Publications by authors named "M Parirokh"

82 Publications

Evaluating the Effect of Oblique Ridge Conservation on Stress Distribution in an Endodontically Treated Maxillary First Molar: A Finite Element Study.

J Endod 2021 Mar 23;47(3):500-508. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Operative Department, Shahed Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although the maxillary first molar (MFM) has been frequently subjected to stress analysis in endodontic investigations, the available data about the effect of its oblique ridge are quite sparse. The aim of this study includes evaluating the effect of the residual oblique ridge on the stress distribution after preparing conservative access cavities.

Methods: Based on the cone-beam computed tomographic data, the model of an intact MFM and 5 cavity designs were prepared for endodontic treatment, which were consequently filled with gutta-percha and dental resin composite (6 total models). All models were subjected to 4 types of occlusal loading; finite element analysis via ABAQUS CAE software (Dassault Systemes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) was accomplished, whereas other software programs such as (Mimics Research Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and 3-Matic Research (Materialise) were also incorporated in different stages for detecting stress distribution.

Results: The stress distribution on the MFM is not only dependent on the remaining width of the oblique ridge but also on the type of loading. The most stress on the cervical region was concentrated on the palatal root in some type of loading, whereas the least stress on the occlusal surface was recorded when the whole oblique ridge was replaced by the composite resin.

Conclusions: When the occlusal contacts are occurring only on the palatal cusp, the stress distribution on the oblique ridge is noticeably affected by the cavity design.
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March 2021

The Knowledge and Attitude of Diabetic Patients Regarding Oral and Dental Disorders in Kerman Diabetes Clinics.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2020 Sep;21(3):195-201

Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders. This disease has devastating effects on many organs and tissues of the body including oral and dental tissues.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of diabetic patients about dental and oral diseases.

Materials And Method: In this cross-sectional study, 433 diabetic patients who referred to Kerman Diabetes Clinics were included. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of three parts of demographic characteristics, knowledge of oral and systemic complications of diabetes mellitus, and patients' attitude regarding their oral health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and employing t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Statistically significant values were considered at ≤ 0.05.

Results: The mean scores for the knowledge of systemic and oral complications were 0.80±0.21 and 0.39±0.23, respectively. The mean total knowledge of diabetic patients was 0.53±0.18, and the mean score for the patients' attitude was 0.63±0.11. It was revealed that people with a family history of diabetes did not have significantly greater overall knowledge (= 0.082). Also, people with longer disease duration (= 0.004) and female patients (= 0.05) had significantly a better knowledge and attitude in terms of oral health.

Conclusion: The knowledge and attitude of patients regarding their oral and dental health and diseases were at moderate level, which should be promoted by constant planning and education according to the current needs of society.
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September 2020

Histological Evaluation of Human Pulp Response to Direct Pulp Capping with MTA, CEM Cement, and Biodentine.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2020 Sep;21(3):177-183

Dept. of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: Direct pulp capping (DPC) is an established method in which the exposed pulp is coated with a suitable material to prevent further damage and to help its repair and healing. Different proposed materials may have different impact on pulp response during this treatment.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the response of human dental pulp after DPC with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement, and Biodentine.

Materials And Method: In this clinical trial study, class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 30 human premolar teeth, until the pulps were mechanically exposed. Then, teeth were randomly pulp capped with MTA, CEM cement and Biodentine, followed by resin modified glass ionomer filling. The fourth group was the control group (n= 10), in which the teeth were extracted without any prior intervention. Six weeks after the intervention, the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological evaluation in terms of the type and degree of pulp inflammation, dentin bridge formation and the presence of necrosis. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests.

Results: In all groups, necrosis was not observed and inflammation was chronic. The Biodentine group exhibited significantly more pulpal inflammation compared with the other groups (= 0.001). There were no significant differences among CEM cement, MTA and Biodentine in terms of the dentine bridge formation. The thickness of the dentin bridge formed in the Biodentine group was significantly higher than MTA and control group (= 0.035 and = 0.011, respectively).

Conclusion: Although the dentin bridge formation and the thickness of dentin bridge formed in the Biodentine group were higher than the other groups, pulp showed greater inflammation compared to CEM cement and MTA. The results of this study suggested that MTA and CEM cement performed better when employed as the direct pulp capping material.
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September 2020

Comparison of Pulp Sensibility Tests Responses in Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Healthy Individuals.

J Endod 2020 Mar 17;46(3):364-369. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

School of Dentistry, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Introduction: Diabetes is a common disease that may have some influence on sensory nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental pulp responses to 2 pulp sensibility tests (ie, cold and electric) in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals.

Methods: Three hundred twenty-two premolar teeth in 51 patients who had type 2 diabetes and 347 premolar teeth in 53 individuals with no medical conditions were investigated. The patients with type 2 diabetes were unified and had fasting plasma glucose <300, hemoglobin A1C <10, less than a 10-year history of diabetes mellitus, and no history of hypertension. Electric and cold pulp sensibility tests were performed for all teeth. The cold test results were recorded by the Heft-Parker visual analog scale, and the electric pulp test results were recorded based on the pulp tester's grade that evoked a response.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between upper and lower premolar teeth in healthy individuals compared with the patients with diabetes in response to the cold and electric pulp tests (P > .05). In the patients with diabetes, the response of their upper premolars to the cold test was significantly reduced in diabetic patients >45 years of age (β = -1.15, P = .013). However, there was no significant correlation between the cold test and age in the lower premolars of both diabetic and nondiabetic participants (P > .05). There was also no significant correlation between the need for a higher number of the electric pulp test current to evoke a response in maxillary and mandibular premolars of the patients with diabetes and nondiabetic participants with age (P > .05).

Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the reduction of maxillary premolar teeth responses to the cold test in diabetes patients >45 years of age.
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March 2020

Efficacy of Pre-Medication with Ibuprofen on Post-Operative Pain after Pulpotomy in Primary Molars.

Iran Endod J 2018 ;13(2):216-220

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Pain management following dental procedures, particularly pulpotomies and extraction, is of great importance in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pre-treatment with ibuprofen on post-operative pain following pulpotomy of primary molars.

Methods And Materials: In a split mouth double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 49 children aging between 6-10 years old were given either ibuprofen or a placebo 45 min prior to the treatment. After pulpotomy and placement of a stainless steel crown (SSC), the pain level was evaluated using the Wong-Baker face visual analogue scale for up to 7 days post-treatment. McNemar and Wilcoxon tests were used for data analysis.

Results: Forty-five patients were eligible to participate in this study. Pre-medication with ibuprofen significantly reduced pain during the first 24 h post-treatment (=0.032). However, there was no significant difference in the pain levels between placebo and ibuprofen groups at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (=0.154 and =0.197, respectively). The number of times patients needed analgesics in ibuprofen group was significantly lower compared to that in the placebo group (=0.008).

Conclusion: Pre-medication with ibuprofen resulted in less pain following pulpotomy and SSC placement in primary teeth.
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January 2018