Publications by authors named "M Madkour"

132 Publications

Immunogenicity and efficacy of a bivalent vaccine against infectious bronchitis virus.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Aug 10;77:101670. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YG, UK. Electronic address:

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious viral disease and is responsible for considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, worldwide. To mitigate the IB-associated losses, multiple vaccines are being applied in the sector with variable successes and thus necessitating the development of a potent vaccine to protect against the IB in the poultry. In the present study, we investigated a bivalent live attenuated vaccine consisting of IB virus (IBV) strain H120 (GI-1 lineage) and D274 (GI-12 lineage) to evaluate its protection against heterologous variant of IBV (GI-23 lineage) in chicken. Protection efficacy was evaluated based on the serology, clinical signs, survival rates, tracheal and kidney histopathology and the viral shedding. Results demonstrated that administering live H120 and D274 (named here Classivar®) vaccine in one day-old and 14 days-old provided 100 % protection. We observed a significant increase in the mean antibody titers, reduced virus shedding, and ameliorated histopathology lesions compared to routinely used vaccination regimes. These results revealed that usage of different IBV vaccines combination can successfully ameliorate the clinical outcome and pathology in vaccinated chicks especially after booster vaccination regime using Classivar®. In conclusions, our data indicate that Classivar® vaccine is safe in chicks and may serve as an effective vaccine against the threat posed by commonly circulating IBV strains in the poultry industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2021.101670DOI Listing
August 2021

Use of lemongrass essential oil as a feed additive in quail's nutrition: its effect on growth, carcass, blood biochemistry, antioxidant and immunological indices, digestive enzymes and intestinal microbiota.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 26;100(6):101172. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Poultry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

The present study was designed to assess the impact of dietary supplementation of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, carcass traits, liver and kidney function, immunity, antioxidant indices and caecal microbiota of growing quail. A total of 200 Japanese quails at 1-week-old were haphazardly allotted to 5 groups of 40 chicks in five replicates (8 per replicate). The first group was the control group, while LGEO was added at levels of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg diet in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation of LGEO (150, 300 and 450 mg/ kg diet) increased body weight at 3 and 5 wk of age, and increased body weight gain during all periods compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All levels of LGEO improved feed conversion ratio during the periods from 1 to 3 and 1 to 5 wk of age. During 3 to 5 wk, feed conversion ratio was improved in quails fed LGEO (300 and 450 mg/kg diet) compared with the control and other treatments. Carcass traits, plasma globulin, alanine aminotransferase, and urea values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05), but the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in the plasma was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LGEO-treated groups. The total protein and albumin values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in quails fed levels of LGEO (except 600 mg/kg diet) compared with the control. The inclusion of LGEO in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile. The dietary supplementation of LGEO increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) plasma immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA) levels, lysozyme values and activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase compared with the control group. The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111249PMC
June 2021

Current status and future prospects of p38α/MAPK14 kinase and its inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Mar 22;213:113216. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, 27272, United Arab Emirates; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt. Electronic address:

P38α (which is also named MAPK14) plays a pivotal role in initiating different disease states such as inflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular cases, and cancer. Inhibitors of p38α can be utilized for treatment of these diseases. In this article, we reviewed the structural and biological characteristics of p38α, its relationship to the fore-mentioned disease states, as well as the recently reported inhibitors and classified them according to their chemical structures. We focused on the articles published in the literature during the last decade (2011-2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113216DOI Listing
March 2021

Modulation of Memory B Cell Phenotypes and Toll-Like Receptor-7 in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection During Direct-Acting Antiviral Interferon-Free Therapy: Correlation with Interleukin-7.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 11;34(4):227-240. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Medical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide problem with the highest incidence rates in Egypt. It affects B cells that serve as reservoirs for persistent HCV, resulting in phenotypic B cell alterations. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine with antiviral activity, important for B cell physiology. In addition, B cell-intrinsic toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) signaling is required for optimal B cell responses during chronic viral infection, and the deficiency of TLR7 in B cells is sufficient to significantly impact antibody responses. Based on their known immunomodulatory effects, we hypothesized that direct-acting antiviral interferon-free therapy may affect TLR7 expression and the exhausted peripheral B cell compartment with the possibility of their restoration in patients who achieved a sustained virological response and their correlation to IL-7 level. This prospective study was accomplished on 80 Egyptian HCV patients and 75 controls. Frequencies of peripheral B cell subsets, TLR7 gene expression, TLR7 protein, and serum IL-7 levels were investigated by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. B cell subpopulations were exhausted and partially restored among HCV patients after receiving treatment, but not recovered with regard to activated mature or resting memory B cells. Almost all responders to direct antiviral drugs showed upregulation of TLR7 gene expression and correlated with the frequency of memory B cell, but not with IL-7. Moreover, IL-7 was not significantly different between groups although correlated with immature transitional B cells. Results may indicate the interplay between TLR7 and B cells during remission or progression of HCV. Thus, TLR7 could be used as a promising biomarker for assessment of antiviral treatment efficacy among chronically infected HCV patients, and that targeting TLR7 may be used as a potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent during chronic HCV as well as immune-potentiation of memory B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0110DOI Listing
May 2021

Modulation of Memory B Cell Phenotypes and Toll-Like Receptor-7 in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection During Direct-Acting Antiviral Interferon-Free Therapy: Correlation with Interleukin-7.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 11;34(4):227-240. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Medical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide problem with the highest incidence rates in Egypt. It affects B cells that serve as reservoirs for persistent HCV, resulting in phenotypic B cell alterations. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine with antiviral activity, important for B cell physiology. In addition, B cell-intrinsic toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) signaling is required for optimal B cell responses during chronic viral infection, and the deficiency of TLR7 in B cells is sufficient to significantly impact antibody responses. Based on their known immunomodulatory effects, we hypothesized that direct-acting antiviral interferon-free therapy may affect TLR7 expression and the exhausted peripheral B cell compartment with the possibility of their restoration in patients who achieved a sustained virological response and their correlation to IL-7 level. This prospective study was accomplished on 80 Egyptian HCV patients and 75 controls. Frequencies of peripheral B cell subsets, TLR7 gene expression, TLR7 protein, and serum IL-7 levels were investigated by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. B cell subpopulations were exhausted and partially restored among HCV patients after receiving treatment, but not recovered with regard to activated mature or resting memory B cells. Almost all responders to direct antiviral drugs showed upregulation of TLR7 gene expression and correlated with the frequency of memory B cell, but not with IL-7. Moreover, IL-7 was not significantly different between groups although correlated with immature transitional B cells. Results may indicate the interplay between TLR7 and B cells during remission or progression of HCV. Thus, TLR7 could be used as a promising biomarker for assessment of antiviral treatment efficacy among chronically infected HCV patients, and that targeting TLR7 may be used as a potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent during chronic HCV as well as immune-potentiation of memory B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0110DOI Listing
May 2021