Publications by authors named "M Paterson"

551 Publications

DNA-Intercalative Platinum Anticancer Complexes Photoactivated by Visible Light.

Chemistry 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Photoactivatable agents offer the prospect of highly selective cancer therapy with low side effects and novel mechanisms of action that can combat current drug resistance. 1,8-Naphthalimides with their extended π system can behave as light-harvesting groups, fluorescent probes and DNA intercalators. We conjugated N-(carboxymethyl)-1,8-naphthalimide (gly-R-Nap) with an R substituent on the naphthyl group to photoactive diazido Pt complexes to form t,t,t-[Pt(py) (N ) (OH)(gly-R-Nap)], R=H (1), 3-NO (2) or 4-NMe (3). They show enhanced photo-oxidation, cellular accumulation and promising photo-cytotoxicity in human A2780 ovarian, A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells with visible light activation, and low dark cytotoxicity. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit pre-intercalation into DNA, resulting in enhanced photo-induced DNA crosslinking. Complex 3 has a red-shifted absorption band at 450 nm, allowing photoactivation and photo-cytotoxicity with green light.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202101168DOI Listing
May 2021

Using zooplankton metabarcoding to assess the efficacy of different techniques to clean-up an oil-spill in a boreal lake.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jul 1;236:105847. Epub 2021 May 1.

International Institute for Sustainable Development - Experimental Lakes Area, Kenora, ON, Canada.

Regulators require adequate information to select best practices with less ecosystem impacts for remediation of freshwater ecosystems after oil spills. Zooplankton are valuable indicators of aquatic ecosystem health as they play pivotal roles in biochemical cycles while stabilizing food webs. Compared with morphological identification, metabarcoding holds promise for cost-effective, high-throughput, and benchmarkable biomonitoring of zooplankton communities. The objective of this study was to apply DNA and RNA metabarcoding of zooplankton for ecotoxicological assessment and compare it with traditional morphological identification in experimental shoreline enclosures in a boreal lake. These identification methods were also applied in context of assessing response of the zooplankton community exposed to simulated spills of diluted bitumen (dilbit), with experimental remediation practices (enhanced monitored natural recovery and shoreline cleaner application). Metabarcoding detected boreal zooplankton taxa up to the genus level, with a total of 24 shared genera, and while metabarcoding-based relative abundance served as an acceptable proxy for biomass inferred by morphological identification (ρ ≥ 0.52). Morphological identification determined zooplankton community composition changes due to treatments at 11 days post-spill (PERMANOVA, p = 0.0143) while metabarcoding methods indicated changes in zooplankton richness and communities at 38 days post-spill (T-test, p < 0.05; PERMANOVA, p ≤ 0.0429). Shoreline cleaner application overall seemed to have the largest impact on zooplankton communities relative to enhanced monitored natural recovery, regardless of zooplankton identification method. Both metabarcoding and morphological identification were able to discern the differences between the two experimental remediation practices. Metabarcoding of zooplankton could provide informative results for ecotoxicological assessment of the remediation practices of dilbit, advancing our knowledge of best practices for remediating oil-impacted aquatic ecosystems while serving to accelerate the assessment of at-risk freshwater ecosystems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105847DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanical biofilm disruption causes microbial and immunological shifts in periodontitis patients.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9796. Epub 2021 May 7.

Oral Sciences, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Periodontitis is characterized by subgingival biofilm dysbiosis, inflammation and tissue destruction. Current treatment involves mechanical biofilm disruption known as non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). This study sought to characterise the impact of treatment on microbial diversity and overall community, and the parallel impact on host inflammation in the oral cavity. Fourty-two periodontitis patients were included in this study, with periodontal clinical parameters, subgingival plaque and saliva samples collected at baseline and 90 days after treatment. Salivary cytokines were quantified, and subgingival plaque was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After treatment, there were marked health-associated alterations in microbial composition and diversity, including differential abundance of 42 genera and 61 species. These changes were accompanied by substantial clinical improvement (pockets ≥ 5 mm, 27.50% to 9.00%, p < 0.001) and a decrease in salivary IL-1β (p < 0.001)-a putative marker of periodontal inflammation. Despite significant reductions in disease associated anaerobes, several genera (Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Tanenerella, Treponema) remained present and formed a distinct subnetwork associated with residual disease. Collectively, this study shows that current periodontal treatment results in partial restoration of a healthy microbial ecosystem, but features of biofilm dysbiosis and host inflammation remain in some patients, which were surprisingly independent of clinical response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89002-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105330PMC
May 2021

Two Ends of the Leash: Relations Between Personality of Shelter Volunteers and On-leash Walking Behavior With Shelter Dogs.

Front Psychol 2021 14;12:619715. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Curtin University Sustainable Policy (CUSP) Institute, Bentley, WA, Australia.

Human personality influences the way people interact with dogs. This study investigated the associations between the personality of animal shelter volunteers and behavior during on-leash walks with shelter dogs. Video recording and a canine leash tension meter were used to monitor the on-leash walking. Personality was measured in five dimensions (neurotic, extroverted, open, agreeable and conscientious) with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Neurotic volunteers pulled the leash harder and tended to interact with dogs using more body language; dogs being walked by neurotic volunteers in turn displayed more lip-licking and body shaking and were more likely to be rated as well-behaved. Extroverted volunteers were associated with stronger maximal leash tension at both the human and dog ends of the leash, and they praised the dog more, often in a high pitched voice. These volunteers eliciting more tail-wagging and body shaking by the dog. Extroverted volunteers were also more tolerant of different dog behaviors. Volunteers with personalities characterized by "openness to experiences" were less likely to verbally attract the attention of dogs, praise dogs and talk to them in a high-pitched voice; however, dogs walked by these volunteers were more likely to pull on the leash, and engaged in more lip-licking but less sniffing. "Agreeable" volunteers liked to verbally attract the attention of the dogs and more commonly initiated hand gestures and physical contact, causing the dogs to pull less frequently; dogs in these dyads displayed more gazing and lip-licking behaviors. Conscientious volunteers were less likely to pull the leash and tended to have more physical contact with the dogs but did not favor verbal communication and did not use a high pitched voice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.619715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079626PMC
April 2021

Basketball vs. Hockey-The Changing Face of Sport-Related Injuries in Canada.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; University of Toronto, Faculty of MedicineToronto, ON, Canada; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre & Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; and Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To characterize and compare the incidence of basketball-related, soccer-related, and hockey-related injuries over a 10-year period.

Design: Cohort analysis of sport-related injuries using multiple Ontario healthcare databases.

Setting: Emergency department visits in Ontario, Canada.

Patients: Any patient who sustained musculoskeletal injuries sustained while playing basketball, soccer, or hockey between 2006 and 2017 were identified.

Assessment Of Risk Factors: Sport of injury, age, sex, rurality index, marginalization status, and comorbidity score.

Main Outcome Measures: Annual Incidence Density Rates of injury were calculated for each sport, and significance of trends was analyzed by assessing overlap of 95% confidence intervals.

Results: One lakhs eighty five thousand eighty hundred sixty-eight patients (median age: 16 years, interquartile range 13-26) received treatment for sport-related injuries (basketball = 55 468; soccer = 67 021; and hockey = 63 379). The incidence of basketball-related and soccer-related injuries increased from 3.4 (3.3-3.5) to 5.6 (5.5-5.7) and 4.4 (4.3-4.5) to 4.9 (4.8-5) per 10 000 person years, respectively, whereas the incidence of hockey-related injuries decreased from 4.7 (4.6-4.8) to 3.7 (3.6-3.8). Patients with basketball injuries were more marginalized (3.01 ± 0.74) compared with patients with soccer and hockey injuries (2.90 ± 0.75 and 2.72 ± 0.69, respectively).

Conclusions: Accurate regional epidemiologic information regarding sports injuries can be used to guide policy development for municipal planning and sport program development. The trends and demographic patterns described highlight general and sport-specific injury patterns in Ontario. Populations with the highest incidence of injury, most notably adolescents and men older than 50, may represent an appropriate population for injury risk prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000908DOI Listing
March 2021