Publications by authors named "M Toome-Heller"

8 Publications

First report of Colletotrichum fructicola, C. perseae, and C. siamense causing anthracnose disease of avocado (Persea americana) in New Zealand.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 91821, Plant Health & Environment Laboratory, Auckland, New Zealand;

In January and March 2019, an inspection of 11 commercial 'Hass' avocado orchards in mid-North and Tauranga (New Zealand) was conducted by NZ Avocado Growers Association Inc. (NZAGA) and the samples were sent to Plant Diagnostics Limited for investigation of a newly observed fruit staining symptom termed "tannin stain". Fruit symptoms consisted of areas of minute small spots which coalesced into areas of tear staining associated with water movement over the fruit's surface (Supplementary Fig. 1). Up to seven trees per orchard were sampled targeting symptomatic fruit with the aim of determining the cause of the problem. Fruit was surface disinfected for 4 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and sections from lesions were plated on agar medium (prune extract agar) to isolate any plant pathogens. The predominant fungi isolated, represented species in the Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. boninense species complexes. Since the morphological characters within these complexes overlap (see Supplementary Fig. 2 for examples), the isolates were differentiated by amplification and sequencing of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) gene and, where necessary, the calmodulin (CAL) gene and/or the Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer region (ApMat) locus (Weir et al., 2012; Rojas et al., 2010). The sequence analysis revealed eight Colletotrichum species comprising C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. cigarro, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, C. perseae, and C. siamense. This range included three species that have not previously been recorded in New Zealand: C. fructicola (Cf), C. perseae (Cp), and C. siamense (Cs). Colonies for all these three fungi were white to grey with salmon-coloured and black acervuli. Conidia were aseptate, hyaline, straight, cylindrical, with broadly rounded ends, forming on cylindrical conidiogenous cells. The respective GPDH, CAL, and/or ApMat sequences of the Cf, Cp, and Cs isolates were identical to reference sequences of representative isolates in GenBank (e.g. ApMat: Cf - KX620181, Cp - KX620177, Cs - KP703788). An isolate for each species is stored in the International Collection of Microorganisms from Plants (Cf - ICMP22409, Cp - ICMP22431, Cs - ICMP22411) and sequences are deposited in GenBank (accession numbers MT522858-MT522865). Pathogenicity of each of the newly recorded species was confirmed on freshly picked 'Hass' avocado fruit. After surface disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes, fruit was triple washed with sterile water and air dried. Five fruits per species were pin-pricked and inoculated with 10µL of conidial suspension (7 x 106 to 1 x 107 conidia/mL) prepared with sterile water containing Tween 20 (1µL/mL H2O) from 6-day-old cultures grown on PDA. Control fruit was pin-pricked and mock-inoculated with sterile water containing Tween 20 (1µL/mL H2O). All fruit was incubated in moist chambers at 25°C for 7 days. The three Colletotrichum species produced anthracnose symptoms on inoculated fruit whereas no symptoms were observed on control fruit (Supplementary Fig. 3). Each one of the species was successfully re-isolated from symptomatic tissue and identified using the methods described above, fulfilling Koch's postulates. While Cf and Cs have been reported from several hosts and countries to date (Weir et al. 2012), Cp has only been found from avocado in Israel (Sharma et al. 2017) and grape in Japan (Yokosawa et al. 2020). Although a number of species from the C. gloeosporioides species complex, i.e. C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. cigarro, and C. gloeosporioides have been previously associated with avocado diseases in New Zealand, the detections of Cf, Cp, and Cs represent first records. In this study, eight Colletotrichum species were associated with the "tannin stain" fruit symptoms in New Zealand avocado orchards. The individual contribution of the newly recorded pathogens Cf, Cp, and Cs to the observed disease symptoms was not determined, but their detection highlights the importance of sequence-based identification of Colletotrichum species, as morphology is insufficiently robust to separate cryptic species. Accurate identification of pathogens provides knowledge of species biodiversity that may be useful in biosecurity decision making. Since it has been reported that fungicide treatment efficiencies differ for some closely related Colletotrichum species on grape (Yokosawa et al. 2020), accurate identification might also contribute to establishing effective management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1313-PDNDOI Listing
January 2021

Red yeasts from leaf surfaces and other habitats: three new species and a new combination of ().

Fungal Syst Evol 2020 Jun 20;5:187-196. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Our understanding of the systematics of red yeasts has greatly improved with the availability of sequence data and it is now clear that the majority of these fungi belong to three different classes of (): , , and . Despite improvements in phylogenetic placement, the taxonomy of these fungi has long been in need of revision and still has not been entirely resolved, partly due to missing taxa. In the present study, we present data of culture-based environmental yeast isolation, revealing several undescribed species of , which was recently introduced to accommodate six species previously placed in the asexual genera and in the / clade of . Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of three rDNA loci, morphology, and biochemical studies, we formally describe the following new species: . from leaf surfaces in Portugal and the USA; . from leaf surfaces in Brazil, and the USA and decaying wood in the USA; and . from a beetle gut in the USA, leaf surfaces in Brazil and marine water in the Taiwan and Thailand. Finally, we propose a new combination for based on our molecular phylogenetic data, .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2020.05.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250012PMC
June 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of sp. Strain ICMP 22404, Isolated from Solanum lycopersicum Plants with Pith Necrosis Symptoms.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Aug 22;8(34). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Plant Health and Environment Laboratory, Biosecurity New Zealand, Ministry for Primary Industries, Auckland, New Zealand.

We report here the draft genome sequence of sp. strain ICMP 22404, isolated from plants showing pith necrosis symptoms. The draft genome size is 6,686,400 bp, consisting of 86 contigs with a G+C content of 60.7% and containing 5,876 coding sequences, 60 tRNAs, and 11 rRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00649-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706687PMC
August 2019

An analysis of codon bias in six red yeast species.

Yeast 2019 01 16;36(1):53-64. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Red yeasts, primarily species of Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and other genera of Pucciniomycotina, are traditionally considered proficient systems for lipid and terpene production, and only recently have also gained consideration for the production of a wider range of molecules of biotechnological potential. Improvements of transgene delivery protocols and regulated gene expression systems have been proposed, but a dearth of information on compositional and/or structural features of genes has prevented transgene sequence optimization efforts for high expression levels. Here, the codon compositional features of genes in six red yeast species were characterized, and the impact that evolutionary forces may have played in shaping this compositional bias was dissected by using several computational approaches. Results obtained are compatible with the hypothesis that mutational bias, although playing a significant role, cannot alone explain synonymous codon usage bias of genes. Nevertheless, several lines of evidences indicated a role for translational selection in driving the synonymous codons that allow high expression efficiency. These optimal synonymous codons are identified for each of the six species analyzed. Moreover, the presence of intragenic patterns of codon usage, which are thought to facilitate polyribosome formation, was highlighted. The information presented should be taken into consideration for transgene design for optimal expression in red yeast species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yea.3359DOI Listing
January 2019

Fungal Planet description sheets: 558-624.

Persoonia 2017 Jun 20;38:240-384. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Fungus Testing Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: : (incl. gen. nov.) on , (incl. gen. nov.) on , on var, on , on , on , on var, on sp., on , (incl. gen. nov.) on , on sp., on sp., on , on sp., on sp., on sp., (incl. gen. nov.) on sp., on sp., on , on , on sp., on sp., and on sp. : on decaying wood, on decayed wood, on decayed wood, and on : on human toe nail. : from soil. : (incl. gen. nov.) on bat droppings. : from soil, from soil, from soil, and on stem of sp. : from soil. : from soil. : on decaying wood, from soil, in soil, and on : from soil. : , , , and on , on , and on : on sp. : on agaric mushroom surface, on cup fungus surface, on , on sp., on sp., and on bird feather surface. : on a caterpillar case of unidentified : among moss. : from soil, from soil, in humus, in humus, and from soil. : on : from wall of a cooling tower, (incl. gen. nov.) from human bronchoalveolar lavage, and from human eye. : from , and from Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158517X698941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5645186PMC
June 2017