Publications by authors named "M S Wilkes"

311 Publications

Delivering Modern Global Health Learning Requires New Obligations and Approaches.

Ann Glob Health 2021 12;87(1):68. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a new look (or modernization) for both the obligations and approaches to achieve best-practices in global health learning. These best-practices have moved beyond traditional, face-to-face (F2F), classroom-based didactics to the use of innovative online, asynchronous and synchronous instructional design and the information and communication technology (ICT) tools to support it. But moving to this higher level of online in-service and pre-service training, key obligations (e.g., stopping neocolonialization, cultural humility, reversing brain drain, gender equity) must guide the modernization of instructional design and the supporting ICT. To positively impact global health training, educators must meet the needs of learners .

Purpose: We describe a set of multi-communication methods, e-Learning principles, strategies, and ICT approaches for educators to pivot content delivery from traditional, F2F classroom didactics into the modern era. These best-practices in both the obligations and approaches utilize thoughtful, modern strategies of instructional design and ICT.

Approach: We harnessed our collective experiences in global health training to present thoughtful insights on the guiding principles, strategies, and ICT environment central to develop learning curricula that meet trainee needs and how they can be actualized. Specifically, we describe five strategies: 1. Individualized learning; 2. Provide experiential learning; 3. Mentor … Mentor … Mentor; 4. Reinforce learning through assessment; and 5. Information and communication technology and tools to support learning.

Discussion: We offer a vision, set of guiding principles, and five strategies for successful curricula delivery in the modern era so that global health training can be made available to a wider audience more efficiently and effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/aogh.3261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284535PMC
July 2021

The active component of Ginseng, Ginsenoside Rb1, improves erythropoiesis in models of Diamond Blackfan Anemia by targeting Nemo-like Kinase.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 20:100988. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is a member of the MAPK family of kinases and shares a highly conserved kinase domain with other MAPK family members. The activation of NLK contributes to the pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), reducing c-myb expression and mTOR activity, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. Unlike other anemia's, the hematopoietic effects of DBA are largely restricted to the erythroid lineage. Mutations in ribosomal genes induces ribosomal insufficiency and reduced protein translation, dramatically impacting early erythropoiesis in the bone marrow of DBA patients. We sought to identify compounds that suppress NLK and increases erythropoiesis in ribosomal insufficiency. We report that the active component of ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1, suppresses NLK expression and improves erythropoiesis in in vitro models of Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Ginsenoside Rb1-mediated suppression of NLK occurs through the upregulation of miR-208, which binds to the 3'-UTR of NLK mRNA and targets it for degradation. We also compare ginsenoside Rb1-mediated upregulation of miR-208 with metformin-mediated upregulation of miR-26. We conclude that targeting NLK expression through miRNA binding of the unique 3'-UTR is a viable alternative to the challenges of developing small molecule inhibitors to target the highly conserved kinase domain of this specific kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100988DOI Listing
July 2021

From pigeon holes to descending spirals: a paradigm of physiology, cognition performance and behaviour in extreme environments.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Extreme Environments Laboratory, School of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth (UK), UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089938DOI Listing
July 2021

Future trends in measuring physiology in free-living animals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Aug 28;376(1831):20200230. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK.

Thus far, ecophysiology research has predominantly been conducted within controlled laboratory-based environments, owing to a mismatch between the recording technologies available for physiological monitoring in wild animals and the suite of behaviours and environments they need to withstand, without unduly affecting subjects. While it is possible to record some physiological variables for free-living animals using animal-attached logging devices, including inertial-measurement, heart-rate and temperature loggers, the field is still in its infancy. In this opinion piece, we review the most important future research directions for advancing the field of 'physiologging' in wild animals, including the technological development that we anticipate will be required, and the fiscal and ethical challenges that must be overcome. Non-invasive, multi-sensor miniature devices are ubiquitous in the world of human health and fitness monitoring, creating invaluable opportunities for animal and human physiologging to drive synergistic advances. We argue that by capitalizing on the research efforts and advancements made in the development of human wearables, it will be possible to design the non-invasive loggers needed by ecophysiologists to collect accurate physiological data from free-ranging animals ethically and with an absolute minimum of impact. In turn, findings have the capacity to foster transformative advances in human health monitoring. Thus, we invite biomedical engineers and researchers to collaborate with the animal-tagging community to drive forward the advancements necessary to realize the full potential of both fields. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237165PMC
August 2021

The prevalence and burden of recurrent headache in Australian adolescents: findings from the longitudinal study of Australian children.

J Headache Pain 2021 Jun 1;22(1):49. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, 4111, Australia.

Background: Headache disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, but not well investigated in adolescents. Few studies have included representative nationwide samples. This study aimed to present the prevalence and burden of recurrent headache in Australian adolescents.

Methods: The prevalence of recurrent headache, headache characteristics (severity and frequency) and burden on health-related quality of life in Australian children aged 10-17 years were presented, using nationally representative data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian children (LSAC). The LSAC, commencing in 2004, collects data every 2 years from a sample of Australian children of two different age cohorts: B 'baby' cohort, aged 0-1 years and K 'kindergarten' cohort, aged 4-5 years at the commencement of the study. Face-to-face interviews and self-complete questionnaires have been conducted with the study child and parents of the study child (carer-reported data) at each data collection wave, with seven waves of data available at the time of the current study. Wave 7 of the LSAC was conducted in 2016, with B cohort children aged 12-13 years and K cohort children aged 16-17 years. For the current study, data were accessed for four out of seven waves of available data (Wave 4-7) and presented cross-sectionally for the two cohorts of Australian children, for the included age groups (10-11 years, 12-13 years, 14-15 years and 16-17 years). All available carer-reported questionnaire data pertaining to headache prevalence, severity and frequency, general health and health-related quality of life, for the two cohorts, were included in the study, and presented for male and female adolescents. Carer-reported general health status of the study child and health-related quality of life scores, using the parent proxy-report of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0, were compared for male and female adolescents with recurrent headache and compared with a healthy group. Finally, health-related quality of life scores were compared based on headache frequency and severity.

Results: The LSAC study initially recruited 10,090 Australian children (B cohort n = 5107, K cohort n = 4983), and 64.1% of the initial sample responded at wave 7. Attrition rates across the included waves ranged from 26.3% to 33.8% (wave 6 and 7) for the B cohort, and 16.3% to 38.0% (wave 4-7) for the K cohort. Recurrent headache was more common in females, increasing from 6.6% in 10-11 years old females to 13.2% in 16-17 years old females. The prevalence of headache in males ranged from 4.3% to 6.4% across the age groups. Health-related quality of life scores were lower for all functional domains in adolescents with recurrent headache, for both sexes. Headache frequency, but not severity, was significantly associated with lower health-related quality of life scores, in both males and females.

Conclusions: Recurrent headache was common among Australian adolescents and increased in prevalence for females, across the age groups. Frequent recurrent headache is burdensome for both male and female adolescents. This study provides information regarding the prevalence and burden of recurrent headache in the adolescent population based on findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-021-01262-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170988PMC
June 2021
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