Publications by authors named "M Muniraju"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Understanding the determinants of happiness through Gallup World Poll.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Sep 30;9(9):4826-4832. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Radiotherapy, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: The idea of happiness is as old as civilization, but breakthrough is achieved only in 20 century. Happiness can be broadly segmented into biological and behavioural component. The sufferings from illnesses hamper happiness. Happiness correlates negatively with morbidity, mortality, stress and anxiety in contrast to a positive correlation with motivation, healthy behaviours and longevity. In this article, an attempt has been made to understand the relationship between happiness and its important contributory factors.

Material And Methods: The current study used data from the Gallup World Poll available under license CC0. Data analysis was performed using R studio version 1.0.136. Initially, descriptive analysis in the form of mean (standard deviation), violin plot, correlation matrix, and scatter plots were reported. Subsequently, robust regression estimates along with bootstrap standard errors and confidence intervals were used to report inferential statistics.

Results: Norway, with a happiness score of 7.537 ranked first followed by Denmark with a score of 7.522. Burundi with a score of 2.905 is at the bottom of ranking for happiness. Freedom (CI; 0.95-2.22) and Family (CI; 0.92 - 1.57) are the strongest predictors of happiness. The trust variable does not have a significant (CI; -0.27 - 1.94) relationship with happiness.

Conclusions: The values and norms in society are changing at a fast pace. Therefore, the measures of happiness require consistent and innovative approaches to measure it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_156_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652195PMC
September 2020

A Pentavalent Epstein-Barr Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Elicits High Titers of Neutralizing Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Immunized Rabbits.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Apr 6;8(2). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with acute infectious mononucleosis, whereas persistent infection is associated with chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases and various types of cancer. Indeed, approximately 2% of all new cancer cases occurring annually worldwide are EBV-associated. Currently, there is no licensed EBV prophylactic vaccine. Selection of appropriate viral protein subunits is critical for development of an effective vaccine. Although the major EBV surface glycoprotein gp350/220 (gp350) has been proposed as an important prophylactic vaccine target, attempts to develop a potent vaccine based on gp350 alone have shown limited success in the clinic. We provide data showing that five EBV glycoproteins (gp350, gB, gp42, gH, and gL) involved in viral entry and infection can successfully be incorporated on the surface of EBV-like particles (EBV-LPs). These EBV-LPs, when administered together with aluminum hydroxide and monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants to New Zealand white rabbits, elicited EBV glycoprotein-specific antibodies capable of neutralizing viral infection in both B cells and epithelial cells, better than soluble gp350 ectodomain. Our findings suggest that a pentavalent EBV-LP formulation might be an ideal candidate for development as a safe and immunogenic EBV vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7349562PMC
April 2020

Kimura's Disease: A Rare Cause of Parotid Swelling.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Oct 18;71(Suppl 1):589-593. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

1Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bangalore, India.

Kimura's disease also known as subcutaneous angioblastic lymphoid hyperplasia with peripheral eosinophilia is a rare clinicopathological entity. It is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The clinical presentation varies from subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region with regional lymphadenopathy with salivary gland involvement to systemic manifestations like nephrotic syndrome. The clinical features are mild, rarely life threatening. The present article is a case report of Kimura's disease presenting as multiple swellings at the left temporal region, left parotid and bilateral post auricular region. Though the lesion is benign, the cosmetic disfigurement caused by the swellings was of significant concern to our patient. MRI Scan was suggestive of a parotid swelling extending into the temporal and post auricular region of the left side. Surgical modality of treatment was adopted- Superficial Parotidectomy with excision of subcutaneous swellings. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Kimura's disease. The mode of presentation as multiple large swellings with the involvement of the parotid gland created a diagnostic dilemma, hence this article intends to consider Kimura's disease as a rare but possible cause of a parotid swelling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-018-1421-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848358PMC
October 2019

Identification of multiple potent neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus gp350 protein with potential for clinical application and as reagents for mapping immunodominant epitopes.

Virology 2019 10 30;536:1-15. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Prevention of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has focused on generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) targeting the major envelope glycoprotein gp350/220 (gp350). In this study, we generated 23 hybridomas producing gp350-specific antibodies. We compared the candidate gp350-specific antibodies to the well-characterized nAb 72A1 by: (1) testing their ability to detect gp350 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and immunoblot; (2) sequencing their heavy and light chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs); (3) measuring the ability of each monoclonal antibody (mAb) to neutralize EBV infection in vitro; and (4) mapping the gp350 amino acids bound by the mAbs using competitive cell and linear peptide binding assays. We performed sequence analysis to identify 15 mAbs with CDR regions unique from those of murine 72A1 (m72A1). We observed antigen binding competition between biotinylated m72A1, serially diluted unlabeled gp350 nAbs (HB1, HB5, HB11, HB20), and our recently humanized 72A1, but not gp350 non-nAb (HB17) or anti-KSHV gH/gL antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.07.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733660PMC
October 2019

A multivalent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like particle vaccine capable of eliciting high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized rabbits.

Vaccine 2019 07 11;37(30):4184-4194. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an emerging pathogen and the causative agent of multiple cancers in immunocompromised patients. To date, there is no licensed prophylactic KSHV vaccine. In this study, we generated a novel subunit vaccine that incorporates four key KSHV envelope glycoproteins required for viral entry in diverse cell types (gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL) into a single multivalent KSHV-like particle (KSHV-LP). Purified KSHV-LPs were similar in size, shape, and morphology to KSHV virions. Vaccination of rabbits with adjuvanted KSHV-LPs generated strong glycoprotein-specific antibody responses, and purified immunoglobulins from KSHV-LP-immunized rabbits neutralized KSHV infection in epithelial, endothelial, fibroblast, and B cell lines (60-90% at the highest concentration tested). These findings suggest that KSHV-LPs may be an ideal platform for developing a safe and effective prophylactic KSHV vaccine. We envision performing future studies in animal models that are susceptible to KSHV infection, to determine correlates of immune protection in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6876619PMC
July 2019

Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable for Infection of Epithelial, Endothelial, and Fibroblast Cell Types.

J Virol 2019 08 30;93(16). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an emerging pathogen and is the causative infectious agent of Kaposi sarcoma and two malignancies of B cell origin. To date, there is no licensed KSHV vaccine. Development of an effective vaccine against KSHV continues to be limited by a poor understanding of how the virus initiates acute primary infection in diverse human cell types. The role of glycoprotein H (gH) in herpesvirus entry mechanisms remains largely unresolved. To characterize the requirement for KSHV gH in the viral life cycle and in determination of cell tropism, we generated and characterized a mutant KSHV in which expression of gH was abrogated. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome containing a complete recombinant KSHV genome and recombinant DNA technology, we inserted stop codons into the gH coding region. We used electron microscopy to reveal that the gH-null mutant virus assembled and exited from cells normally, compared to wild-type virus. Using purified virions, we assessed infectivity of the gH-null mutant in diverse mammalian cell types Unlike wild-type virus or a gH-containing revertant, the gH-null mutant was unable to infect any of the epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast cell types tested. However, its ability to infect B cells was equivocal and remains to be investigated due to generally poor infectivity Together, these results suggest that gH is critical for KSHV infection of highly permissive cell types, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblast cells. All homologues of herpesvirus gH studied to date have been implicated in playing an essential role in viral infection of diverse permissive cell types. However, the role of gH in the mechanism of KSHV infection remains largely unresolved. In this study, we generated a gH-null mutant KSHV and provided evidence that deficiency of gH expression did not affect viral particle assembly or egress. Using the gH-null mutant, we showed that gH was indispensable for KSHV infection of epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblast cells This suggests that gH is an important target for the development of a KSHV prophylactic vaccine to prevent initial viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00630-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6675886PMC
August 2019

Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe.

Small Rumin Res 2016 Sep;142:16-21

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.

PPR is an important infectious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants, that threatens the food security and sustainable livelihood of farmers across Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Europe is free of the disease except in Thrace (European part of Turkey) and Israel where outbreaks occur. Following the successful eradication of RPV, PPR has been targeted by the OIE and FAO as the next viral pathogen to be eradicated by 2030. However, the recent outbreaks in Northen Africa and Thrace (European part of Turkey) represent a significant threat to mainland Europe, as a source of disease spread. We have discussed here the emergence of PPR worldwide since its discovery with particular reference to the recent outbreaks in Northen Africa and Thrace, and the potential for spread of the disease into Europe.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5035059PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2016.02.018DOI Listing
September 2016

Spillover of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus from Domestic to Wild Ruminants in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania.

Emerg Infect Dis 2015 Dec;21(12):2230-4

We tested wildlife inhabiting areas near domestic livestock, pastures, and water sources in the Ngorongoro district in the Serengeti ecosystem of northern Tanzania and found 63% seropositivity for peste des petits ruminants virus. Sequencing of the viral genome from sick sheep in the area confirmed lineage II virus circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2112.150223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672450PMC
December 2015

Peste des petits ruminants.

Vet Microbiol 2015 Dec 5;181(1-2):90-106. Epub 2015 Sep 5.

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, Surrey, KT15 3NB United Kingdom.

Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655833PMC
December 2015

Serological Detection of Antibodies to Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Large Ruminants.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Apr 22;64(2):513-519. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

The Pirbright Institute, Woking, Surrey, UK.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease of small ruminants with a rapidly expanding geographical distribution. Peste des petits ruminants virus may manifest in a variety of ways with disease ranging from acute to subclinical. We investigated the exposure of large ruminants to PPRV in areas where the virus is endemic in the small ruminant population by assessing the serological status of groups of animals. This study focused on the Punjab province of Pakistan as an area where the virus is endemic and where mixed farming practices occur enabling close interactions between small and large ruminant populations. An overall PPR seropositivity was detected in 10.0% of cattle and 14.16% of buffaloes. Following an assessment of serological profiles in large ruminants within different age groups, a maximum seroprevalence was observed in cattle (17.5%) and buffaloes (22.5%) over 2 years of age indicating the potential utility of sampling large ruminant populations for PPR serosurveillance. The large ruminants sampled between one and two years of age had similar levels of seropositivity within populations with 11.2% and 16.2% of animals being seropositive, respectively. Current PPR vaccination strategies do not enable the differentiation between infected and vaccinated small ruminants, and as such, the serological surveillance of sheep and goats is of little value. When considering eradication programmes for PPRV, this factor is of great significance. However, where large and small ruminants are farmed together, serological surveillance of large ruminants may provide a snapshot of virus infection within populations where mild disease is present or where small ruminants are regularly vaccinated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347956PMC
April 2017

Rescue of a vaccine strain of peste des petits ruminants virus: In vivo evaluation and comparison with standard vaccine.

Vaccine 2015 Jan 1;33(3):465-71. Epub 2014 Nov 1.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:

Across the developing world peste des petits ruminants virus places a huge disease burden on agriculture, primarily affecting the production of small ruminant. The disease is most effectively controlled by vaccinating sheep and goats with live attenuated vaccines that provide lifelong immunity. However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In this study, we have established an efficient reverse genetics system for PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain and, further rescued a version of PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain that expresses eGFP as a novel transcription cassette and a version of PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain with mutations in the haemagglutinin (H) gene to enable DIVA through disruption of binding to H by the C77 monoclonal antibody used in the competitive (c) H-ELISA. All three rescued viruses showed similar growth characteristics in vitro in comparison to parent vaccine strain and, following in vivo assessment the H mutant provided full protection in goats. Although the C77 monoclonal antibody used in the cH-ELISA was unable to bind to the mutated form of H in vitro, the mutation was not sufficient to enable DIVA in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.10.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4315076PMC
January 2015

Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Dec;20(12):2023-33

Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257836PMC
December 2014

Emergence of Lineage IV Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Ethiopia: Complete Genome Sequence of an Ethiopian Isolate 2010.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Aug 14;63(4):435-42. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, UK.

Isolates of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) can be segregated genetically into four lineages. For decades, lineages I-III have been reported across Africa whilst lineage IV has predominantly circulated across Asia. However, the lineage distribution is currently changing in Africa. Importantly, full genome sequence data for African field isolates have been lacking. Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from East Africa. This isolate was derived from the intestine of a goat suffering from severe clinical disease during the 2010 outbreak in Ethiopia. The full genome sequence of this isolate, PPRV Ethiopia/2010, clusters genetically with other lineage IV isolates of PPRV, sharing high levels of sequence identity across the genome. Further, we have carried out a phylogenetic analysis of all of the available African partial N gene and F gene PPRV sequences to investigate the epidemiology of PPRV with a focus on the emergence of different lineages of PPRV in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12287DOI Listing
August 2016

Complete Genome Sequences of Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses from the Middle East and East Africa.

Genome Announc 2014 Oct 23;2(5). Epub 2014 Oct 23.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom

For the first time, complete genome sequences of four lineage III peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses (Oman 1983, United Arab Emirates 1986, Ethiopia 1994, and Uganda 2012) originated from the Middle East and East Africa are reported here. The availability of complete genome sequences from all four lineages (I to IV) of the PPR virus (PPRV) would greatly help in a comprehensive understanding of the molecular evolution and emergence of PPRV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01023-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208319PMC
October 2014

Molecular characterisation of lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus using multi gene sequence data.

Vet Microbiol 2014 Nov 6;174(1-2):39-49. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

National Institute for Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad 500049, India; The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking GU24 0NF, Surrey, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Peste des petits ruminants is responsible for an economically important plague of small ruminants that is endemic across much of the developing world. Here we describe the detection and characterisation of a PPR virus from a recent outbreak in Tamil Nadu, India. We demonstrate the isolation of PPR virus from rectal swab and highlight the potential spread of disease to in-contact animals through faecal materials and use of faecal material as non-invasive method of sampling for susceptible wild ruminants. Finally we have performed a comprehensive 'multi-gene' assessment of lineage IV isolates of PPRV utilising sequence data from our study and publically available partial N, partial F and partial H gene data. We describe the effects of grouping PPRV isolates utilising different gene loci and conclude that the variable part of N gene at C terminus gives the best phylogenetic assessment of PPRV isolates with isolates generally clustering according to geographical isolation. This assessment highlights the importance of careful gene targeting with RT-PCR to enable thorough phylogenetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.031DOI Listing
November 2014

Morbillivirus vaccines: recent successes and future hopes.

Vaccine 2014 May 3;32(26):3155-61. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, Weybridge, Surrey, KT15 3NB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The impact of morbilliviruses on both human and animal populations is well documented in the history of mankind. Indeed, prior to the development of vaccines for these diseases, morbilliviruses plagued both humans and their livestock that were heavily relied upon for food and motor power within communities. Measles virus (MeV) was responsible for the death of millions of people annually across the world and those fortunate enough to escape the disease often faced starvation where their livestock had died following infection with rinderpest virus (RPV) or peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Canine distemper virus has affected dog populations for centuries and in the past few decades appears to have jumped species, now causing disease in a number of non-canid species, some of which are been pushed to the brink of extinction by the virus. During the age of vaccination, the introduction and successful application of vaccines against rinderpest and measles has led to the eradication of the former and the greater control of the latter. Vaccines against PPR and canine distemper have also been generated; however, the diseases still pose a threat to susceptible species. Here we review the currently available vaccines against these four morbilliviruses and discuss the prospects for the development of new generation vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115685PMC
May 2014

Paraganglioma of right cervical plexus-a case report.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Jul 28;65(Suppl 1):167-70. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of ENT, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, K G Halli, Bangalore, 560045 India.

Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPs) and pheochromocytomas are rare tumors. Catecholamine secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as pheochromocytomas and extra adrenal catecholamine secreting paragangliomas (extra adrenal pheochromocytomas) respectively. The distinction between pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma is an important one because of implications for associated neoplasms, risk for malignancy, and genetic testing. Paragangliomas are rare tumors of the head and neck and are of diagnostic challenge. We report a case of 55 year old male who had a neck swelling, cough with expectoration, which on extensive evaluation revealed to be Paraganglioma with primary optic atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-011-0341-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718930PMC
July 2013

Complete Genome Sequence of a Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Recovered from an Alpine Goat during an Outbreak in Morocco in 2008.

Genome Announc 2013 May 9;1(3). Epub 2013 May 9.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom;

Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of a field isolate of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from northern Africa. This isolate is derived from an Alpine goat that suffered from severe clinical disease during the 2008 outbreak in Morocco. The full genome sequence of this isolate clusters phylogenetically with the lineage IV isolates of PPRV, sharing high levels of sequence identity with other lineage IV isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00096-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650429PMC
May 2013