Publications by authors named "Małgorzata Mrowicka"

32 Publications

Assessment of DNA damage profile and oxidative /antioxidative biomarker level in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Pol Przegl Chir 2020 May;92(5):8-15

Chair of Surgery, Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University, Lodz, Poland.

<b>Aim:</b> The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative DNA damage, pro-antioxidant status in Polish patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). <br><b>Methods:</b> Oxidative DNA damage was measured by comet assay techniques; nitric oxide (NO) and plasmatic lipid peroxidation (MDA) as oxidative stress were valuated by colometric methods; superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) as antioxidative defense were determined by spectrophotometric methods. <br><b>Results:</b> The level of oxidative DNA damage in IBD patients was significantly higher in relation to controls (P = 0.01). Alike, in control subject as well as in patients with IBD, lymphocytes are characterized by complete repair of DNA damage. A significant decrease of SOD (P = 0.031), CAT (P = 0.006), GPx1 (P = 0.001) activity was seen in IBD patients vs control. MDA (P = 0.001) and NO (P = 0.001) concentrations were significantly increased in IBD patients as compared to healthy subjects. <br><b>Conclusions:</b> Our results may be due to the induction of DNA repair genes which may occur at the stage of the pathological changes (IBD) that may be caused by excessive oxidative stress. However, the cause of this relationship, and whether it is direct or indirect, remains to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0014.1548DOI Listing
May 2020

Environmental factors increasing the risk of activation and development of inflammatory bowel diseases

Postepy Biochem 2020 06 27;66(2):167-175. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Narutowicza 60, Łódź 90-136.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a particularly troublesome disease that has a huge impact on the human digestive tract, mainly the intestine. These diseases manifest themselves as chronic, uncontrolled inflammation of the intestines, difficult to control, with periods of spontaneous exacerbations and remissions. Depending on the variety of symptoms present and their location in the human gastrointestinal tract, these diseases can occur in various forms. The most common: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). The underlying cause of activation as well as subsequent development is not clearly defined, but it is known that these disorders are autoimmune. The pathogenesis of IBD is associated with chronic idiopathic, recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. Exposure to many environmental factors, which are partially discussed in the following work, especially in people genetically predisposed to the development of these diseases, can activate the chronic inflammatory process of the intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/pb.2020_318DOI Listing
June 2020

Association between polymorphisms and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease in the Polish population.

Oncotarget 2017 Dec 27;8(65):109332-109339. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera 1 Square, Lodz 90-647, Poland.

Purpose: The main aim of this study was investigate the association between the genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzyme genes: and and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the Polish population.

Methods: A total of 445 subjects including 200 patients with IBD and 245 controls were allowed in this study. We determined activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and examination their association with the SNPs of respective genes ( +35A/C, C-262T and Pro197Leu). RFLP technique was used to determine the selected genes polymorphisms. Antioxidant enzymes activity were evaluated in erythrocyte hemolysate of 23 patients with non-active IBD and 30 healthy participants.

Results: The A/C genotype and the C allele frequencies of A/C polymorphism of gene were significantly associated with the reduced risk of IBD (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.23; 0.83). Alike, C/T (OR=0.45; 95% CI= 0.29; 0.70) and T/T genotype (OR=0.43; 95% CI= 0.21; 0.87) of gene polymorphism diminished the susceptibility to IBD. A significant decrease of CAT (=0.028) and increase of GPx1 (=0.025) enzyme activities were seen in IBD patients compared to control.

Conclusions: Our data confirm dysregulated antioxidant capacity in patients suffering from IBD. Both, the A/C genotype as well as C/T and T/T genotypes may be associated with a reduction risk of IBD in the Polish population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.22675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5752524PMC
December 2017

Evaluation of Effect CAT -262C/T, SOD + 35A/C, GPx1 Pro197Leu Polymorphisms in Patients with IBD in the Polish Population.

Pol Przegl Chir 2016 Dec;88(6):321-327

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders in the course dominated by chronic, recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. It is believed that the activation of IBD occurs in patients with a genetic predisposition to their development. Chronic inflammation develops as a result of an excessive reaction of the immune system principally under the influence of environmental risk factors. Among them, it has been shown that the mechanism of oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease, responsible for the commencement and progress of these diseases. The aim of the study was the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of individual antioxidant enzymes, and the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease that may be associated with increased levels of oxidative stress.

Material And Methods: A total of 111 IBD patients, including 65 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 46 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 125 healthy controls recruited from the Polish population, were genotyped for CAT -262C / T (rs1001179), SOD + 35A / C (rs2234694), GPx Pro 197 Leu polymorphisms. Genotyping of CAT, SOD, GPx gene polymorphism was performed by a RFLP-PCR.

Results: The performed analysis of genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes showed that polymorphic variant of the CAT -262 C / T may have protective effects in patients with ulcerative colitis in the range of genotype C / T; OR = 0.49 (0.25-0.99), p = 0.044. Trend protective, but statistically unrelated, it was also observed for genotype T / T and T allele of the same polymorphism and genotypes and alleles + 35A / C SOD1 in UC as well as polymorphic variants CAT -262 C / T, Pro197Leu of GPx1, + 35A / C SOD1 in CD. The results were compared with a control group of potentially healthy individuals without such diseases.

Conclusions: It has been shown that the polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes CAT gene -262 C / T may have protective effects in patients who are carriers of a genotype C / T at the UC. The potential protective effect without statistical relationships were also observed for other genotypes and alleles studied polymorphic variants of antioxidant enzymes in CD and CAT- 262C / T and + 35 A / C SOD1 in UC. Conducted our audit should be extended to more group of patients in order to assess whether or not to confirm the observed during analysis, the protective effect of CAT-262 C / T in ulcerative colitis and other trends observed for other polymorphic variants tested genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pjs-2016-0071DOI Listing
December 2016

Analysis of antioxidative factors related to AMD risk development in the polish patients.

Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 9;95(5):530-536. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. Oxidative mechanisms may play a key role in the aetiology of AMD. The main aim of this study was to investigate antioxidative markers in the pathogenesis of AMD.

Methods: A total of 510 subjects including 240 patients with AMD (mean age 77.9 ± 8.5 year) and 270 controls (mean age 74.0 ± 10.4 year) were allowed in this study. We measured activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and examined their association with the SNPs of respective genes (SOD1 + 35A/C, CAT C-262T and GPx Pro197Leu). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to determine the selected gene polymorphisms. Sixty subjects including 30 patients with AMD (mean age 69.4 ± 9.3) and 30 controls (mean age 64.6 ± 8.2) were enrolled to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes by spectrometry method.

Results: A significant decrease in enzymes, SOD (p = 0.011), CAT (p = 0.002) and GPx (p ≤ 0.001) in AMD patients compared to controls, was indicated. The risk of susceptibility to AMD was significantly higher in patients with AMD who had Pro197Leu C/T genotype of GPx (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.78-4.35). The A/C genotype and the C allele frequencies of A/C polymorphism of SOD1 gene significantly reduce the risk of AMD (OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.27; 0.85).

Conclusion: In conclusion, our data showed that insufficient antioxidant capacity may have an important role in age-related macular degeneration. The polymorphism of GPx Pro197Leu may reduce the ability to scavenge free radicals in retina and contribute to the development of AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13289DOI Listing
August 2017

Evaluation pro/antioxidant balance in patients with wet form of age-related macular degeneration.

Klin Oczna 2016;118(4):284-8

Objective: The aim of study was to evaluate the ability of the enzymatic antioxidant barrier to protect against peroxidation in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, as compared to healthy subjects.

Material And Methods: Hemolysate blood samples collected from 25 patients with wet form age-related macular degeneration and 25 healthy controls were analysed to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (using Misra and Fridovich method), catalase (using Beers and Sizer method), glutathione peroxidase (using Sedlak and Lindsay method modified by Little and O’Brien), and malondialdehyde concentration (using Placer method).

Results: We observed a statistically significant decrease in the activity of following enzymes in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, as compared to controls: superoxide dismutase (2086.3 vs. 2348.5 U/gHb/100 ml; p ≤ .05), catalase (6.9 vs. 7.6 BU/gHb, p ≤ .05) and glutathione peroxidase (36.3 vs. 45.8 U/gHb; p ≤ .05). At the same time, an increase in age-related macular degeneration thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration was demonstrated in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, as compared to healthy subjects (.119 vs. .286 µmol/gHb; p ≤ .001).

Conclusion: The obtained results indicate inefficient enzymatic antioxidant system which manifests as intense peroxidation in patients with age-related macular degeneration.
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July 2018

Evaluation of selected indicators of antioxidant status in patients with head and neck cancer.

Otolaryngol Pol 2015 ;69(5):44-50

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and the antioxidant enzymatic barrier in patients with head and neck cancer and in healthy controls.

Material And Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by spectrometry in red blood cells of 22 patients and healthy controls.

Results: Decreased activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx as well as an increased concentration of MDA was found in cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls.

Discussion: Increased lipid peroxidation in red blood cells of cancer patients indicates an intensification of oxidative stress reactions. Measurements of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes point unambiguously to a reduced antioxidant capacity in head and neck cancer patients. However, this was a pilot study with a low number of participants. Moreover, future research should take into account genetic and extragenetic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/00306657.1163579DOI Listing
September 2016

Evaluation of oxidative DNA damage and antioxidant defense in patients with nasal polyps.

Redox Rep 2015 Jul 13;20(4):177-83. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Objectives: The presence of inflammatory cells indicates the development of epithelial cell injury in nasal polyposis (NP) and the potential for production of high levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The aim of our study was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in the deterioration accompanying NP.

Methods: Twenty patients (11 men) aged 47.2 ± 17.0 years with nasal polyps were included in the study. Twenty healthy subjects (7 men) aged 48.2 ± 15.3 years formed the control group. The erythrocyte activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured. An alkaline comet assay was used to determine the extent of blood lymphocyte DNA damage of oxidized purines as glicosylo-formamidoglicosylase (Fpg) sites, and oxidized pyrimidines as endonuclease III (Nth) sites.

Results: A significant increase of NO (P < 0.05) and non-significant decreases of SOD (P > 0.05), CAT (P > 0.05), and GPx (P > 0.05) were seen in NP patients compared to healthy controls. The level of blood lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage in NP patients was significantly higher compared to the control group (P = 0.01).

Discussion: The blood lymphocyte DNA damage level increased in patients with NP. Elevated DNA damage may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and/or decreased antioxidant protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1351000215Y.0000000001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6837655PMC
July 2015

DNA damage and oxidant-antioxidant status in blood of patients with head and neck cancer.

DNA Cell Biol 2015 Mar 9;34(3):213-9. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

1 Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Lodz , Lodz, Poland .

Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance that has been found to be present in various cancer cells, and overproduction of free radicals may be related to oncogenic stimulation. We investigated the activity of the following antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in blood of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) compared with the control group. A comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. A nonsignificant increase of MDA and a decrease of SOD, CAT, and GPx (p>0.05) were seen in HNSCC patients compared with controls. It was found that the level of oxidative DNA damage in HNSCC patients was significantly higher compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001). Our observations suggest that HNSSC patients may represent an impaired antioxidant defense system, resulting in DNA damage and genome instability. It has to be also considered that an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may be connected to the complex mechanism leading to the DNA damage indicated in the blood of patients with head and neck cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2014.2706DOI Listing
March 2015

Association of IL1β and IL4 gene polymorphisms with nasal polyps in a Polish population.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Jul 26;41(7):4653-8. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera 1, 90-647, Lodz, Poland.

Imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may regulate the inflammatory reaction in the nasal polyps. Polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the cytokines genes may influence their expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an IL-1β and IL-4 promoter polymorphisms and nasal polyps. The C-511T promoter polymorphism of the IL-1β gene and C-590T promoter polymorphism of the IL-4 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 208 Polish patients with nasal polyps and 200 healthy Polish subjects. The risk of susceptibility to NP was significantly higher in patients with NP who had -511 T/T genotype of IL1β than in controls (OR 3.07; 95 % CI 1.18-7.99). No statistically significant differences were found between NP patients and the control group with regard to genotype distribution and allele frequencies of C/T polymorphism of IL4 gene. Our study demonstrated that the TT genotype for C-511T mutation associated with the risk of developing NP in a Polish population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3336-xDOI Listing
July 2014

Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

Mol Biol Rep 2012 Sep 21;39(9):8669-78. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Parzeczewska 35, 95-100 Zgierz, Poland.

Experimental evidences suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species and subsequent damage to proteins, lipids and DNA may play a key role in the development of distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN)-the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. The study population consisted of 51 individuals aged 52-82 years classified into 3 groups: 16 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with DSPN, 16 T2DM patients without DSPN and 19 control subjects without diabetes and neuropathy. The study was conducted to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the examined groups. An alkaline comet assay was used to determine the extent of DNA damage of oxidized purines as glicosylo-formamidoglicosylase (Fpg) sites, and oxidized pyrimidines as endonuclease III (Nth) sites. A significant decrease of SOD (P < 0.05), GPX (P < 0.05) and nonsignificant decrease of CAT (P > 0.05), and TAS status (P > 0.05) were seen in T2DM patients with neuropathy compared to T2DM patients as well as controls. T2DM patients with or without neuropathy revealed significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma concentration of nitrous oxide compared to the control subjects. Endogenous level of oxidative DNA damage in T2DM patients with DSPN was significantly higher compared both to the controls and T2DM patients without DSPN (P < 0.001). Moreover, lymphocytes isolated from T2DM patients with DSPN were more susceptible to oxidative DNA lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide than from T2DM patients without DSPN (P < 0.001). Our results confirm hypothesis that oxidative stress may play a substantial role in the development and progression of diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-012-1722-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404273PMC
September 2012

[The effects of whole-body cryotherapy and melatonin supplementation on total antioxidative status and some antioxidative enzymes in multiple sclerosis patients].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2011 Sep;31(183):150-3

Neurorehabilitation Ward, III Municipal Hospital in Łódź, Poland.

Unlabelled: Oxidative stress is an important factor which contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) is often used in treatment neurological and orthopedic diseases.

The Aim, Material And Methods: The aim of this study was to determinate the level of total antioxidative status (TAS) in plasma and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes of MS patients (n = 28) before and after 10 exposures of WBCT (-120 degrees C/3 minutes/day). 16 MS patients during 10 exposures of WBCT additionally were supplemented by 10 mg of melatonin.

Results: Increasing of TAS level in plasma as well as supplemented with melatonin and non-supplemented MS patients was observed after 10 exposures of WBCT Melatonin statistically significant increased activity of SOD and CAT in erythrocytes of MS patients treated with WBCT.

Conclusions: Results of our study indicate significant increase of TAS level in plasma of MS patients of WBCT treatment. This indicate that WBCT might be a therapy which suppress oxidative stress in MS patients.
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September 2011

[The role of disorders of the prooxidant-antioxidant system in diabetes etiopathology].

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2011 Aug 16;65:534-41. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi.

Chronic hyperglycemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. It was found that hyperglycemia triggered a number of mechanisms that evoke overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased level of free radicals, disturbances of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system and lower concentration of exogenous antioxidants. In consequence, these abnormalities lead to a redox imbalance called oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to summarize the role of reactive oxygen species and changes in the antioxidant defense system in the development of diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/17322693.956085DOI Listing
August 2011

The level of isoprostanes as a non-invasive marker for in vivo lipid peroxidation in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Neurochem Res 2011 Jun 12;36(6):1012-6. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

Neurorehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital in Lodz, Milionowa 14, Lodz, Poland.

Oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory as well as degenerative phenomena. Isoprostanes are prostaglandin-like compounds which are formed by free radical catalysed peroxidation of arachidonic acid esterified in membrane phospholipids. They are a new class of sensitive specific markers for in vivo lipid peroxidation. In this study 26 patients (15 females and 11 males; mean age 48.2 ± 15.2 year; mean disease duration 10.0 ± 6.5 year) with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled. In patients with multiple sclerosis the lipid peroxidation as the level of urine isoprostanes and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in plasma were estimated. Moreover, we estimated the total antioxidative status (TAS) in plasma. It was found that the urine isoprostanes level was over 6-fold elevated in patients with SPMS than in control (P < 0.001). In SPMS patients TBARS level was also statistically higher than in controls (P < 0.01). However, we did not observed any difference of TAS level in serum between SPMS patients and controls (P > 0.05). In patients with SPMS the lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress measured as the increased level of isoprostanes was observed. Thus, we suggest that the level of isoprostanes may be used as non-invasive marker for a determination of oxidative stress what in turn, together with clinical symptoms, may determine an specific antioxidative therapy in SPMS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-011-0442-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084932PMC
June 2011

Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on a total antioxidative status and activities of antioxidative enzymes in blood of depressive multiple sclerosis patients.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2011 Apr 18;12(3):223-7. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Neurorehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Objectives: Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS patients depression is often observed. Cryotherapy might have an effect on OS. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) on changes in total antioxidative status (TAS) of plasma and activities of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes from depressive and non depressive MS patients.

Methods: Twenty-two MS patients with secondary progressive disease course (12 depressive and 10 non depressive) were treated with 10 exposures in a cryochamber. Before and after WBCT the plasma TAS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the erythrocytes were measured.

Results: The level of TAS in depressive MS group was significantly lower than in non depressive MS (P < 0.0003). WBCT increased the level of TAS in depressive (P < 0.002) more than in non depressive MS patients (P < 0.01). WBCT treatment of MS patients resulted in the significant increase of TAS level in plasma but had no effects on activities of SOD and CAT.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that WBCT suppresses OS in MS patients, especially in depressive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15622975.2010.518626DOI Listing
April 2011

[Effect of melatonin on activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in erythrocytes of patients during short- and long-term hypokinesis].

Wiad Lek 2010 ;63(1):3-9

Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi.

Introduction: Short- or long-lasting hypokinesis is to a large degree the consequence of negative habits of human beings towards a comfortable and more sedentary lifestyle. The period of decreased physical activity can cause disturbance in the balance between systemic processes of the oxidation and reduction, which leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress generation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of melatonin administration on the cellular superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity in red blood cells of patients with short- and long-term hypokinesis as compared to the group of subjects with normal physical activity.

Material And Methods: The study included 33 subjects with immobilization. The study group was divided into two subgroups (depending on hypokinesis duration): group A: 15 subjects classified for total hip alloplasty (a short-lasting decrease in physical activity); group B: 18 subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis or the stroke of brain (the long-term hypokinesis). The control group (group C) comprised 17 subjects with normal physical activity. Melatonin was applied at a dose of 5 mg daily, one hour before sleep. The CuZn-SOD activity in red blood cells was determined, according to the Misra and Fridovich method, in two periods: 1) on the first day, 2) on the 10th day (group A), and 30 days (group B) after melatonin administration.

Results: A slight increase in CuZn-SOD activity (+3.1%) was observed in group A 10 days after alloplasty and melatonin administration as compared to group B, where a considerable rise in the enzyme activity (+23.3%) was found 30 days after rehabilitation and melatonin supplementation. The average CuZn-SOD activity in both investigative groups was lower than that in the controls (group C).

Conclusions: It was estimated that the short- and long-lasting hypokinesis leads to an increase in ROS generation, what is confirmed by the increase in CuZn-SOD activity. The results of the study on superoxide dismutase activity indicate that oral administration of melatonin for the period of 30 days has a more favorable influence on antioxidative processes than 10-day's melatonin intake.
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November 2010

Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on a total antioxidative status and activities of some antioxidative enzymes in blood of patients with multiple sclerosis-preliminary study.

J Med Invest 2010 Feb;57(1-2):168-73

Rehabilitation Ward, III General Hospital in Lódz, Poland.

Objective: There is evidence that multiple sclerosis (MS) is not only characterized by immune mediated inflammatory reactions but also by neurodegenerative processes. Neutralization of oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, might represent a therapeutic approach to provide neuroprotection in MS. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in total antioxidative status and activities of chosen antioxidative enzymes, such as: SOD, CAT in erythrocytes of patients with MS before and after using WBCT with control group.

Materials And Methods: 32 patients with multiple sclerosis (ICD10-G35) and 20 healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The examined MS group (n=16) was treated with a series of 10 daily exposures in a cryogenic chamber (2-3 min, from -120 degrees C to -110 degrees C) and program of exercises. The control MS group (n=16) had only exercises. Plasma TAS as well as SOD and CAT activities in erythrocytes were measured.

Results: The level of TAS in MS patients was distinctly reduced compared to healthy subjects. After two weeks of WBCT treatment an increase of TAS in the whole examined group (p>0.01) were observed in relation to control MS group. There was not increase of CuZnSOD and CAT activities.

Conclusion: Our results suggest positive antioxidant effects of WBCT as a short-term adjuvant treatment for patients suffered due to MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2152/jmi.57.168DOI Listing
February 2010

[Oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009 Dec;27(162):499-502

III Ogólny Szpital w Łodzi, Oddział Rehabilitacji.

Accumulating data indicate that oxidative stress (OS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to OS, generated in excess primarily by macrophages, have been implicated as mediators of demyelization and axonal damage in MS. ROS cause damage to main cellular components such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (e.g., RNA, DNA), resulting in cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. In addition, weakened cellular antioxidant defense systems in the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, and its vulnerability to ROS effects may augmented damage. Thus, treatment with antioxidants might theoretically prevent propagation of tissue damage and improve both survival and neurological outcome. Central nervous system is particularly susceptible to ROS-induced damage due to the high oxygen demands of the brain and low concentration of endogenous antioxidants. Its refer both enzymatic antioxidants: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and nonenzymatic antioxidants glutathione, vitamins A,C,D, coenzym Q, uric acid etc. Enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants like vitamins, micro and macro elements could regulate progress and function different immunologic cells. Modulation of immunologic processes by this components could be an effective method in decreased risk of incidence of disease and(or) treatment of MS or other immunologic diseases.
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December 2009

[Influence of complex compounds on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009 Aug;27(158):97-100

Medical University of Łódź, The Faculty of Physiotherapy, Department of Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Poland.

Unlabelled: Chemotherapy is an important field of clinical medicine and pharmacology Chemotherapy is the main method of treating the neoplasm. It involves treating the neoplastic disease with the use of natural or synthetic anticancer drugs commonly known as the cytostatics. The cancer therapy involving the cytostatics is a difficult and not always effective process, which requires taking into consideration the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and the dosage schemas. The complexity of the chemotherapy is influenced by: still incomplete knowledge of causes of neoplasm formation, slight biological differences between the cancer cells and the regular cells, very small selectivity of cytostatics' action, narrow therapeutic index of the anticancer drugs, high toxicity for healthy cells and unsatisfactory anticancer activity. The aim of the study was to obtain the complex compounds of copper (II), and especially of dinitrate (V) di (3,4, 5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazol-kappaN2) copper (II), and its subsequent testing for pro- and antioxidative activity in people suffering from neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract (colorectal and gastric carcinoma). Material and methods. The activity of catalase was determined in erythrocytes patients suffering from colorectal and gastric carcinoma and in control group (hernia, chronic gastric ulcer disease and haemorrhoids) using the method of Beers and Sizer at 240 nm on the Beckman spectrophotometer.

Results: The results of the test on catalase in patients suffering from colorectal and gastric carcinoma indicate that the addition to the blood of the complex compound of Cu(II) significantly influences the activity of the enzyme in comparison with the control group in which the substance tested was not used. In the tests a marked statistical difference was observed between the studied and the control group.

Conclusion: The results reveal that chemical compounds, that is, dinitrate (V) di (3,4,5-trimethyl-N1-pyrazol-kappaN2) copper (II), has a significant influence on the activity of catalase, the antioxidant enzyme.
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August 2009

[Total antioxidant status concentration in blood plasma of professional sportsmen after dosed physical exercise].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009 Jul;27(157):22-5

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Wydział Fizjoterapii, Katedra i Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

Unlabelled: The mechanism of functioning of the well-balanced protection system against free radicals is based on the mutual and synergistic activity of its all elements. One of the first organism reactions to physical effort is an elevated oxygen requirement due to an increased rate of metabolism, particularly in the skeletal muscles involved in performing physical work. In case of insufficient antioxidative system of blood plasma, free radicals attack the erythrocytic membrane externally and internally, leading to formation of considerable amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dosed submaximal and maximal physical exercise on the plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) concentration in professional sportsmen and in subjects of normal physical activity.

Material And Methods: 41 rugby players (junior and senior group) and 20 men of normal physical activity (control group) were the subject of the study. The plasma TAS concentration was determined: before an effort in the control group, and after 30-minute restitution period in sportsmen.

Results: The concentration of TAS values in subjects of normal physical activity before exercises were on average 0.65 +/- 0.15 mmol/l. In the junior group after the dosed submaximal physical exercise, the mean TAS concentration was 0.69 +/- 0.29 mmol/l, but the dosed maximal exercise lead to an increase in TAS values - 0.73 +/- 0.34 mmol/l. The higher plasma TAS concentration after the dosed submaximal physical exercise was observed in the senior group as compared to the junior group, and was on average 0.93 +/- 0.22 mmol/l. However, after the maximal exercise, the TAS concentration decreased and its average value was 0.66 +/- 0.26 mmol/l.

Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that the intensity of performed exercises affects the plasma TAS concentration during a single physical activity. The plasma TAS concentration was higher in sportsmen regardless of the type of effort as compared to the control group. Supplementation of micromolecular antioxidants present in nutrients ingested by the sportsmen might have influenced the study outcomes.
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July 2009

[Testing antineoplastic activity of new platinum(II) and palladium(II) complex compounds].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009 Jan;26(151):57-61

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi, Wydział Fizjoterapii, Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej, Katedra Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

Unlabelled: A pyrazole system is incorporated in many biological molecules which play an important part in genetic processes. It seems that co-ordinating biological molecules, which would serve as carriers, should contribute to minimising the toxic effects of the potential platinic drugs.

Aim Of The Study: Assessment of in vivo biological activity, and in particular of antineoplastic activity of new platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes.

Material And Methods: The assessment of toxicity of the compounds was made with the Deichmann and Le Blanck method. The antineoplastic activity of the new complex compounds--pyrazole derivatives with Pt(II) and Pd(II) ions was tested on mouse L1210 leukemia cell culture and on lymphatic leukemia P388. BDF1 or CDF1 mice divided into groups of 5-9 animals were subject to the tests.

Results: Complexes 13, 21, 25, 16, 24 and 28 did not reveal any antineoplastic activity to the mouse L1210 leukemia, whereas complexes 13, 21 and 25 revealed in-vivo antineoplastic activity to the P388 leukemia, extending the mouse's survival time by about 50%. The control group consisted of mice which were administered a 14% methylcellulose solution.

Conclusions: As a result of the tests conducted to asses the in-vivo antineoplastic activity it was found that the 25 complex demonstrates the strongest activity to the P388 leukemia. It may be presumed that it is caused by trans configuration of the complex predisposing to the creation of interstrand cross-links. It may be also caused by the presence of the chloromethyl substituents, located on N1 nitrogen atom of the ligand, which increases the capacity of nitrogen N7 guanine alkylation in DNA.
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January 2009

[In vitro biological activity of new platinum(II) and palladium(II) complex compounds].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009 Jan;26(151):52-6

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi, Wydział Fizjoterapii, Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej, Katedra Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

Unlabelled: A nitrogen ring is present in many biological molecules, which play an important part in cell division as well as in genetic information transfer. It is also a part of the purine system, which builds DNA and has potential places/spots of platinum drug co-ordination. Therefore, it may be hoped, that platinum(II) complexes with diazol ligands will have considerable affinity for DNA binding sites. The work was aimed at assessment of biological activity and especially of cytotoxic activity, of new complex connections of the selected diazols with Pt(II) and Pd(II) ions.

Materials And Methods: The MTT test is aimed at the assessment of cytotoxicity of chemical compounds. It consists in the colorimetric determination of a product--farmazon, formed after adding MTT (bromide 3[4,5-dimetylo-2-ilo]-2,5-difenylotetrazolu) to the culture suspension in the presence of the compound subject to the test. All the tested Pt(II) complexes before adding to the cell cultures were dilluted in DMF. MTT tests for individual complexes were conducted on two cell lines L1210 and P388.

Results: Compounds 13, 21 and 25 on P388 neoplastic cell revealed about three times smaller in-vitro cytotoxicity, whereas platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes 13, 21, 25, 43, 46, revealed cytotoxicity being about 3-4 times smaller than the reference cisplatin. Complex 45 revealed eight times smaller activity and complex 44 revealed significantly small, about two hundred smaller activity.

Conclusion: Based on the MTT tests it may be concluded that compounds 13, 21 and 25 reveal selective cytotoxicity to P388 neoplastic cells.
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January 2009

[Chosen non-enzymatic substances that participate in a protection against overproduction of free radicals].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 Sep;25(147):269-72

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Zaktad Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

Free radicals are substantial elements that take part in proper function of metabolic pathways of human cells and tissues in hydrophobic as well as in hydrophilic environment. Nevertheless overproduction of above molecules causes oxidative stress, a process which is very harmful for lipids, proteins, and others molecules what reduces their normal function. To protect against adverse effects of free radicals and theirs derivatives to human body there is a group of antioxidants divided into enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances. Enzymatic antioxidants are represented mainly by enzymes such as: copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx), vitamins, melatonin, polyphenols, trace elements, albumin, and others function as non-enzymatic free radicals scavengers. This work in a brief way describes properties of chosen representants of non-enzymatic antioxidant system.
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September 2008

[Antioxidative enzymes--structure, properties, functions].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 Sep;25(147):266-8

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

In physiological condition mammalian cells produce a small amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which influence biological processes. At high concentration ROS are the mediator of damage to lipids, protein and nucleic acids. Exposure to free radicals has led organisms to develop series of defense mechanism that can protect against oxidative stress. The defense mechanism is represented by non-enzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants that are mainly represented by: superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT) and, glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR). This article presents short review about structure, properties and functions of the above enzymes in living cells.
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September 2008

[The influence of degenerative changes on the production of free radicals and the lipid peroxidation at the patients after alloplasty of the hip joint].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 Aug;25(146):145-9

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Wydział Fizjoterapii, Katedra Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej, Zakład Chemii i Biochemii Klinicznej.

Unlabelled: Since now researches claimed that rheumatoid arthritis was not characterized with an inflammatory process due to the lack of vessel in the cartilaginous tissue. Nevertheless, an inflammation of synovial membrane and a reduction of activity of articulation co-exist with rheumatoid arthritis. Recent results have proved that the above disease is connected with an oxidative stress.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this investigation was to estimate changes of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and malondialdehyd (MDA) concentration in red blood cells of patients suffering from an alloplastic of the hip joint. We also measured how physical activity in a reduced motor activity influences the NO and MDA concentration.

Material And Methods: Malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in RBCs was assayed with Placer method, nitrogen concentration in blood plasma was determined using the Griess indirect method. Biochemical tests have been performed on a group of 36 patients with osteoarthritis hospitalised at the Traumatic-Orthopaedic Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration Hospital in Lodz, Poland. A control group included 21 subjects with normal physical activity.

Results: The concentration of nitric oxide in plasma of patients that were operated was lower than in a healthy control group. Ten days after the operation it decreased, but after a month it was higher than before the operation. The concentration of MDA in red blood cells was higher before and after the alloplastic than in the healthy control group. Ten days after operation the concentration of MDA was lower about 15.8% but after 30 days it lowered up to about 26.3% in comparison to the concentration before the operation.

Conclusions: Our results are not the same as those shown by other researches which suggest increased production of nitric oxide. Reduction of the motor activity due to degenerative joint disease and alloplastic causes reduction in lipid peroxidation of red blood cells.
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August 2008

[Role of flavonoids as antioxidants in human organism].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 Jun;24(144):556-60

III Szpital Miejski w Lodzi, Oddział i Poradnia Rehabilitacji.

The increasing interest in flavonoids means higher demand for the complex and synthetic knowledge about those substances. The following study is an overview of the contemporary knowledge about the mentioned substances, and hopefully it will magnify this topic. Flavonoids are the ingredients of many nutrition substances and a vital diet element. They are also a group of many medicines with different influence on live organisms. At the moment, there are over hundreds of bio-flavonoids identified. The phenol compounds are used as natural drugs in the cases of various sicknesses of blood, breathing, food, and urinary circuit, and in dermatology as well. The existence of these compounds in the diet, especially maintenance of their proper consumption level, is a very important element in the prevention of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis. The intensity of experimental studies on flavonoids in the last decade (mainly studies on cell cultures) showed varied attributes of these compounds. The results give hope for the use of flavonoids in prevention and neoplasmatic treatment. Phenol compounds as antioxidants may affect in many different aspects: direct reaction with free radicals, scavenging free radicals, growing dismutation of free radicals to the compounds with much lower reactiveness, chelatation of pro-oxidant metals (mainly iron), delaying or strengthening many enzymes. What is more, they can strengthen the functionality of other antioxidants, such as vitamins resolving in fat, and low-molecular substances resolving in water. The wide spectrum of the functions of flavonoids and their synthetic derivatives gives hope for the research of new chemical compounds (drugs) with exploratory characteristics.
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June 2008

[Role of free radicals in the physiological processes].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 May;24(143):446-8

Medical University of Lódź, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Poland.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced during variety of biological processes. Low concentration of these molecules influences cell growth, differentiation or proliferation. Above derivatives of oxygen and nitrogen take part in physiological processes such as signal transduction, regulation of protein kinases or transcription factors. ROS and RNS regulate redox balance, regulate immune responses, activate macrophages and neutrophils. Under theirs' control is cell adhesion and relaxation of smooth muscles. These molecules are very important for correct function and life of the cell.
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May 2008

[Activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in erythrocytes of patients after hips alloplasty].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 May;24(143):396-8

Medical University of Lódź, The Faculty of Physiotherapy, Chair and Department of Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Poland.

Unlabelled: Hip osteoarthritis leads, among others, to abnormally decreased physical activity (hypokinesia). Adverse effect of physical inactivity can cause inhibition of anabolic processes in favour of enhancement of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid catabolitic reactions, as well as inadequate metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These alterations can induce an increased lipid peroxide synthesis, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and acceleration of lipid peroxidation processes. The aim of the study was to determine superoxide dismutase activity (CuZn-SOD) in red blood cells of patients suffering from hip osteoarthritis prior to and following total alloplasty as compared to healthy subjects, and also to evaluate effect of hypokinesia on oxidative stress. MATERIAL AND METHODS; CuZn-SOD activity in red blood cells was determined according to the Misra and Fridovich method in 36 patients with hip osteoarthritis hospitalized at the Traumatic-Orthopaedic Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration Hospital in Lódź.

Results: In patients with decreased physical activity in ten days after alloplasty, enzyme activity increased (+24.9%), one month since the operation it decreased, but it higher as compared to result activity of CuZn-SOD prior to surgery (+16.8%).

Conclusions: The results activity of superoxide dysmutase leads to ROS generation and their overgeneration in hip osteoarthritis and in first time of treatment.
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May 2008

[Calcium ions, glutaminate acid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, calcium dependent ATP-ase as causes of oxidative damage in depression patients (part II)].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2008 Jan;24(139):72-5

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych.

Depressive disorder is still a rising and important problem in the modern world, it affects about 15% of the population. Present forms of treatment are effective in about 70% and require monthly therapy which sometimes causes side effects. Last decade studies paid attention to theories different to monoaminergic and to neurodegenerative changes mainly in the limbic system of hippocampus. In this article authors show a relationship between calcium ions, glutaminergic transduction and disfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. They also take into account the activity of calcium dependent ATPase and its influence on overproduction of reactive oxygen species in the central neuron system (CNS). In the second part authors conclude that deregulation of calcium ions concentration in and out of cells and decreased activity of calcium dependent ATPase stimulate tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorilation. Mitochondria work faster and consume more oxygen. It correlates well with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (RFT). Above process results in neurons apoptosis and necrosis.
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January 2008

[Calcium ions, glutaminate acid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, calcium dependent ATP-ase as causes of oxidative damage in depression patients--Part I].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2007 Dec;23(138):466-8

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi, Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych.

Depressive disorder is still a rising and important problem in the modem world, it affects about 15% of the population. Present forms of treatment are effective in about 70% and require monthly therapy which sometimes causes side effects. Last decade studies paid attention to theories different to monoaminergic and to neurodegenerative changes mainly in the limbic system of hippocampus. In this article authors show a relationship between calcium ions, glutaminergic transduction and disfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. They also take into account the activity of calcium dependent ATPase and its influence on overproduction of reactive oxygen species in the central neuron system (CNS). The first part of this article proves that disregulation of HPA increases the glutaminergic conduction in neurons and causes a cytoskeletal damage in the CNS.
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December 2007