):2038-51. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Viral infections are counteracted by virus-specific cytotoxic T cells that recognize the infected cell via MHC class I (MHC I) molecules presenting virus-derived peptides. The loading of the peptides onto MHC I molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is facilitated by the peptide loading complex. A key player in this complex is the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), which translocates the viral peptides from the cytosol into the ER. Herpesviruses have developed many strategies to evade cytotoxic T cells. Several members of the genus Varicellovirus encode a UL49.5 protein that prevents peptide transport through TAP. These include bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) 1, BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesvirus 1, pseudorabies virus, felid herpesvirus 1, and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4. BoHV-1 UL49.5 inhibits TAP by preventing conformational changes essential for peptide transport and by inducing degradation of the TAP complex. UL49.5 consists of an ER luminal N-terminal domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytosolic C-terminal tail domain. In this study, the following features of UL49.5 were deciphered: (1) chimeric constructs of BoHV-1 and VZV UL49.5 attribute the lack of TAP inhibition by VZV UL49.5 to its ER-luminal domain, (2) the ER-luminal and TM domains of UL49.5 are required for efficient interaction with and inhibition of TAP, (3) the C-terminal RXRX sequence is essential for TAP degradation by BoHV-1 UL49.5, and (4) in addition to the RXRX sequence, the cytoplasmic tail of BoHV-1 UL49.5 carries a motif that is required for efficient TAP inhibition by the protein. A model is presented depicting how the different domains of UL49.5 may block the translocation of peptides by TAP and target TAP for proteasomal degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2011.06.438DOI Listing
September 2011

Exploiting human herpesvirus immune evasion for therapeutic gain: potential and pitfalls.

Immunol Cell Biol 2011 Mar 8;89(3):359-66. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Herpesviruses stand out for their capacity to establish lifelong infections of immunocompetent hosts, generally without causing overt symptoms. Herpesviruses are equipped with sophisticated immune evasion strategies, allowing these viruses to persist for life despite the presence of a strong antiviral immune response. Although viral evasion tactics appear to target virtually any stage of the innate and adaptive host immune response, detailed knowledge is now available on the molecular mechanisms underlying herpesvirus obstruction of MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation to T cells. This opens the way for clinical application. Here, we review and discuss recent efforts to exploit human herpesvirus MHC class I evasion strategies for the rational design of novel strategies for vaccine development, cancer treatment, transplant protection and gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2010.129DOI Listing
March 2011

EBV protein BNLF2a exploits host tail-anchored protein integration machinery to inhibit TAP.

J Immunol 2011 Mar 4;186(6):3594-605. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

EBV, the prototypic human γ(1)-herpesvirus, persists for life in infected individuals, despite the presence of vigorous antiviral immunity. CTLs play an important role in the protection against viral infections, which they detect through recognition of virus-encoded peptides presented in the context of HLA class I molecules at the cell surface. The viral peptides are generated in the cytosol and are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by TAP. The EBV-encoded lytic-phase protein BNLF2a acts as a powerful inhibitor of TAP. Consequently, loading of antigenic peptides onto HLA class I molecules is hampered, and recognition of BNLF2a-expressing cells by cytotoxic T cells is avoided. In this study, we characterize BNLF2a as a tail-anchored (TA) protein and elucidate its mode of action. Its hydrophilic N-terminal domain is located in the cytosol, whereas its hydrophobic C-terminal domain is inserted into membranes posttranslationally. TAP has no role in membrane insertion of BNLF2a. Instead, Asna1 (also named TRC40), a cellular protein involved in posttranslational membrane insertion of TA proteins, is responsible for integration of BNLF2a into the ER membrane. Asna1 is thereby required for efficient BNLF2a-mediated HLA class I downregulation. To optimally accomplish immune evasion, BNLF2a is composed of two specialized domains: its C-terminal tail anchor ensures membrane integration and ER retention, whereas its cytosolic N terminus accomplishes inhibition of TAP function. These results illustrate how EBV exploits a cellular pathway for TA protein biogenesis to achieve immune evasion, and they highlight the exquisite adaptation of this virus to its host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1002656DOI Listing
March 2011

Inhibition of mouse TAP by immune evasion molecules encoded by non-murine herpesviruses.

Mol Immunol 2011 Mar 2;48(6-7):835-45. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Herpesviruses escape elimination by cytotoxic T lymphocytes through specific interference with the antigen-presenting function of MHC class I (MHC I) molecules. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) forms a bottleneck in the MHC I antigen presentation pathway. The fact that multiple viruses, especially herpesviruses, encode molecules blocking TAP function is a case in point. The action of these viral immuno evasins is usually potent and very specific, making these proteins valuable tools for studying the cell biology of antigen presentation, including alternative antigen processing pathways. Yet, no dedicated TAP inhibitor has been described for any of the mouse herpesviruses. To permit the use of immuno evasins derived from non-mouse herpesviruses in mouse models, we assessed the cross-species activity of four TAP inhibitors and one tapasin inhibitor in the context of three different mouse haplotypes, H-2(b), H-2(d), and H-2(k). Two of the four TAP inhibitors, the bovine herpesvirus 1-encoded UL49.5 and the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded US6 protein, potently inhibited mouse TAP. ICP47 and BNLF2a, encoded by herpes simplexvirus 1 and Epstein-Barr virus, respectively, failed to inhibit TAP in all mouse cells tested. Previous work, however, demonstrated that US6 did not cross the mouse species barrier. We now show that substitution of the cysteine residue at position 108 was responsible for this lack of activity. The HCMV-encoded tapasin inhibitor US3 efficiently downregulated H-2(d) molecules on 3T3 cells, but not in other cell lines tested. Finally, we show that synthetic peptides comprising the functional domain of US6 can be exploited as a versatile TAP inhibitor. In conclusion, a complete overview is presented of the applicability of herpesvirus-encoded TAP and tapasin inhibitors in mouse cells of different genetic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2010.12.008DOI Listing
March 2011

EBV lytic-phase protein BGLF5 contributes to TLR9 downregulation during productive infection.

J Immunol 2011 Feb 29;186(3):1694-702. Epub 2010 Dec 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Viruses use a wide range of strategies to modulate the host immune response. The human gammaherpesvirus EBV, causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and several malignant tumors, encodes proteins that subvert immune responses, notably those mediated by T cells. Less is known about EBV interference with innate immunity, more specifically at the level of TLR-mediated pathogen recognition. The viral dsDNA sensor TLR9 is expressed on B cells, a natural target of EBV infection. Here, we show that EBV particles trigger innate immune signaling pathways through TLR9. Furthermore, using an in vitro system for productive EBV infection, it has now been possible to compare the expression of TLRs by EBV(-) and EBV(+) human B cells during the latent and lytic phases of infection. Several TLRs were found to be differentially expressed either in latently EBV-infected cells or after induction of the lytic cycle. In particular, TLR9 expression was profoundly decreased at both the RNA and protein levels during productive EBV infection. We identified the EBV lytic-phase protein BGLF5 as a protein that contributes to downregulating TLR9 levels through RNA degradation. Reducing the levels of a pattern-recognition receptor capable of sensing the presence of EBV provides a mechanism by which the virus could obstruct host innate antiviral responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0903120DOI Listing
February 2011

The capacity of UL49.5 proteins to inhibit TAP is widely distributed among members of the genus Varicellovirus.

J Virol 2011 Mar 15;85(5):2351-63. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands.

The lifelong infection by varicelloviruses is characterized by a fine balance between the host immune response and immune evasion strategies used by these viruses. Virus-derived peptides are presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports the peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, where the loading of MHC-I molecules occurs. The varicelloviruses bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), pseudorabies virus, and equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 have been found to encode a UL49.5 protein that inhibits TAP-mediated peptide transport. To investigate to what extent UL49.5-mediated TAP inhibition is conserved within the family of Alphaherpesvirinae, the homologs of another five varicelloviruses, one mardivirus, and one iltovirus were studied. The UL49.5 proteins of BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesvirus 1, and felid herpesvirus 1 were identified as potent TAP inhibitors. The varicella-zoster virus and simian varicellovirus UL49.5 proteins fail to block TAP; this is not due to the absence of viral cofactors that might assist in this process, since cells infected with these viruses did not show reduced TAP function either. The UL49.5 homologs of the mardivirus Marek's disease virus 1 and the iltovirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus did not block TAP, suggesting that the capacity to inhibit TAP via UL49.5 has been acquired by varicelloviruses only. A phylogenetic analysis of viruses that inhibit TAP through their UL49.5 proteins reveals an interesting hereditary pattern, pointing toward the presence of this capacity in defined clades within the genus Varicellovirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01621-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067808PMC
March 2011

Viral evasion of T cell immunity: ancient mechanisms offering new applications.

Curr Opin Immunol 2011 Feb 9;23(1):96-103. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Upon infecting a host, viruses are confronted by a coordinated and multi-faceted immune response. Indeed, evolutionary combat between virus and host has contributed signally to the host's development of a formidable innate and adaptive immune defense arsenal, and to the virus' acquisition of effective means to evade it. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a key role in the elimination of virus-infected cells, which they detect through recognition of virus-derived peptides displayed at the cell surface in the context of MHC class I molecules. This highly sensitive recognition system is a prime target for immune evasion strategies deployed by many viruses, particularly large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. Elucidation of the mode of action of the immune evasion proteins encoded by these viruses has not only provided new insights into viral pathogenesis, but has also led to the discovery of hitherto unknown cell biological and immunological phenomena. Moreover, viral immune evasion proteins constitute extremely useful tools to block defined stages of the MHC class I presentation pathway, not only for research purposes, but also for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2010.11.005DOI Listing
February 2011

Alternative Ii-independent antigen-processing pathway in leukemic blasts involves TAP-dependent peptide loading of HLA class II complexes.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2010 Dec 5;59(12):1825-38. Epub 2010 Sep 5.

Department of Hematology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, VU Institute for Cancer and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

During HLA class II synthesis in antigen-presenting cells, the invariant chain (Ii) not only stabilizes HLA class II complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum, but also mediates their transport to specialized lysosomal antigen-loading compartments termed MIICs. This study explores an alternative HLA class II presentation pathway in leukemic blasts that involves proteasome and transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-dependent peptide loading. Although HLA-DR did associate with Ii, Ii silencing in the human class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP)-negative KG-1 myeloid leukemic cell line did not affect total and plasma membrane expression levels of HLA-DR, as determined by western blotting and flow cytometry. Since HLA-DR expression does require peptide binding, we examined the role of endogenous antigen-processing machinery in HLA-DR presentation by CLIP(-) leukemic blasts. The suppression of proteasome and TAP function using various inhibitors resulted in decreased HLA-DR levels in both CLIP(-) KG-1 and ME-1 blasts. Simultaneous inhibition of TAP and Ii completely down-modulated the expression of HLA-DR, demonstrating that together these molecules form the key mediators of HLA class II antigen presentation in leukemic blasts. By the use of a proteasome- and TAP-dependent pathway for HLA class II antigen presentation, CLIP(-) leukemic blasts might be able to present a broad range of endogenous leukemia-associated peptides via HLA class II to activate leukemia-specific CD4(+) T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-010-0908-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945475PMC
December 2010

Stage-specific inhibition of MHC class I presentation by the Epstein-Barr virus BNLF2a protein during virus lytic cycle.

PLoS Pathog 2009 Jun 26;5(6):e1000490. Epub 2009 Jun 26.

School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for life in infected individuals despite the presence of a strong immune response. During the lytic cycle of EBV many viral proteins are expressed, potentially allowing virally infected cells to be recognized and eliminated by CD8+ T cells. We have recently identified an immune evasion protein encoded by EBV, BNLF2a, which is expressed in early phase lytic replication and inhibits peptide- and ATP-binding functions of the transporter associated with antigen processing. Ectopic expression of BNLF2a causes decreased surface MHC class I expression and inhibits the presentation of indicator antigens to CD8+ T cells. Here we sought to examine the influence of BNLF2a when expressed naturally during EBV lytic replication. We generated a BNLF2a-deleted recombinant EBV (DeltaBNLF2a) and compared the ability of DeltaBNLF2a and wild-type EBV-transformed B cell lines to be recognized by CD8+ T cell clones specific for EBV-encoded immediate early, early and late lytic antigens. Epitopes derived from immediate early and early expressed proteins were better recognized when presented by DeltaBNLF2a transformed cells compared to wild-type virus transformants. However, recognition of late antigens by CD8+ T cells remained equally poor when presented by both wild-type and DeltaBNLF2a cell targets. Analysis of BNLF2a and target protein expression kinetics showed that although BNLF2a is expressed during early phase replication, it is expressed at a time when there is an upregulation of immediate early proteins and initiation of early protein synthesis. Interestingly, BNLF2a protein expression was found to be lost by late lytic cycle yet DeltaBNLF2a-transformed cells in late stage replication downregulated surface MHC class I to a similar extent as wild-type EBV-transformed cells. These data show that BNLF2a-mediated expression is stage-specific, affecting presentation of immediate early and early proteins, and that other evasion mechanisms operate later in the lytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695766PMC
June 2009