Publications by authors named "Małgorzata Sobczak"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of steaming on health-valuable nutrients from fortified farmed fish: Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as case studies.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 18;152:112218. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Aquaculture, Valorization and Bioprospection Division (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Lisbon, Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Fish fortification with iodine-rich macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) and Selenium-rich yeast is expected to promote nutritional added value of this crucial food item, contributing to a healthy and balanced diet for consumers. However, it is not known if steaming can affect these nutrient levels in fortified fish. The present study evaluates the effect of steaming on nutrients contents in fortified farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fortified seabream presented enhanced I, Se and Fe contents, whereas fortified carp presented enhanced I, Se and Zn contents. Steaming resulted in increased I and Se contents in fortified seabream, and increased Fe and Zn levels in fortified carp, with higher elements true retention values (TRVs >90%). The consumption of 150 g of steamed fortified seabream contributes to a significant daily intake (DI) of I (up to 12%) and Se (up to >100%). On the other hand, steamed fortified carp contributes to 19-23% of I DI and 30%-71% of Se DI. These results demonstrate that steaming is a healthy cooking method, maintaining the enhanced nutritional quality of fortified fish. Moreover, the present fortification strategy is a promising solution to develop high-quality farmed fish products to overcome nutritional deficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112218DOI Listing
June 2021

Structural and molecular indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed n-3 PUFA enriched diet.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 23;151:112146. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Sparos Lda, Área Empresarial de Marim, Lote C, 8700-221, Olhão, Portugal.

Sustainable freshwater aquaculture has been recently gaining attention owing to the potential of nourishing the world. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of finishing diets on the activity of 21 genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal homeostasis, liver and intestine histology, and the level of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in common carp fillets. We compared two experimental diets: control diet mimicking a commercial feed (CTRL) and a test diet (CB) fortified with EPA and DHA retrieved from salmon by-products. An additional control (eCTRL) from extensively cultured carps was investigated. The study revealed that the expression of seven hepatic genes, e.g., lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase, and six intestinal genes e.g., claudin-3c and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, was influenced specifically by the experimental diets and farming type. Fish from the eCTRL group had the smallest hepatocytes and the largest nuclei compared with CTRL and CB. No pathological signs were found in intestine samples. Additionally, the levels of EPA and DHA in fillets were significantly higher in fish receiving CB compared with CTRL and eCTRL. The use of fortified diets is a promising solution to produce freshwater species with enhanced nutritional value without compromising the safety of fillets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112146DOI Listing
May 2021

Spiny-Cheek Crayfish, (Rafinesque, 1817), as an Alternative Food Source.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 30;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Aquatic Bioengineering and Aquaculture, Faculty of Food Sciences and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Kazimierza Królewicza Street 4, 71-550 Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of the study was to present a comprehensive characterisation of crayfish meat, which is crucial to assess its potential usefulness in the food industry. To this end, we assessed the yield, basic chemical composition (protein, fat, minerals), nutritional value (amino acid and fatty acid profiles, essential amino acid index (EAAI), chemical score of essential amino acids (CS), hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio (h/H), atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices), as well as culinary value (lab colour, texture, sensory characteristics, structure) of the meat of spiny-cheek crayfish () ( = 226) from Lake Sominko (Poland) harvested in May-September 2017. Crayfish meat, especially that from the abdomen, was shown to have high nutritional parameters. It is lean (0.26% of fat), with a favourable fatty acid profile and a very high quality of fat (PUFA (sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids):SFA (sum of saturated fatty acids), n-6/n-3, h/H, AI, TI) and protein (high CS and EAAI). It is also a better source of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Cu than meat from slaughter animals. Hence, crayfish meat can be an alternative to livestock meat in the human diet. Owing to its culinary value (delicateness, weak game flavour, and odour), it meets the requirements of the most demanding consumers, i.e., children and older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11010059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823787PMC
December 2020

Carcass Characteristics, Physicochemical Properties, and Texture and Microstructure of the Meat and Internal Organs of Carrier and King Pigeons.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 30;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Science and Technology, 85084 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Pigeons have been the subject of research in the past, but the knowledge gained is incomplete and must be extended. The aim of the study was to provide information about differences in carcass weight and measurements, carcass composition, proximate chemical composition, acidity, electrical conductivity, color attributes, the texture, rheological properties and microstructure of the meat, and some biometric characteristics of the digestive system in carrier and King pigeons, and also to determine if the two compared breeds meet the expectations of pigeon meat consumers to the same extent. The study involved 40 carcasses from carrier pigeons and King pigeons after three reproductive seasons. The chemical composition was determined by near-infrared transmission (NIT) spectroscopy, color coordinates according to CIELab, the texture according to Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and Warner-Bratzler (WB) tests, and the rheological properties of meat according to the relaxation test. The compared pigeon groups differed significantly ( < 0.05) in carcass weight and measurements, carcass composition (except breast muscle percentage), chemical composition (except leg muscle collagen content) and electrical conductivity, lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*), textural characteristics (except cohesiveness and Warner‒Bratzler shear force), rheological properties, microstructure of the pectoralis major muscle, as well as the total length of intestine and its segments, duodenal diameter, weight of proventriculus, gizzard, liver, heart, and spleen. The sex of the birds had a significant ( 0.05) effect on the carcass weight, chest circumference, carcass neck percentage, breast muscle collagen content, and caeca length. The genotype by sex interaction was significant ( < 0.05) for fat content, collagen content, hardness, sum of elastic moduli and sum of viscous moduli of the pectoralis major muscle, protein and collagen content of leg muscles, duodenal and caecal length, jejunal and ileal diameter, and spleen weight. The obtained results show a significant effect of genetic origin and sex on the nutritive and technological value of the meat, and on the digestive system development of the pigeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459732PMC
July 2020

Validation of Real-time PCR Reference Genes of Muscle Metabolism in Harvested Spiny-Cheek Crayfish () Exposed to Seasonal Variation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of Szczecin, Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences, 18 Adama Mickiewicza Street, 70-383 Szczecin, Poland.

Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive and broadly used technique of assessing gene activity. To obtain a reliable result, stably expressed reference genes are essential for normalization of transcripts in various samples. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of reference genes for normalization of RT-qPCR data in spiny-cheek crayfish (). In this study, expression of five candidate reference genes (, ; , glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; , eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5a; elongation factor-1α; and , α-tubulin) in muscle samples from male and female F. limosus in spring and autumn was analyzed. Additionally, the most stable reference genes were used for accurate normalization of five target genes, i.e., troponin c; , arginine kinase; , ferritin; , crustacean calcium-binding protein 23; and skeletal muscle actin 8. Results obtained using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms showed high consistency, and differences in the activity of the selected with genes were successfully identified. The spring and autumn activities of the target genes (except ) in the muscle tissue of males and females differed significantly, showing that both sexes are immensely involved in an array of breeding behaviors in spring, and females intensively recover in the autumn season. Characterization of first reference genes in spiny-cheek crayfish will facilitate more accurate and reliable expression studies in this key species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401605PMC
July 2020

Enriched feeds with iodine and selenium from natural and sustainable sources to modulate farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets elemental nutritional value.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jun 14;140:111330. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Aquaculture, Valorization and Bioprospective Division (DivAV). Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Lisbon, Portugal; Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Porto University, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Developing tailor-made fortified farmed fish is a promising solution to overcome nutritional deficiencies and increase consumer confidence in these products. This study evaluated the supplementation of three fortified diets with I-rich seaweed and selenised-yeast on essential and toxic elements levels in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fortified diets resulted in increased I, Se and Fe in fish muscle. Biofortified seabream and carp revealed lower Cu and Br. The reduction of fishmeal and fish oil in fortified diets resulted in lower Hg and Cd in seabream muscle. Contrarily, fortified diets increased As and Hg in carp fillets. The consumption of 150 g of fortified seabream enabled a significantly higher contribution to the daily recommended intake (DRI) of I (10%) and Se (76%) than non-fortified fish, whereas fortified carp fulfilled 23% of I DRI and 91% of Se DRI. Moreover, the exposure to Pb decreased with the consumption of biofortified seabream (23-82% BMDL) and carp (26-92% BMDL). These results support the strategy of developing eco-innovative biofortified farmed fish using sustainable, natural, safe and high-quality ingredients in feeds, to enable consumers to overcome nutritional deficiencies without significantly increased feed costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111330DOI Listing
June 2020

Carcass characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, texture, and microstructure of meat from spent Pekin ducks.

Poult Sci 2020 Feb 28;99(2):1232-1240. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Meat Science, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of the study was to compare P33 (Polish Pekin), P8 (Danish Pekin), and LsA (English Pekin) ducks after 2 reproductive seasons for carcass composition and some meat quality traits. A total of 48 duck carcasses (8 male carcasses and 8 female carcasses of each genotype) were studied. Whole carcasses were dissected, and pH and electrical conductivity of the breast and leg muscles were determined 24 h postmortem. After dissection, breast and leg muscles were sampled to determine proximate composition, some minerals, and physicochemical properties. Breast muscles were also analyzed for textural characteristics, microstructural characteristics, and rheological properties. At 112 wk of age, genotype and sex were found to have no significant effect on carcass weight and percentage of carcass components. The genotype of the birds had a significant effect on the water and fat content in the pectoral and leg muscles, as well as protein and collagen in the leg muscles. The origin of the ducks had a significant impact on the magnesium content in pectoral muscles and Warner-Bratzler shear force pectoralis muscle major, as well as the electrical conductivity of the leg muscles. The differences in duck genotype had a significant effect on the sum of elastic moduli, fiber cross-sectional area, fiber perimeter, and vertical fiber diameter of pectoralis major muscle. Regardless of the genetic origin, breast muscles from 112-week-old males had a lower fat content, and male leg muscles contained more water and protein and less fat and collagen than the female muscles. The genotype by sex interaction was significant for the content of breast muscles, skin with subcutaneous fat, and neck percentage and for the water and fat content in breast and leg muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587759PMC
February 2020

Relationships between bone mineral density and new indices of body composition in young, sedentary men and women.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2018 Mar 11;25(1):23-25. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

Department of Public Health, Warsaw University, Poland.

Introduction: Data concerning the relationship between body fat and BMD are equivocal since both positive and negative effects have been noted. Recently, the index of fat mass (IFM) representing subjects with different body fat and similar lean mass and index of lean mass (ILM) representing subjects with different lean body mass and similar body fat, have been used to evaluate body composition effect on BMD in middle-aged women. This study aimed at determination of ILM and IFM association with BMD in young men and women.

Material And Methods: A total of 212 university students of Public Health (125 women and 87 men) participated in the study. Body composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method (BIA) using BC 418 MA equipment (Tanita Co., Japan). Fat mass and fat free mass were used to calculate ILM and IFM. Bone mineral density was measured on the wrist of the non-dominant hand using the DEXA method and EXA 3000 equipment (HFS Ltd., Korea). BMD was evaluated using Z-score, with values lower than -2.0 indicating inadequate BMD for subject chronological age.

Results: Exclusively in women, IFM was markedly and positively correlated with Z-score (r=0.366, P<0.001). In both genders, a significant relationship was found between ILM and Z-scores (r=0.420; p<0.001 and r=0.220; p<0.02 in men and women, respectively). Women with lower than median IFM but similar ILM, were characterized by significantly lower Z-scores vs. women with higher IFM (-1.016 vs. -0.512; p<0.001). Irrespective of gender, participants with higher ILM but similar IFM, were characterized by markedly higher Z-score vs. their counterparts with low ILM.

Conclusions: The use of IFM and ILM in the present study, allowed the observation that in young adults lean body mass was associated with BMD, regardless of gender, while fat mass is significant for bone mineral density only in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1233562DOI Listing
March 2018

Influence of marinades on shear force, structure and sensory properties of home-style jerky.

Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2017 Oct-Dec;16(4):413-420

Department of Meat Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Products from dried meat have been sold for many years as snack foods. The most important sensory attributes of this type of food are texture and flavour, determined by the selection of the raw material and the effect of numerous technological factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the structure, sen- sory and mechanical properties of meat snacks produced under non-commercial conditions using wild boar, roe deer and beef as raw material.

Methods: Jerky was prepared from Longissimus muscle treated (24 h, 4°C) with the follow- ing marinades before drying at 55°C for 6 h: (a) spices, (b) lemon & honey marinade, (c) marinating with balsamic vinegar marinade, (d) dipping into pineapple marinade, and (e) using ginger marinade. The jerky’s shear and work forces, structure and sensory properties were compared.

Results: An increase in sensory properties and a decrease in WB parameters as a consequence in muscle structural elements changes were found in all marinate-treated samples compared to the control. The greatest changes were observed when the meat was soaked with pineapple marinade before drying. Lower ones were observed when ginger and balsamic vinegar marinades were applying, and the lowest when jerky was produced using lemon & honey. Roe deer jerky, compared to wild boar and beef, received better scores for texture, and worse for overall acceptability.

Conclusions: Marinades containing proteolytic enzymes or characterized by a low pH could be used as tenderizers in jerky production from initially tough meat such as wild boar, and marinades based on lemon & honey and also vinegar could be used for flavoring tender meat with an intense aroma, such as roe deer meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.0508DOI Listing
February 2018

Self-assessment of striae gravidarum prophylaxis.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2015 Dec 11;32(6):459-64. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic, Institute of Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. Head of the Department: Bogusław Antoszewski MD, PhD, Prof. MUL.

Introduction: Striae are the most frequently occurring pathology of connective tissue during pregnancy. According to the statistical data, 70-90% of women suffer from striae gravidarum.

Aim: To assess effectiveness of topical products and massage used by pregnant women in striae gravidarum prophylaxis.

Material And Methods: The questionnaire study was conducted among 299 women who were maximum 6 months after delivery at term. The questionnaire included questions concerning age, occurrence of striae gravidarum during pregnancy, their location, week of gestation when the lesions appeared and used striae prophylaxis as well as its effectiveness in respondents' opinion.

Results: Analysis of the correlation between striae gravidarum occurrence and use of different types of cosmetics showed that this kind of prophylaxis is effective when applied at least twice a day (63.7% vs. 77.6%). No correlation between the type of cosmetics and presence of striae was observed (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Use of prophylactic measures like skin emollients and oils with the appropriate frequency significantly reduces the risk of striae gravidarum occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2015.56100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697027PMC
December 2015

48-hours administration of fenoterol in spontaneous preterm labor - does it affect fetal preload?

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2013 ;34(6):549-52

Department of Feto-Maternal Medicine and Gynecology, "Polish Mother" Memorial Research Institute, Lodz, Poland.

Objective: to investigate whether any changes in the preload index (PLI) occur within the first 48 hours of fenoterol intravenous tocolysis.

Material And Methods: Doppler evaluation of placental and fetal circulation was performed in 36 pregnant women prior to fenoterol administration and after 24/48 hours. Measurements were obtained from a longitudinal section of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and preload index was calculated. To determine changes over time, an all study variable analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements, followed by Tukey-Kramer's multiple comparison test was used. The effects of additional clinical covariates were checked.

Results: The maternal heart rate values were significantly increased after 24 hours and 48 hours in comparison to pre-treatment values. No significant changes in fetal heart rate were observed during treatment. The fetal IVC PLI values were significantly reduced after 24 hours and 48 hours of treatment. The increase in PLI values when comparing 24 and 48 hours results were not statistically significant. These observations were consistent with ANOVA post-hoc analysis.

Conclusions: 48 hours intravenous administration of fenoterol appears not to alter inferior vena cava blood flow by itself. The reduction in PLI values may reflect lower fetal preload conditions during the course of successful tocolytic treatment. Therefore, Doppler IVC PLI measurement should be considered as a possible additional assessment method of effectiveness of treatment. However, other Doppler venous blood flow parameters should be assessed to confirm the results and clarify whether maternal corticosteroids administration may be interfering with the results.
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April 2014

Profile of peripheral blood neutrophil cytokines in diabetes type 1 pregnant women and its correlation with selected parameters in the newborns.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 Feb 20;63(2):150-60. Epub 2009 Dec 20.

Department of Fetal-Maternal Medicine and Gynaecology, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland.

Problem: Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 alter as pregnancy progresses, implying continuous immune regulation associated with the maintenance of pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the peripheral blood neutrophil-derived production of these cytokines in the course of pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes.

Method: of study These parameters were measured in samples from healthy non-pregnant (C), diabetic non-pregnant (D), healthy pregnant (P) and pregnant diabetic (PD) women.

Results: Neutrophil-derived secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12 increased along with progression of pregnancy in PD and P groups. The concentration of IL-10 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophils increased during the course of uncomplicated pregnancy but decreased in diabetic pregnancy. Concentration of IL-8 decreased with the advancing gestational age in P and PD groups. LPS-stimulated neutrophil-derived IL-6 concentration increased only in PD patients.

Conclusion: Our results show that diabetes creates pro-inflammatory environment thus potentially influencing the outcome of pregnancy. We conclude that neutrophil-derived cytokine production could contribute to the complications seen in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2009.00775.xDOI Listing
February 2010

Evaluation of lectin pathway activity and mannan-binding lectin levels in the course of pregnancy complicated by diabetes type 1, based on the genetic background.

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2009 May-Jun;57(3):221-8. Epub 2009 Jun 11.

Department of Fetal-Maternal Medicine and Gynecology, Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital, Łódź, Poland.

Introduction: There are numerous indications that either mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency or its excessive activity are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. High MBL concentrations and corresponding MBL2 genotypes were shown to be associated with microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of MBL and MBL-dependent activity of the lectin pathway (LP) of complement in the course of pregnancy in diabetic mothers, based on genetic background.

Materials And Methods: These parameters were determined in samples from healthy non-pregnant (control), diabetic non-pregnant, healthy pregnant, and pregnant diabetic women.

Results: No significant differences in median MBL levels or LP activities were found in any study group compared to the control. However, statistically significant differences in MBL levels were noted during pregnancy between the 1st and 3rd trimesters in both healthy controls and pregnant diabetics. With regard to LP values, similar trends were evident, but statistically significant results were obtained only in the healthy pregnant group. When data analysis was confined to patients carrying the A/A (wild-type) MBL2 genotype, an increase in MBL level during pregnancy (in both healthy and diabetic pregnant women) was still observed. Similarly, LP activity increased during both healthy and diabetic pregnancies, significantly so for the former.

Conclusions: Diabetes, an autoimmune disease, is a serious complication of pregnancy. Therefore, determination of MBL status might be beneficial in identifying type 1 diabetic patients who are at increased risk of developing both vascular complications and poor pregnancy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00005-009-0029-6DOI Listing
December 2009

Glycation endproducts, soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts and cytokines in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2009 Feb;61(2):175-82

Foetal-Maternal Medicine and Gynaecology Department, Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital (RI PMMH), Lodz, Poland.

Problem: Cytokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and their receptor RAGE have been recently suggested to play a role in human pregnancy. In this study, we sought to determine the alterations of plasma AGEs, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), and proinflammatory cytokines in normal pregnancies and those complicated with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Method Of Study: These parameters were measured in samples from healthy non-pregnant (C), diabetic non-pregnant (D), healthy pregnant (HP), and pregnant diabetic (DP) women.

Results: In the first trimester, DP showed lower sRAGE and higher AGEs compared to HP. In the DP group, significant negative correlations were seen between TNF-alpha and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IotaL-6 in the first trimester and sRAGE in the third trimester. LPS-stimulated IL-12 was positively correlated with levels of AGEs in the third trimester.

Conclusion: We detected several differences in the levels of AGEs, sRAGE, and proinflammatory cytokines between euglycemic and diabetic pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2008.00679.xDOI Listing
February 2009

Gestational diabetes mellitus - an analysis of risk factors.

Endokrynol Pol 2008 Sep-Oct;59(5):393-7

Department of Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lódź, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital -- Research Institute (RI PMMH), Lódź.

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased frequency of gestational, perinatal and neonatal complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors for GDM and their predictive value.

Material And Methods: The group studied consisted of 510 pregnant women with GDM diagnosed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (GDM). The controls were 1160 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Multifactorial analysis was performed and odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each risk factor identified.

Results: The GDM patients were significantly older than the NGT subjects (30.1 vs. 27.2 years; p < 0.0001), had a greater tendency towards obesity before pregnancy (BMI 25.0 vs. 21.6 kg/m2; p < 0.0001), more often had relatives with diabetes (40.0 vs. 25.7%; p < 0.01), had greater parity (third or subsequent pregnancy: 33.6 vs. 16.0%; p < 0.001) and more often experienced adverse perinatal outcomes (21.4 vs. 13.7%; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for GDM: BMI > 25 kg/m2 (OR 4.14), a history of macrosomia (OR 2.72), being pregnant for the third time or more (OR 1.8), a family history of diabetes (OR 1.76) and age at gestation > 25 years (OR 1.34). No risk factors were present in 12% of GDM subjects, and at least one risk factor was found in 74.1% of subjects with NGT. No risk factor cluster was found which could be used easily in everyday practice to identify reliably subjects at increased risk of GDM.

Conclusions: Age, overweight and obesity, diabetes in the family, parity, macrosomia and a history of perinatal complications were identified as risk factors for GDM. As no reliable method of identifying subjects at increased GDM risk was found, we suggest that all pregnant women should undergo laboratory screening for GDM.
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February 2009

[Mineral elements in diet of pregnant and breast-feeding women. Part II. Micro minerals: iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, fluorine, manganese, molybdenium, chromium].

Przegl Lek 2007 ;64(3):170-4

Samodzielna Sekcja Dietetyki Instytutu, Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki w Lodzi.

The first article describes in detail problems connected with the role of macro minerals: Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Cl in the diet of pregnant and breast feeding women. We concentrated on the choice of good natural sources of micro minerals: Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, F, Mn, Mo and Cr. The amounts of the elements in some of the food products are listed and factors that decide on their bioavailability are described. We mentioned pernicious effects of inadequate intake of micro minerals on the health of pregnant women and newborn babies.
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January 2008

[Mineral elements in diet of pregnant and breast-feeding women. Part I. Macro minerals: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride].

Przegl Lek 2007 ;64(3):165-9

1Przychodnia Specjalistyczna Instytutu Centrum Zdrowia Matki Polki, w Lodzi.

During pregnancy and lactation the need not only for the energy intake increases but also for some mineral elements. The basic source of mineral elements and other chemical elements for the human organism is food. For the increased need for minerals, proper selection of food products is vital and sometimes extremely difficult to do. The article covers some of the reasons for increased need for mineral elements of pregnant and feeding women. In the first part we described the proper sources of macro minerals such as Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, CIland highlighted the factors that determine their bioavailability.
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January 2008

Pregnancy complications and perinatal outcome in diabetic women treated with Humalog (insulin lispro) or regular human insulin during pregnancy.

Med Sci Monit 2004 Feb;10(2):PI29-32

Department of Endocrinology and Isotope Therapy, Medical University of Łódź, Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute, ul. Rzgowska 281/289, Łódź, Poland.

Background: Pregnancy outcome in diabetic women is strictly related to glycemic control during pregnancy. The aim of our study was to compare pregnancy outcome between patients subjected to intensive insulin therapy using regular human insulin and those treated with insulin lispro (Humalog).

Material/methods: Group A (n=25) was treated with Humalog, and the control group B (n=46) with regular human insulin. Mean age, duration of diabetes, presence of chronic diabetic complications (according to the White classification) parity, and BMI did not differ between groups.

Results: The mean HbA1c concentrations in groups A and B were respectively: 7.8+/-1.4% vs. 7.5+/-1.5% in the first trimester, 6.4+/-0.8% vs. 6.5+/-1.6% in the second, and 6.7+/-0.7% vs. 6.3+/-1.2% in the third (no significant differences). The duration of pregnancy was 36.4+/-3.9 weeks in group A and 37.1+/-1.9 weeks in group B, while the mean neonatal birth weight was 3467+/-790 and 3367+/-666 g, respectively. Neither the frequency of preterm labor and cesarean section nor the frequency of fetal macrosomia and hypoglycemia differed between groups. There was only one malformed infant in the human insulin-treated group, and no statistical difference in the rate of spontaneous abortion between groups. Also, there were no differences in the frequencies of occurrence of hypertension (essential and pregnancy induced) and urinary tract infections.

Conclusions: The course of pregnancy and perinatal outcome is comparable in intensively treated diabetic women regardless of the short-acting insulin used. Humalog appears to be a safe alternative to human insulin in the treatment of diabetes during pregnancy.
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February 2004